2007. A coming community: young geographers coping with multi-tier spaces of academic publishing across Europe. Social & Cultural Geography

Little is still known about the publishing practices of scholars based outside the leading Anglophone countries. More generally, little is known about the contemporary machineries of writing spaces within human geography and the other social sciences. In responding to a recent editorial by Ron Johnston, this paper seeks to start filling this void by providing the results of a research project investigating the multi-language publishing practices pursued by a selected sample of young European human geographers. The research findings throw light on multi-tier publishing spaces in European human geography today. The paper concludes by outlining a critique of the homo publicans emerging from rationalist accounts of academic publishing. In particular, by embracing a critical perspective informed by the attempt to build a `social geography of scientific knowledge production', the paper argues that publication strategies and practices do not only follow the direct paths of maximization of publication records, but can follow the more complex and differentiated paths of multi-level and heterarchical academic spaces and networks.

2009. Challenges facing a network of representative marine protected areas in the Mediterranean: prioritizing the protection of underrepresented habitats. Ices Journal of Marine Science

The high endemism of the Mediterranean Sea provides strong motivation to develop a comprehensive plan for the conservation of its biodiversity and the management of its marine resources. Increasingly, this ecosystem-level approach calls for a comprehensive network of marine protected areas (MPAs) representative of the richness and diversity of this shared basin. Today, Mediterranean MPAs do not represent the diverse geography and habitats in the region. Despite a recent declaration on trawling restrictions in deep waters (> 1000 m), there are no true deep-sea Mediterranean MPAs. All but one (98.9%) of the 94 marine areas currently under some type of protection or management are coastal. Moreover, 69 (73.4%) are located along the basin's northern shore, highlighting the lack of MPAs in the south and east coasts. Yet, these underrepresented regions and habitats are ecologically distinctive by virtue of their particular oceanographic and biogeographic conditions. We identify several obstacles to Mediterranean MPA implementation and discuss how they can be overcome through strategic MPA network planning, contending that regional disparities in governance, institutional structures, wealth distribution, social capital, and availability of ecological data are responsible for discrepancies in the establishment and effectiveness of MPAs in this region.

2006. Airports and air-mindedness: Spacing, timing and using the Liverpool Airport, 1929-1939. Social & Cultural Geography

Some popular texts have associated airports with a lack of identity. It is supposed that people are alienated from these ahistorical and interstitial spaces (Auge. 1995; Castells 1996). Other approaches have tended to ignore their sociality, exploring their role within transport networks rather than what goes on within. Through a discussion of the early beginnings of British airport development and the construction of Liverpool Airport at Speke, I attempt to show how there are other contextual geographies to airports. By using the concept of air-mindedness-a moral geographical concept that promoted the belief in the possibilities of aircraft mobility, this paper discusses how social identities became bound to flight, forming the context to the development of the airport and both local and national belonging. This examination will reveal the embeddedness of airports within the times, spaces and uses from which they are produced and consumed. Archival research provides the material for this discussion.

2007. Flying lessons: exploring the social and cultural geographies of global air travel. Progress in Human Geography

Geographic perspectives on civil aviation have traditionally been situated within the conceptual landscapes and languages of a transport geography in which quantitative methodologies have been to the fore. While such perspectives have shed light on the increasingly complex morphology of global air routes, this article argues such approaches tend to downplay crucial questions concerning the social production and consumption of airspace. Drawing on ideas from the newly-emergent 'mobilities' paradigm, we use this article to flag up some alternative geographies of air travel, arguing that socially- and culturally-inflected perspectives can usefully reveal the iniquitous imprints of global air travel at a variety of spatial scales. We hence conclude that there is much to be gained by adopting such perspectives, and argue that work on the social dimensions of air travel is vital in a discipline where air transport is routinely described as an enabler of globalization, yet is often treated as an abstract, and oddly disembodied, space of flows.

2000. The "end of geography" in financial services? Local embeddedness and territorialization in the interest rate swaps industry. Economic Geography

This paper provides evidence that the globalization of financial services has not undermined the importance of local embeddedness in world financial centers, among global banks. Using qualitative data from interviews with senior bankers in the interest rate swaps (derivatives) industry in Australia, in this paper I demonstrate the importance of spatial relationships and processes of local embeddedness in the production of swaps. Local embeddedness is attributable to the rapid exchange of financial information in formal dealing networks that serve as central information sources, enabling dealers to formulate a "market feel" that influences their dealing strategies. Information interpretation and decision making in dealing processes and specialist financial labor provide the foundations for the product-based learning orientation of swaps dealing. Dealing networks are underpinned by social relationships, requiring face-to-face interaction. that is facilitated by spatial proximity. Although the global swaps industry is dominated by multinational banks, the centrality of these embedded networks impedes globalization in interest rate swaps dealing. The global swaps industry comprises an international network of highly localized but interconnected operations based in world financial centers.

2002. Embeddedness in custodial banking. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie

This paper contributes to financial geography by discussing globalisation and local embeddedness in the Australian custodial banking industry. Qualitiative interviews with custodial bankers revealed that the combination of cost pressures, electronic information processing systems, and electronic networking made local (intraurban) embeddedness in the Sydney financial district unimportant. Although it is essential for master custodians to understand domestic securities markets characteristics, the commoditised nature of subcustody makes it cost effective to outsource these functions to external supplier banks through strategic alliances that illustrate flexible corporate integration. These interbank production networks and information flows occur electronically and are co-ordinated at the global rather than local (intraurban) scale. Furthermore, these formal networks are not underpinned by embedded social relationships and informal information exchanges. Master custodian are embedded at the national scale to understand local accounting and securities regimes and provide client service, which is important given the electronic basis of custody.

2006. Locational disadvantage of the hub. Annals of Regional Science

We show how spatial evolution is different between the two representative models of economic geography: [Krugman 99:483-499, 1991] and [Ottaviano et al. 43:409-436, 2002]. We analyze the impacts of falling transport costs on the spatial distribution of economic activities and welfare for a network economy consisting of three regions located on a line. It is normally considered that a hub city, i.e., a central region, always has locational advantage and manufacturing workers gain from trade. This is true in the former model, but not in the latter when markets are opened up to trade. This is because the price competition is so keen in the central region that the manufacturing sector moves to the peripheral regions, which aggravates the social welfare. We then show that when goods are close substitutes and share of manufacturing is of an intermediate level, the manufacturing activities completely disappear from the central region leading to a full agglomeration in one peripheral region.

2006. Gone but not forgotten: knowledge flows, labor mobility, and enduring social relationships. Journal of Economic Geography

We examine the role of social relationships in facilitating knowledge flows by estimating the flow premium captured by a mobile inventor's previous location. Once an inventor has moved, they are gone-but are they forgotten? We find that knowledge flows to an inventor's prior location are approximately 50% greater than if they had never lived there, suggesting that social relationships, not just physical proximity, are important for determining flow patterns. Furthermore, we find that a large portion of this social effect is mediated by institutional links; however, this is not the result of corporate knowledge management systems but rather of personal relationships formed through co-location within an institutional context that endure over time, space, and organizational boundaries. Moreover, we find the effect is nearly twice as large for knowledge flows across as compared to within fields, suggesting that co-location may substitute for communities of practice in determining flow patterns.

2008. How do spatial and social proximity influence knowledge flows? Evidence from patent data. Journal of Urban Economics

We examine how the spatial and social proximity of inventors affects access to knowledge, focusing especially on how the two forms of proximity interact. Employing patent citation data and using same-MSA and co-ethnicity as proxies for spatial and social proximity, respectively, we estimate a knowledge flow production function. Our results suggest that although spatial and social proximity both increase the probability of knowledge flows between individuals, the marginal benefit of geographic proximity is greater for inventors who are not socially close. We also report that the marginal benefit of being members of the same technical community of practice is greater in terms of access to knowledge for inventors who are not co-located. Overall, these results imply that spatial and social proximity are substitutes in their influence on access to knowledge. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of the optimal dispersion of socially connected inventors. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2007. Seasonal tourism spaces in Estonia: Case study with mobile positioning data. Tourism Management

The study analysed the seasonality of foreign tourists' space consumption in Estonia using mobile positioning dataset with anonymous roaming data. The method which uses mobile phone positioning coordinates in space-time movement studies in Estonia is called the social positioning method. The dataset allowed analysis of the distribution of foreigners' country of origin in Estonia with the precision of network cells of mobile operators. Privacy of mobile phone holders was guaranteed according to EU regulation. It was concluded that seasonality produces very different and sometimes even opposite tourists' space consumption patterns in Estonia. Coastal areas are popular for summer tourism and not so popular in winter; continental inland areas were used more for winter tourism. The popular summer tourism areas along the Baltic Sea beaches are dominated by one nationality: the Finnish in western Estonia, and the Russians in eastern Estonia. Latvians made up a higher percentage in Saaremaa and Parnu during summer and in Otepaa and Lake Peipsi in winter. The mobile positioning data have great potential for tourism studies and monitoring, but is a sensitive issue due to the fear of surveillance. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2008. Evaluating passive mobile positioning data for tourism surveys: An Estonian case study. Tourism Management

This paper introduces the applicability of passive mobile positioning data in studying tourism. Passive mobile positioning data is automatically stored in the memory files of mobile operators for call activities or movements of handsets in the network. For tourism studies we use database of the locations of roaming (foreign phones) call activities in network cells: the location, time, random ID and country of origin of the called phone. We describe the peculiarities of data, data gathering, sampling, the handling of the spatial database and some analysis methods, using examples from Estonia. The results proved that mobile positioning data has valuable applications for geographical studies. Correlations with conventional accommodation statistics in Estonia were up to 0.99 in the most commonly visited tourist regions. Correlations of positioning data with accommodation statistics were lower in regions with a high number of transit tourists and less tourism infrastructure. The results show that positioning data has advantages: data can be collected for larger spatial units and in less visited areas; spatial and temporal preciseness is higher than for regular tourism statistics. Random IDs allow one to study tourists' movements, for example to study typical routes of tourists of certain nationalities. The weaknesses of data are related to problems with accessing data, as operators do not wish to share data and because of privacy and surveillance concerns. Problem is also that positioning data is another quantitative dataset with limited features. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Theorists in perceptual and behavioural geography have accommodated a variety of voices to accentuate either persons or environments depending upon which are more germane to their own projects. In the first article of this series (Aitken, 1991a), I outlined some of the progress that has been made towards understanding person-environment relations with an emphasis on personality, attitudinal and spatial choice theories. In the current article, I start by documenting development of environment-based theories such as those which focus upon ecology, environmental learning, and the influence of societal structures. The balance of the article explores the person-environment integration that may be found in recent transactional and transformational theories. Although I would like to withdraw myself from the position of guardian of any particular perspective, clearly the mere choice of which theories to discuss puts me in the position of an advocate. Thus, the article ends with a cautionary note on problems that might arise when theorizing becomes too close minded.

2006. Imagining geographies of film. Erdkunde

To the extent that the geographic study of film has come of age, it is important to not only tie it to disciplinary issues but also to push theoretical boundaries. Geographic concern is often lacking a critical perspective, focusing primarily on the geographic realism of films rather than how they produce meaning. Geographers needed to elaborate insights through critical spatial theories, so that our studies are not only about filmic representations of space but are also about the material conditions of lived experience and everyday social practices. With this essay, we argue for more critical film geographies. In doing so, we note how a series of traditional and emergent geographic 'primitives' -landscapes, spaces/spatialities, mobilities, scales and networks - are reappraised and push disciplinary boundaries for geography and film studies in general.

2010. Landscapes of (neo-)liberal control: the transcarceral spaces of federally sentenced women in Canada. Gender Place and Culture

This article maps the racializing, classing and gendering cartographies of cross-spatial marginalization and social control experienced by women who were formerly federally incarcerated in Canada. By investigating women's criminalization, prison and post-prison experiences, this article traces practices of racialization, gendering and classing that underwrite liberal to neo-liberal forms of social control. Results from 68 interviews with women released from federal prisons in Canada show that women's criminalization cannot solely be traced to shifts from liberal to neo-liberal governance, but rather to the ways in which structures of oppression have influenced women's criminalization across liberal to neo-liberal rationalities. This analysis shows how liberal 'welfarist' ideas and ideals are embedded in neo-liberal reforms and provide the discursive platforms of an extended and widened network of social control of criminalized women beyond prison walls, across institutions, including a variety of (non-)government actors and the women themselves. This widened web of (neo-)liberal social control constitutes practices that have formed carceral spaces beyond prison walls and have perpetuated and exacerbated women's marginality after their release from federal prisons in Canada.

2008. Knowing in action: Beyond communities of practice. Research Policy

This paper engages with the recent turn in the social sciences towards communities of practice as a driver of learning and knowledge generation across a variety of different working environments. While agreeing with the broad reinstatement of situated social practice in thinking on the dynamics of knowledge capitalism, the paper takes issue with the increasingly homogeneous and instrumentalist use of the term communities of practice to encapsulate 'knowing in action'. On the basis of an extensive review of the available literature, the paper argues for the importance of differentiating between different varieties of knowing in action. The paper notes the differences - in organisation, spatial dynamics, innovation outcomes, and knowledge processes - between four modes: craft or task-based knowing; epistemic or high creativity knowing; professional knowing; and virtual knowing. The proposed typology is used to illustrate the insight gained from such analytical precision, through a discussion of the spatial configuration of knowing in action, long assumed to require spatial proximity. It is shown that spatial and relational proximity - which can be struck at a distance - should not be treated as one and the same. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2011. Assemblage and geography. Area

In this introduction to the special section on 'Assemblage and geography', we reflect on the different routes and uses through which 'assemblage' is being put to work in contemporary geographical scholarship. The purpose of the collection is not to legislate a particular definition of assemblage, or to prioritise one tradition of assemblage thinking over others, but to reflect on the multiple ways in which assemblage is being encountered and used as a descriptor, an ethos and a concept. We identify a set of tensions and differences in how the term is used in the commentaries and more generally. These revolve around the difference assemblage thinking makes to relational thought in the context of a shared orientation to the composition of social-spatial formations.

1999. Communities in a world of open systems. Futures

In the past, communities tended to be closed systems with relatively clear boundaries, stable memberships, and few linkages to other communities. We are now entering into an 'age of open systems.' Mobility creates new communities and kinds of communities. The impacts of mobility are far less than those of information and communications technology. Cyberspace has become a new kind of social terrain, crowded with 'virtual communities.' Television and radio create communities of people thinking and talking about the same things. Both mobility and the growth of communications networks reduce the predominance of geography as a force in shaping community. Many communities are much more fluid, and some are placeless. There are many different kinds of social,groups and networks that people describe with the word 'community.' Most people are multi-community individuals, with many memberships, and many kinds of memberships. Although the world's major religions still have some historic identification with specific regions, those geographic attachments are no longer as clear as they once were, and these religions are tending to become open systems. Some people prefer relatively closed social systems, while others flourish in freer environments. Choice is one of the most powerful forces in the lives of people being exposed to the forces of globalization. Community will continue to be a profound human need but will be redefined, perhaps many times over. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. Entrepreneurship and Regional Culture: The Case of Hamamatsu and Kyoto, Japan. Regional Studies

Aoyama Y. Entrepreneurship and regional culture: the case of Hamamatsu and Kyoto, Japan, Regional Studies. Successful entrepreneurship today must respond to the demands from global market forces. Yet, simultaneously, entrepreneurs must also respond to local social contexts, shaped by historical and regional economic conditions. This paper illustrates how regional culture plays an important role in shaping entrepreneurship, even in a new economic sector. By taking two 'entrepreneurial regions' of Japan, Hamamatsu and Kyoto, it is shown how historical legacy and lead firms strongly influence business practices of information technology entrepreneurs. Results of this qualitative research show how entrepreneurship is an integral aspect of evolving and complex regional systems. [image omitted]

2010. Infection Risk Along U.S. Highways? The Case of a 'Truckchaser' Cruising for Truckers. International Journal of Sexual Health

This article explores potential infection risks linked with trucker cruising along U.S. highways. Specifically, the article delineates the settings and social organization of trucker cruising, examines the structure of sex partnerships of truckers and cruisers, and delves into the unique database of one truckchaser who recorded 4,162 sex interactions with 2,499 different truckers during a 13-year period. Concurrent sexual partnerships of bisexual and particularly straight-identified truckers hold increased potential for amplifying infection risk as they enable pathogens to operate as bridges along disparate geographies, demographies, and epidemiologies.

1999. Globalization and the research imagination. International Social Science Journal

This article addresses the relationship between globalization and current forms of critical knowledge, especially as these forms have come to be organized by the social sciences in the West. Globalization as an uneven economic process creates a fragmented and uneven distribution of those resources for learning, teaching and cultural criticism that are most vital for the formation of democratic research communities who could produce a global view of globalization. One task of a newly alert social science is to rethink the meaning of research styles and networks appropriate to this challenge. In this effort, it is important to recall that the academic imagination is part of a wider geography of knowledge created in the dialogue between social science and area studies, particularly as they developed in the United States after World War II. This geography of knowledge invites us to rethink our picture of what 'regions' are and to reflect on how research is a special practice of the academic imagination.

2009. Crossing divides: Ethnicity and rurality. Journal of Rural Studies

This paper draws on research with people from African, Caribbean and Asian backgrounds regarding perceptions and use of the English countryside. I explore the complex ways in which the category 'rural' was constructed as both essentialised and relational: how the countryside was understood most definitely as 'not-city' but also, at the same time, the English countryside was conceived as part of a range of networks: one site in a web of nature places' across the country, as well as one rural in an international chain of rurals - specifically via embodied and emotional connections with 'nature'. I argue that alongside sensed/sensual embodiment (the non-representational intuitive work of the body), we need also to consider reflective embodiment as a desire to space/place in order to address the structural socio-spatial exclusions endemic in (rural) England and how they are challenged. I suggest that a more progressive conceptualisation of rurality - a 'transrural' open to issues of mobility and desire - can help us disrupt dominant notions of rural England as only an exclusionary white space, and reposition it as a site within multicultural, multiethnic, transnational and mobile social imaginaries. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007. The role of proximity anad knowledge interaction between head offices and KIBS. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie

The extant literature suggests that a mutual dependency exists between head office location and the location of knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) in major cities and capital regions. This is often referred to as a joint head-office-corporate-service complex. However, few studies have looked into the functioning and outcomes of these complexes. How concentrated are KIBS and head offices in major cities? How important is geographical proximity in the knowledge interaction between head offices and KIBS? What are the actual outcomes of head office-KIBS relationships, especially as far as innovation is concerned? These issues are discussed by using empirical evidence from Norway. The empirical results indicate that geographical proximity in itself is neither a sufficient nor a necessary condition for successful relations between KIBS and head offices in cities. However, agglomeration in city regions can provide positive externalities for both parties. Other types of proximity, such as social and cognitive proximity, also play a vital role in the outcome of KIBS-client relations. There is therefore a certain degree of heterogeneity, but not all projects lead to profound learning and innovation in the actors in this complex.


The current massive offshoring of manufacturing represents a significant relocation of employment. Therefore it constitutes an interesting phenomenon from the perspectives of economic geography, geopolitical policy and international small business management. In this qualitative study, we investigate the offshoring decisions in 10 Norwegian small and middle-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have established manufacturing capabilities in low cost countries. The focus lies on their initial motivation for offshoring production, selection of location, choice of entry mode, evolution of foreign production capabilities, and finally, foreign market sales initiation and development. By analysing the findings in this study from different theoretical perspectives we conclude that combining Dunning's eclectic paradigm with behavioural internationalisation models offers valuable insight in the initiation and organisation of offshore manufacturing facilities among small firms. However, to fully understand the external influence on offshore location decisions among SMEs we should incorporate business network theories and theories from economic and social geography.

2011. Scales of care and responsibility: debating the surgically globalised body. Social & Cultural Geography

This paper initiates debate for geographers on the nature of care in relation to the self explored through the practices of aesthetic surgery. Central to debates on the meanings and relations of aesthetic surgery are a set of problematics related to the scales of care and responsibility. These are captured in the distinctions between caring for or caring about and between self-care or care of the self. Aesthetic surgery is a particularly ambivalent 'extreme care', which for many is always the expression of consent to an aesthetic hegemony or the exercise of disciplinary power. The paper draws out some of the spatial paradoxes involved in care related to the self in aesthetic surgery and proposes some routes forward. The framework of landscapes of care that enhances a temporal dimension and the concept of reworking the social relations of hegemony may help mediate the inherent tensions of scales of care and responsibility. Specifically, this combination may offer a way to allow for a limited, or bounded, care of the self without negating the networks of power within which the practices of self-care are enacted.

2006. Organizational foundings in community context: Instruments manufacturers and their interrelationship with other organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly

Combining insights from organizational ecology and social network theory, we examine how the structure of relations among organizational populations affects differences in rates of foundings across geographic locales. We hypothesize that symbiotic and commensalistic interpopulation relations function as channels of information about entrepreneurial opportunities and that differing access to such information influences the founding rate. Empirical analyses of U. S. instruments manufacturers support this argument. The founding rate of instruments manufacturers rises with the densities of organizational populations that have symbiotic and commensalistic relationships with instruments manufacturers. These factors encourage the initial foundings of instruments manufacturers in areas where such organizations were not previously found. The dominance of organizational populations tied to instruments manufacturing by symbiotic or commensalistic relations increases the rate of foundings of instruments manufacturers, whereas the dominance of organizational populations that lack these relations decreases it. Finally, we find that interpopulation relationships that hinge on direct contact have less impact on initial foundings as geographic distance increases. These results have implications for research on organizational ecology, entrepreneurship, urban sociology, and economic geography.

2007. Social distance versus spatial distance in R&D cooperation: Empirical evidence from European collaboration choices in micro and nanotechnologies. Papers in Regional Science

Spurred on by the theory of network formation, and by the geography of innovation, traditional analyses on R&D cooperation face a deep renewal. This paper assesses the extent to which these renewals find an empirical validation. Based on the research projects submitted to the 6th Framework Program of the European Union, a binary choice model is used in order to highlight the existence of network and spatial effects alongside other microeconomic determinants of cooperation. Our findings suggest that network effects are present, so that probability of collaboration is influenced by each individual's position within the network. Social distance thus seems to matter more than geographical distance.

2002. Beyond geography: Cooperation with persistent links in the absence of clustered neighborhoods. Personality and Social Psychology Review

Electronic communication allows interactions to take place over great distances. We build-an agent-based model to explore whether networks that do not rely on geographic Proximity can support cooperation as well as local. interactions can. Adaptive agents play a four-move Prisoner's Dilemma game, where an agent's strategy specifies the probability of cooperating on the first move, and the probability of cooperating contingent on the partner's previous choice. After playing with four others, an agent adjusts its strategy so that more successful strategies are better represented in the succeeding round. The. surprising result is that if the pattern of interactions is selected at random, but is persistent overtime, cooperation emerges just as-strongly as it does when interactions are geographically local. This has implications for both research on social dynamics, and for the prospects for building social capital in the modem age.

2008. Social networks, mobility biographies, and travel: survey challenges. Environment and Planning B-Planning & Design

Social network membership and biography shape a person's mental map and social network geography, and thus should influence his or her travel behaviour. This paper discusses what content needs to be added to the current set of questions asked in travel behaviour surveys if we want to capture those concepts. The discussion proceeds conceptually, as there is little empirical work so far on which to draw. The challenges involved in integrating the necessary questions about biographies and social networks are considerable. The protocols will have to rely on more personal contact between the survey and the respondent, either by phone or in person.

2011. Is There a Role for Social Technologies in Collaborative Healthcare? Families Systems & Health

The exponential growth, variety, and sophistication of the information communication technologies (ICTs) plus their growing accessibility are transforming how clinical practitioners, patients, and their families can work together. Social technologies are the ICTs tools that augment the ability of people to communicate and collaborate despite obstacles of geography and time. There is still little empirical research on the impact of social technologies in the case of collaborative health. Defining a set of social technologies with potential for developing, sustaining, and strengthening the collaborative health agenda should prove useful for practitioners and researchers. This paper is based on an extensive review of the literature focusing on emerging technologies and the experience of the author as a consultant to health care professionals learning about social technologies. A note of caution is required: the phenomenon is complex and hard to describe in writing (a medium very different from the technologies themselves). Hardware and software are in continuous development and the iterative adaptation of the emergent social technologies for new forms of virtual communication.

2001. Geographies of infant feeding and access to primary health-care. Health & Social Care in the Community

Although the benefits of breastfeeding to mother and infant are now well established, within Britain initiation rates are low and have changed little since 1980. This is despite many health promotion initiatives aiming to increase breastfeeding. In this paper we discuss some of the findings of an exploratory qualitative research study of infant feeding decisions in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, where health professionals are actively seeking to increase local breastfeeding initiation and duration rates. Our findings suggest that for health promotion initiatives to be effective across all social groups, there needs to be (i) a socio-cultural understanding of different social groups' access to and interpretation of pre- and postnatal formal breastfeeding support health services, and (ii) more appreciation of how mothers' informal support networks impact on their access to, interpretation and use of formal breastfeeding support.


The Division of Social, Behavioral, and Economic Research of the National Science Foundation has explored aggressively the potential involvement of the social sciences in the National Information Infrastructure. We invision the NII as a global network of computer communications, which will evolve out of the Internet, linking all social scientists to massive digital libraries and to myriad smaller distributed data sources containing information of every imaginable sort. Five workshops have charted applications of high-performance computing in the social and behavioral sciences: cognitive science, computational geography computational economics, artificial social intelligence, and electronic networks. A survey of SEER programs revealed that many are helping to create the information infrastructure, and substantial investment in six ''flagship'' digital library projects will develop the systems necessary for the NII of the 21st century.

2008. Analysing global economic organization: embedded networks and global chains compared. Economy and Society

This article analyses the network epistemologies that underlie several frameworks for studying global economic organization. Specifically, the embedded network of the new economic sociology is compared with various global chain constructs that seek to emphasize the connectedness of actors and activities across space. I argue that the micro-sociological foundations of the new economic sociology make embeddedness a problematic concept for analysing economic organization at a global level. I then contrast the embedded network as a trust-based governance structure with the construct of the global commodity chain, which understands network governance in terms of power relations or 'drivenness'. Finally, I explain how the recent theory of global value chain governance by Gereffi, Humphrey and Sturgeon (2005) departs from the macro-sociological tradition that oriented earlier chain frameworks: this theory, which focuses on the coordination of inter-firm dyads in a global value chain, returns to a micro-oriented understanding of governance, but one that draws more from transaction cost theory than from the new economic sociology.

2011. The place of disarticulations: global commodity production in La Laguna, Mexico. Environment and Planning A

Studies of the shifting social organization and geography of global garment production have been critical to the development of the commodity chains framework as an important field of study for scholars of political economy in various disciplines. Our paper intervenes in this literature by proposing what we call a 'disarticulations' perspective, an approach attentive to historical and spatial processes of accumulation, disinvestment and dispossession that produce the uneven geographies generative of transnational production networks. We make the case for disarticulations as an approach to commodity chains via a case study of a region in north-central Mexico called La Laguna-a celebrated center of export dynamism in the 1990s, following the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and of rapid decline in the 2000s. Rather than offer a conventional commodity chain analysis of the boom to bust cycle in La Laguna, which would look to the dynamics of the contemporary apparel chain to explain the causes and consequences of La Laguna's NAFTA-era trajectory, we instead follow La Laguna's 'travels' through the cotton, textile, and garment industries over 150 years. We show how the recent NAFTA-era boom was premised on this layered history of engagements with the cotton-textile-apparel commodity chain. The disarticulations approach to commodity chains that we develop here foregrounds the processes of dispossession, accumulation and disinvestment through which not only commodity chains, but the uneven geographies that are their conditions of possibility, are reproduced.

2011. Dolphin-Safe Tuna from California to Thailand: Localisms in Environmental Certification of Global Commodity Networks. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

This article analyzes the historical development of the United States-based dolphin-safe tuna campaign and associated labeling scheme in the early 1990s as a form of commodity network regulation. Adopting a political ecology approach, and drawing on theoretical frameworks of global production networks, conventions theory, institutional analysis, and the politics of scale, we consider the processes whereby the U.S. nongovernmental organization (NGO) Earth Island Institute (EII) came to hold a key position of power in defining, monitoring, and regulating the use of the term dolphin-safe. EII created international organization networks to monitor the tuna packing industry, at that time heavily concentrated in Thailand. Although the dolphin-safe tuna labeling scheme is an important part of one of the most successful consumer-driven global environmental campaigns ever launched, it contained a number of conflicts of power, values, and modes of representation, mirroring large conceptual differences in environmental activism and social justice. EII's view became embedded in the definitions and structures of the dolphin-safe tuna commodity network and the particular scaling of globalization that it encompassed.

2011. Eco-cultural niches of the Badegoulian: Unraveling links between cultural adaptation and ecology during the Last Glacial Maximum in France. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology

This study details an application of eco-cultural niche modeling (ECNM) using two modeling architectures-a genetic algorithm (GARP) and maximum entropy (Maxent)-aimed at examining the ecological context of sites with archaeological remains attributed to the culture termed the Badegoulian (ca. 22-20 k cal BP), which dates to the middle part of the Last Glacial Maximum (ca. 23-19k cal BP). We reconstructed the ecological niche of the Badegoulian and assessed whether eco-cultural niche variability existed within this technocomplex. We identified two broad but distinct spatial entities in the distribution of Badegoulian sites based on lithic raw material sources and circulation, and found that these spatial units share a similar ecological niche. We discuss the implications of territorial differentiation within this niche in light of research on land use by culturally affiliated groups within a broad cultural entity. We propose that Badegoulian circulation networks reflect distinct social territories associated with particular conditions within a single ecological niche. This study illustrates the utility of combining ecological niche reconstructions with archaeological data to identify and evaluate diachronic trends in cultural continuity for situations where such patterns may be missed when the focus of study is restricted solely to lithic technology and typology. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2011. The Community Structure of Research and Development Cooperation in Europe: Evidence from a Social Network Perspective. Geographical Analysis

The focus of this article is on precompetitive research and development (R&D) cooperation across Europe, as captured by R&D joint ventures funded by the European Commission in the time period 1998-2002, within the Fifth Framework Programme. The cooperations in this program give rise to a bipartite network with 72,745 network edges between 25,839 actors (representing organizations that include firms, universities, research organizations, and public agencies) and 9,490 R&D projects. Participating actors are linked only through joint projects. In this article, we describe a community-identification problem based on the concept of modularity, use the recently introduced label-propagation algorithm to identify communities in the network and differentiate the identified communities by developing community-specific profiles with social network analysis and geographic visualization techniques. We expect the results to enrich our picture of the European Research Area (ERA) by providing new insights into the global and local structures of R&D cooperation across Europe.

1998. A history of regression: actors, networks, machines, and numbers. Environment and Planning A

In this paper the history of correlation and regression analyses, both in the discipline of statistics generally and in human geography particularly, is examined. It is argued that correlation and regression analysis emerged from a particular social and cultural context, and that this context entered into the very nature of those techniques. The paper is divided into three sections. First, to counter the idea that mathematics and statistics are somehow outside the social, the arguments put forward by David Bloor and Bruno Latour suggesting that mathematical propositions are socially constructed are briefly reviewed. Second, using the ideas of both Bloor and Latour I turn to the development of statistics as an intellectual discipline during the 19th century, and specifically to the invention of correlation and regression at the end of that period. It is argued that the development of statistics as a discipline and its associated techniques are both stamped by, but also leave their stamp on, the wider society in which they are set. Last, the importation of correlation and regression analyses into human geography which occurred in the 1950s is examined. Following my general social constructionist argument, it is suggested that because of the difference in context the correlation and regression analyses devised in the late 19th century were often inappropriate for mid-20th century spatial science.

2007. Spaces of opposition: activism and deliberation in post-apartheid environmental politics. Environment and Planning A

Drawing on recent political theory that examines the relationship between inclusive deliberation and oppositional activism in processes of democratisation, we develop a case study of environmental justice mobilisation in post-apartheid South Africa. We focus on the emergence of a network of social movement organisations embedded in particular localities in the city of Durban, connected into national and transnational campaigns, and centred on grievances around industrial air pollution. We analyse how the geographies of uneven industrial and urban development in Durban combine with sedimented place-based histories of activism to make particular locations spaces of democratic contention, in which the scope and operation of formal democratic procedures are challenged and transformed. We examine the range of strategic engagements adopted by social movement organisations in pursuing their objectives, looking in particular at the dynamic interaction between inclusion in deliberative forums and more adversarial, activist strategies of legal challenge and dramaturgical protest. We identify the key organisational features of groups involved in this environmental justice network, which both enable and constrain particular patterns of democratic engagement with the state and capital. We also identify a disjuncture between the interpretative frames of different actors involved in participatory policy making. These factors help to explain the difficulties faced by social movement organisations in opening up the space for legitimate nonparliamentary opposition in a political culture shaped by norms of conciliation and consensus.

2010. Endogenous Neighborhood Selection and the Attainment of Cooperation in a Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Computational Economics

There is a large literature in economics and elsewhere on the emergence and evolution of cooperation in the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma. Recently this literature has expanded to include games in a setting where agents play only with local neighbors in a specified geography. In this paper we explore how the ability of agents to move and choose new locations and new neighbors influences the emergence of cooperation. First, we explore the dynamics of cooperation by investigating agent strategies that yield Markov transition probabilities. We show how different agent strategies yield different Markov chains which generate different asymptotic behaviors in regard to the attainment of cooperation. Second, we investigate how agent movement affects the attainment of cooperation in various networks using agent-based simulations. We show how network structure and density can affect cooperation with and without agent movement.

2008. The social worlds of commerce and consumption in the Sogamoso and Lebrija river valleys: Merchants and consumers in the eighteenth century. Historia Critica

This article analyzes trade and consumption patterns in the Sogamoso and Lebrija river valleys. Following an introduction to the geography of the region, it examines the commercial networks established by some merchants. The article describes the relations between the mining and rural economies, the latter of which was important in generating a very strong wave of demand during the eighteenth century. The currency problem, and the way products circulated with or without it, is then discussed. The article concludes with a short description of the kinds of merchandise that were consumed in rural areas.

2007. Networking for Local Agenda 21 implementation: Learning from experiences with Udaltalde and Udalsarea in the Basque autonomous community. Geoforum

Local Agenda 21 (LA21) is widely regarded as a key tool for implementing sustainability policies since local authorities are closer to ordinary people and some local managers and politicians have the ability to adapt organisations to new managerial atmospheres and social demands. However, local governments tend to lack the right economic, human and knowledge resources. Consequently, in the search for local sustainable development, networking and collaborative approaches to LA21 can help local authorities save resources and share knowledge and best practices. Although both research and politicians have tended to focus on LA21, we believe Regional Agenda 21 (RA21) needs to be emphasised as a complementary tool. This paper examines successful innovative practices in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC) over a 4-year period, with a view to shedding light on the theoretical literature and to aiding regional and local authorities. Although research on policy networks has produced useful results, we are still some way from a plausible, consensus-based theory of policy networks. Based on experience in the BAC, the present article offers an integrated approach to understanding the antecedents and consequences of a regional knowledge-driven network for LA21 promotion. Although LA21 implementation has been studied before, evidence about networking at regional level is scarce. Other regions in developing Countries could use this approach to achieve successful policy networks. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Social capital, research and development, and innovation: An empirical analysis of Spanish and Italian regions. European Urban and Regional Studies

Innovation theories have identified and explained the antecedents of innovation outcomes. Theories have moved on from explaining innovation outcomes in terms of individual research and development (R&D) efforts to include social capital. Although conceptual support for the relevance of social capital as an antecedent of innovation outcomes seems persuasive, measurement and quantitative evidence are scarce. We contribute to filling this gap by empirically testing the role of social capital as a driver of the relationship between R&D expenditure and innovation outcomes in the context of the Spanish and Italian regions. As there is no consensus on how to measure social capital, we use two different approaches: a rational choice-driven approach and a sociologically driven approach. The results of both approaches are controversial, in that they are different, unclear and almost in opposition, but this should not be interpreted as an argument for abandoning all efforts to quantify the role of social capital.

2011. Spatial networks. Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters

Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2007. Sudden shift or migratory drift? FulBe herd movements to the Sudano-Guinean region of West Africa. Human Ecology

A significant change in the geography of livestock raising over the past 30 years is the southerly movement of FulBe herds into the humid Sudanian and Guinean savannas of West Africa. The literature suggests that the severe droughts of the early 1970s and mid-1980s were the driving force behind this southern expansion of mobile livestock raising. The conventional view is that drought forced herders to seek greener pastures to the south, an area that zebu cattle have previously avoided because of the presence of tsetse flies, the vector of animal sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis). This "sudden push" hypothesis places Sahelian herds in savanna pastures in a matter of a 1-3 years. This stimulus-response model runs counter to our observations and understanding of the social and ecological processes influencing FulBe herd movements. We challenge the "sudden shift" thesis at the regional scale by arguing that the southerly expansion of FulBe herds has proceeded according to a more complex temporal frame that includes generational, biological, and social historical timeframes and periodicities. We distinguish between short-term shifts ("test movements") and more permanent shifts ("migration movements"). These mobility patterns are linked to contingent factors such as cattle diseases, drought, and political instability, as well as to more structural and adaptive features such as the establishment of social networks, herding contracts, and cattle cross-breeding. Shifts in livestock ownership and the social differentiation among herders are important variables for understanding changes in herd movements. We conclude that the permanent shift of herds to the humid savannas of West Africa has been preceded by a series of social and agroecological adjustments that operate on decadal and generational time scales.

1999. Co-infection with malaria and HIV in injecting drug users in Brazil: a new challenge to public health? Addiction

Aims. To describe AIDS and malaria geography in Brazil, highlighting the role of injecting drug users (IDUs) in malaria outbreaks occurring in malaria-free regions, and the potential clinical and public health implications of malaria/HIV co-infection. Design. Review of the available literature and original analyses using geoprocessing and spatial analysis techniques. Findings. Both HIV/AIDS and malaria distribution are currently undergoing profound changes in Brazil, with mutual expansion to intersecting geographical regions and social networks. Very recent reports describe the first clinical case of AIDS in a remote Amazonian ethnic group, as well as malaria cases in Rio de Janeiro state (hitherto a malaria-free area for 20 years); in addition, two outbreaks of both infections occurred at the beginning of the 1990s in the most industrialized Brazilian state (Sao Paulo), due to the sharing of needles and syringes by drug users. Spatial data point to: (a) the expansion of HIV/AIDS towards malarigenic areas located in the centre-west and north of Brazil, along the main cocaine trafficking routes, with IDU networks apparently playing a core role; and (b) the possibility of new outbreaks of secondary malaria in urban settings where HIV/AIDS is still expanding, through the sharing of needles and syringes. Conclusions. New outbreaks of cases of HIV and malaria are likely to occur among Brazilian IDUs, and might conceivably contribute to the development of treatment-resistant strains of malaria in this population. Health professionals should be alert to this possibility, which could also eventually occur in IDU networks in developed countries.

2007. Relating diarrheal disease to social networks and the geographic configuration of communities in rural Ecuador. American Journal of Epidemiology

Social networks and geographic structures of communities are important predictors of infectious disease transmission. To examine their joint effects on diarrheal disease and how these effects might develop, the authors analyzed social network and geographic data from northern coastal Ecuador and examined associations with diarrhea prevalence. Between July 2003 and May 2005,113 cases of diarrhea were identified in nine communities. Concurrently, sociometric surveys were conducted, and households were mapped with geographic information systems. Spatial distribution metrics of households within communities and of communities with respect to roads were developed that predict social network degree in casual contact ("contact") and food-sharing ("food") networks. The mean degree is 25-40% lower in communities with versus without road access and 66-94% lower in communities with lowest versus highest housing density. Associations with diarrheal disease were found for housing density (comparing dense with dispersed communities: risk ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (Cl): 1.1, 10.0) and social connectedness (comparing lowest with highest degree communities: risk ratio = 3.4, 95% Cl: 1.1, 10.1 in the contact network and risk ratio = 4.9, 95% Cl: 1.1, 21.9 in the food network). Some of these differences may be related to more new residents, lower housing density, and less social connectedness in road communities.

2003. Geographies of production: growth regimes in spatial perspective 1 - innovation, institutions and social systems. Progress in Human Geography

2005. Geographies of production: growth regimes in spatial perspective (II) - knowledge creation and growth in clusters. Progress in Human Geography

2006. Geographies of production: Growth regimes in spatial perspective 3 - toward a relational view of economic action and policy. Progress in Human Geography

2005. Resources in economic geography: from substantive concepts towards a relational perspective. Environment and Planning A

Resources are crucial for the technological and economic development of firms in spatial perspective. In this paper we contrast two ways of conceptualizing resources, and argue that a conventional, substantive understanding implies a number of shortcomings which can be overcome through the application of a relational conception of resources. In examining four types of resources-material resources, knowledge, power, and social capital-our argument is that resources are constituted in a relational way in two aspects. First, resources are relational in that their generation, interpretation, and use are contingent. This depends on the particular institutional structures and social relations, as well as on the knowledge contexts and mental models of the agents involved. Second, some types of resources, such a's power and social capital, are also relational because they cannot be possessed or controlled by individual agents. They are built and mobilized through day-to-day social practices. Individuals or groups of agents may appropriate the returns, but not the resources themselves. We conclude that a relational concept reflects the contextual and interactive nature of the selection, use, and formation of resources. This offers new insights into the explanation of heterogeneity in firm strategies and trajectories, as well as regional differences in the development of localized industry configurations, such as clusters.

2008. Regional Deindustrialization and Re-bundling: Evidence from the Merger of the Former German Hoechst and French Rhone-Poulenc Groups. European Planning Studies

large part of the work in economic geography and other social sciences has focused on new growth prospects due to the establishment of global production chains and the rise of new clusters of industrial activity. Much less attention has been paid to former growth industries and regions that have recently experienced shrinking processes due to internationalization. This paper will explore the cases of two chemical regions, i.e. southern Hessen, Germany and Rhone-Alpes, France. These two areas have both undergone drastic restructuring since the mid-1990s, due to the merger of the prominent chemical groups Hoechst and Rhone-Poulenc into Aventis. Instead of investigating the development of the core activities at Aventis, we will focus on the operations that were considered less important and consequently split off. In addition to the negative consequences produced by these activities, in our analysis we also emphasize regional opportunities which arise from competence building, reorientation and new firm formation. These processes can be viewed as re-bundling existing and new knowledge bases with other resources to help overcome economic crises and develop a new competitive edge. As such, the paper aims to contribute to a relational understanding of economic globalization and regional restructuring.

2009. Necessary restructuring or globalization failure? Shifts in regional supplier relations after the merger of the former German Hoechst and French Rhone-Poulenc groups. Geoforum

A large part of the work in economic geography and other social sciences surrounding globalization processes has focused on the prospects of economic growth due to the establishment of global production chains and the rise of new clusters of industrial activity. In recent years, Much less attention has been paid to former growth industries and regions that have suffered from the negative consequences of internationalization processes. This paper will explore the cases of two chemical regions, i.e. southern Hessen, Germany and Rhone-Alpes, France. Both regions were forced to undergo drastic restructuring since the mid 1990s due to the merger of the chemical groups Hoechst and Rhone-Poulenc into Aventis. The paper argues that it is beneficial to develop a relational perspective of economic action and interaction in order to better understand these regional transformations and restructuring processes and their consequences. Instead of investigating the development of activities, which became the core operations at Aventis, we will focus on other activities that were considered less important and, consequently, split off. In analyzing the logic of restructuring and the associated changes in regional supplier relations. this paper aims to contribute to a relational understanding of economic globalization and its associated threats to regional development by focusing on agents who are subject to negative restructuring consequences. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Local, global and virtual buzz: The importance of face-to-face contact in economic interaction and possibilities to go beyond. Geoforum

Novel information and communication technologies have created new possibilities for transferring information and knowledge over distance. Although this might open up broad options for economic interaction, knowledge regarding the effects of these changes on the geographies of production and innovation is still incomplete. Under these circumstances, permanent co-location and face-to-face (F2F) interaction may be efficient in some contexts but not in others. Support by computer-mediated communication (CMC), temporary, and virtual interaction is increasingly becoming the basis for establishing trans-local production networks. By combining results from social psychology with economic geography, it is argued that there is no generally superior spatial fix for economic interaction. Different spatial configurations can be advantageous in different production and innovation contexts, even over large distances without permanent or even regular F2F contact. This paper systematically investigates the effects of new communication technologies and different organisational forms for economic interaction by emphasizing the potential of combining CMC with forms of temporary and permanent F2F interaction. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Onwards and Upwards: Space, Placement, and Liminality in Adult ESOL Classes. Tesol Quarterly

The extensive literature on classroom-based second language learning makes little attempt to situate the classroom itself in social and multilingual sociolinguistic space, in the complex and iterative networks of encounters and interactions that make up daily life. Daily life is routinely evoked and "brought into" the classroom as a pedagogic and testing strategy, but how can we understand the classroom as just one of the sites in which daily life, including language learning and use, is played out? In this article we outline an approach to researching the spaces of language learning, and the identity positions that are routinely made available to English speakers of other languages (ESOL) learners, drawing on approaches from cultural geography and linguistic ethnography. We illustrate the discussion with data from a study investigating the placement practices by which ESOL students in England are placed and place themselves in particular types of educational provision (Simpson, Cooke, & Baynham, 2008), investigating why some may choose the identity of second language learner and others orient toward mainstream education opportunities. We conclude with a discussion of new identity positions, understood as spaces of becoming created by the levels and progressions of curriculum frameworks, drawing on Bernstein's (1999) notion of vertical and horizontal discourses. doi: 10.5054/tq.2010.226852

2002. Transnational elites in global cities: British expatriates in Singapore's financial district. Geoforum

Skilled international migration is as an important process of both contemporary globalization and the global city. The establishment of a transnational elite of expatriate tabour in international finance plays a vital part in the accumulation of capital within international financial centres (IFCs). Expatriate tabour has become a major determinant of the IFC, creating financial capital through complex social relations, knowledge networks, practices and discourses. The principal argument being made in this paper is that expatriates are major agents in the accumulation and transfer of financial knowledge in the IFC, and that such processes are undertaken through expatriate global-local knowledge networks and other social practices. The paper is divided into three major parts. Following a discussion of transnational elites as expatriates in global cities, which also conceptualises their contribution to the spatialization of financial knowledge networks, the empirical study investigates the working, social and cultural knowledge networks and practices of British expatriates in Singapore. Finally, the paper revisits the conceptual work on transnational elites and suggests that expatriates were deeply embedded in global-local relations in the workplace and the business/social sphere through interaction with local 'western educated/experienced' Singaporeans, but were disembedded from the local in the home and other household social spaces due to the invisibility of the local population in their interactions. Both the theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that expatriates are flow in the Castellian spatial logic of the network society. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2000. Negotiating globalization, transnational corporations and global city financial centres in transient migration studies. Applied Geography

Outside population geography, migration as a process 'driving' globalization has remained in the shadows of the globalization literature. Migration has only really been acknowledged by other social scientists as a globalization tendency in conceptualizing global cities. In this paper, we wish to extend our understanding of globalization and migration by linking together studies of transient professional migration, transnational corporations and global city financial centres. The paper is in three parts. First, we discuss transient migration as process in the globalization debate. Second, we review a series of qualitative methods that have extended our knowledge of globalization and transient professional migration. Third, we illustrate the importance of migration as a globalization tendency through an analysis of official international migration statistics and original research undertaken within transnational banks during the 1990s. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2003. Global networks and local developments: Agendas for development geography. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie

It can be argued that development geography has left few traces either on the broader canvas of development theory or on the thought and practices of social actors engaging with material processes of change typically framed within the language of development. This paper argues that this is because the sub-field has been somewhat too case study oriented, and because its practitioners have, with some exceptions, kept themselves - or at least their identities - at the margins of debates within and among development actors. Yet development geography has much to contribute to on-going reflections on the nature of development. The paper explores themes that might be at the centre of an empirically grounded but theoretically oriented development geography that might speak to contemporary processes of globalisation and local change. It suggests that comparative case study work exploring the ways in which the development of capitalism and processes of intervention are both linked and vary across space still offers fruitful terrain for theory.

2004. NGOs and uneven development: geographies of development intervention. Progress in Human Geography

Much research on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in international development has been case-study-based, with questions about the broader geographies of NGO intervention rarely asked. This paper explores the factors that drive such NGO geographies and considers how they relate to the uneven geographies of poverty and livelihood produced under contemporary processes of capitalist expansion and contraction. Explanations of NGO presence and absence must of necessity be historicized and contextualized, and particular attention should be paid to the influences of the politics and political economy of aid and development, the geographies of religious, political and other social institutions, the transnational networks in which these institutions are often embedded, and the social networks and life histories of NGO professionals and allies. The resulting geographies of intervention pattern the uneven ways in which NGOs become involved in reworking places and livelihoods, though this reworking is also structured by the dynamics of political economy. The paper closes by drawing out implications for geographical research on NGOs, as well as for efforts to theorize the relationships between intentional development interventions and immanent processes of political economic change, and their effects on inequality and unevenness.

2007. Meeting on the margins: Cantonese 'old-timers' and Fujianese 'newcomers'. Population Space and Place

Britain's Chinese population is typically portrayed as a homogeneous ethnic group, both in the media and by wider society. However, investigations into how Liverpool's well-established Cantonese community perceives and reacts to more recent Fujianese arrivals demonstrate that the concept of subethnic difference is an important one. Rather than integrating into the established Cantonese community, the Fujianese tend to live in social isolation and have become part of a wider multi-ethnic pool of cheap manual labour. The establishment, development and consolidation of a Cantonese-dominated Chinese community in Liverpool has created extensive Cantonese social networks which the Fujianese find impenetrable. This situation is compounded by the Fujianese migrants' own poorly endowed social networks, the increasing commercialisation of Fujianese irregular migration to Britain and intervention by the Immigration Service, which combine to lead new Fujianese immigrants into exploitation. The geographical mobility of the Fujianese in Britain also inhibits the formation of close ties with settled Cantonese communities. The result is that the two groups have two different geographies: the Cantonese are stable and settled, whilst the Fujianese remain itinerant and marginalised. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2009. The Emergence of Corporate Social Responsibility in Chile: The Importance of Authenticity and Social Networks. Journal of Business Ethics

Little is known about how and why corporate social responsibility (CSR) emerged in lesser developed countries. In order to address this knowledge gap, we used Chile as a test case and conducted a series of in-depth interviews with leaders of CSR initiatives. We also did an Internet and literature search to help provide support for the findings that emerged from our data. We discovered that while there are similarities in the drivers of CSR in developed countries, there are distinct differences as well. In particular, we found that different sectors drive CSR in Chile. In contrast to other geographies where consumer demand and government regulation provided the impetus for CSR efforts, multinational companies (MNCs) and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are key actors in Chile. MNCs imported their CSR beliefs, skills, and processes into Chile. Their efforts resulted in a virtuous cycle. Once large domestic firms felt pressured by their MNC rivals, they too adopted CSR initiatives. The ability to manage relationships with multiple stakeholders and perceptions of authenticity were also critical to the success of CSR in Chile. Using network theory as a lens, we suggest that network density and centrality largely determine whether CSR efforts will be authentic. Based on these contentions, we suggest avenues for future research.

2012. Industrial Districts as Open Learning Systems: Combining Emergent and Deliberate Knowledge Structures. Regional Studies

BELUSSI F. and SEDITA S. R. Industrial districts as open learning systems: combining emergent and deliberate knowledge structures, Regional Studies. This article deepens the theoretical understanding of learning processes in industrial districts by analysing the emergent and deliberate structures that favour knowledge transfer at the local and distance level. An analytical framework illustrates district-learning dynamics through two mechanisms. The first is the exploitation of local knowledge structures. The second is the exploration of distant knowledge structures. It is claimed that a combination of the two mechanisms enhances the competitiveness of industrial districts in the global arena. How these theoretical reflections find empirical evidence in the case of the Lake Naivasha cut-flower district in Kenya is illustrated.

2006. Transnational dimensions of the digital divide among Salvadoran immigrants in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Global Networks-a Journal of Transnational Affairs

In this article I explore some dimensions of digital divide among Salvadoran immigrants in the Washington DC metropolitan area. Three main issues are addressed: the configuration of social networks, local axes of inequality and the transnational forms of appropriation and usage of the Internet and other Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Based on a media ethnography approach, the analysis combines structuration theory with diasporic media studies. It includes an examination of Internet communications, Salvadoran diasporic websites, the use of mobile phones and teleconferencing, and the transnational dimensions of the digital divide. The study's findings include the limited accessibility to the Internet and ICTs among Salvadoran immigrants, the importance of understanding the transnational dimensions of the digital divide (particularly in terms of generation) and the need to design and implement communication and technology policies in the Salvadoran transnational society.

Bera, R. and C. Claramunt (2004). Can relative adjacency contribute to space syntax in the search for a structural logic of the city? Geographic Information Science, Proceedings. M. J. Egenhofer, C. Freksa and H. J. Miller. 3234: 38-50.

Although network geography has long been recognised as a valid method for exploring geographical information systems, there is a renewed interest in applying its principles to the observation and analysis of urban systems. Over the past several years, space syntax has emerged as a new way of analysing the social, economic and environmental functioning of the city based on a graph computational representation. This paper introduces an analysis of the potential of a relative adjacency operator in comparison with current measures of connectivity and distance used in space syntax studies. We analyse how space syntax evaluates complexity and patterns in the city and show that the relative adjacency can provide a valuable complement to those measures. The study is illustrated by an application to the reference case of the village of Gassin in France.

2011. The mechanisms of collaboration in inventive teams: Composition, social networks, and geography. Research Policy

This paper investigates the composition of creative teams of academic scientists engaged in inventive activity. Our data provides a unique opportunity to explore the links between team composition and commercialization outcomes. We find that there are coordination costs associated with reaching across academic departments and organizational boundaries to build teams. However, we also find evidence of benefits clue to knowledge diversity, particularly in the cases of truly novel combinations. In support of internal cohesion arguments, we find that performance improves with the experience of the team. In line with arguments regarding the value of diverse external networks, we find that teams that are composed of members from multiple institutions - focal university, other research institution, and/or industry - are more successful ill generating patents, licenses, and royalties. Finally, we find that the presence of prior social ties supporting links with external team members positively influences commercial outcomes. We find that there is no benefit to proximity in team configuration. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2009. Geographies of circulation and exchange: constructions of markets. Progress in Human Geography

Although markets are at centre stage in capitalist processes of circulation and exchange, they have rarely been made an object of study. In this paper we distinguish three heterodox approaches. (1) Socioeconomics points out that concrete markets cannot be separated from their social context. Markets are dissolved in social networks and socialized. (2) Political economy investigates how the market model is confused for real markets by market participants. The market is represented as a destructive force. (3) Cultural economists point to the practical self-realization of economic knowledge and argue that the abstract market model is performative.

2011. Evolution and structure of sustainability science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

The concepts of sustainable development have experienced extraordinary success since their advent in the 1980s. They are now an integral part of the agenda of governments and corporations, and their goals have become central to the mission of research laboratories and universities worldwide. However, it remains unclear how far the field has progressed as a scientific discipline, especially given its ambitious agenda of integrating theory, applied science, and policy, making it relevant for development globally and generating a new interdisciplinary synthesis across fields. To address these questions, we assembled a corpus of scholarly publications in the field and analyzed its temporal evolution, geographic distribution, disciplinary composition, and collaboration structure. We show that sustainability science has been growing explosively since the late 1980s when foundational publications in the field increased its pull on new authors and intensified their interactions. The field has an unusual geographic footprint combining contributions and connecting through collaboration cities and nations at very different levels of development. Its decomposition into traditional disciplines reveals its emphasis on the management of human, social, and ecological systems seen primarily from an engineering and policy perspective. Finally, we show that the integration of these perspectives has created a new field only in recent years as judged by the emergence of a giant component of scientific collaboration. These developments demonstrate the existence of a growing scientific field of sustainability science as an unusual, inclusive and ubiquitous scientific practice and bode well for its continued impact and longevity.

2010. Negotiating uncertainty Framing attitudes, prioritizing issues, and finding consensus in the coral reef environment management "crisis". Ocean & Coastal Management

Environmental problems are becoming increasingly unwieldy particularly those which are highly debated because of their political and financial consequences and have been termed as in crisis In coral reef environments these considerations spill into decisions on mitigation of reef decline and attendant questions of territorial and resource-access rights Historical foundations of reef science show that early applications of reef inquiries centered on environmental connection and inevitably led to establishing not only the baseline of reef ecosystems but also contributed to the evolution of conservation crisis in this environment This work applies Q-methodology towards determining attitudes prioritizing statements and finding consensus regarding management issues that are tied to the science of coral reef environments and their conservation crisis This work delineates the social construction of attitudes perceptions and foundations of coral conservation science by examining the scientifically-grounded statements that constitute conservation debates Study participants were comprised of the coral reef science and conservation professional network The Q-sample (n = 43) was structured around some central debates over the dilemmas and strategies of reef management and decline-mitigation both recent and long-running Four attitudes or viewpoints were isolated in terms of their preferred management models geographic perspectives and the role scientific findings play within these core beliefs These can be generally described as Community and Locally-centered Humanists Scientific Idealists Skeptical and Utilitarian Pragmatists and Politically-oriented Positivists Evaluating agreement about central issues showed a high degree of consensus regarding the relative importance of community input in the role of successful reef management while the highest degree of contention was seen in scalar issues such as human-environment feedback systems that are inherent in solving environmental crises (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved

2010. Passenger mobilities: affective atmospheres and the sociality of public transport. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

This paper takes as its starting point the centrality of nonrepresentational registers of communication and comprehension to understanding how everyday experiences of travelling with others by public transport unfolds. Drawing on extensive primary research, it explores how different affective atmospheres erupt and decay in the space of the train carriage; the modes of affective transmission that might take place; and the character of the collectives that are mobilised and cohere through these atmospheres. Acknowledging that these atmospheres have powerful effects, this paper focuses on the trajectories of particular misanthropic affective relations; and how such negative relations emerge from a complex set of forces which prime passengers to act. Yet this call to action is often met with a reticent passivity that transposes these negative affective relations, often in ways that intensify their force. In expanding the realm of that which is often taken to constitute the 'social', the paper concludes by considering how the demands of collective responsibility fold through contemporary understandings of community.

2006. Living with dementia in rural and remote Scotland: Diverse experiences of people with dementia and their carers. Journal of Rural Studies

There is a lack of research into people's experiences of using services as dementia sufferers themselves, or because they care for someone with dementia, in rural areas. This article explores their experiences in the context of rural Scotland, drawing on data gathered from both people with dementia and their carers. Our research suggests that understanding the nuanced and co-constituted experience of dementia in rural communities is a pre-requisite for improving service provision. The paper explores the way in which participants linked their experiences to their spatial location in rural areas. Our findings suggest that participants used a narrative of idealised rurality which linked together interwoven and overlapping social networks, a physical relationship with place and a sense of self sufficiency. However, the participants' stories also highlighted the diversity in experiences as service users between places, suggesting a disjunction between the generalising narrative of the rural idyll and their particular situations. These findings extend the literature on rural mental health issues and on the experience of dementia in particular, in turn helping to inform place and person centred policies. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1998. The classification of rural areas in the European context: An exploration of a typology using neural network applications. Regional Studies

The classification of rural areas in the European contest: an exploration of a typology using neural network applications, Reg. Studies 32, 149-160. The application of neural nets for the classification of rural areas throughout the European Union is demonstrated The methodology is discussed in the contest of a generic rural areas typology, but in its original form it was devised to serve the needs of a rural development programme, and customized to take account of the use of telematics as a change agent. Recent studies of rural area classification are reviewed before discussing the 'training' of the neural nets, using data from a sample of representative areas in Denmark, Italy, Spain and the UK. The methodology is then applied to Montgomeryshire and part of rural Hampshire - areas representing a wide range of contrasting rural conditions. The final results are then critically appraised with attention given to ways in which the approach might be further refined. It is suggested that the use of neural nets offers interesting avenues for future exploration in other research arenas - especially in social and cultural geography.

2009. Multivariable Value Densification Modeling Using GIS. Transactions in Gis

A team of researchers comprised of architects, urbanists, planners and civil engineers from Lawrence Technological University and the University of Detroit Mercy developed a value densification tool used primarily to evaluate density of resources and physical features within Southwest Detroit, Michigan. This community is a diverse and vibrant neighborhood that is currently transforming socially, physically and economically. This project - the Value Densification Community Mapping Project (VDCmp) - was developed to explore how aspects of the post-industrial city can be understood, communicated and leveraged in service of equity and sustainability and to use technology to reveal data about the city in order to convince community, political and economic leadership to embrace a broader interpretation of value. Building on an asset-based, community empowerment planning model, the research team is collaborating to create a unique "free-ware" GIS incorporating and merging components of Google Earth, Sketch Up and ERSI ArcGIS to model physical and social density and value in three dimensions. The resultant digital interface empowers the community through asset identification and creation of an accessible tool to assist in envisioning its environmental, social and economic future. The VDCmp digital interface is unique in that it models "social exchanges" in three dimensions and allows the user to overlay social and infrastructure layers with physical density. With funding from the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and the Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), the VDCmp and research team is engaging nonprofit groups in Southwest Detroit to determine how they can best utilize data and mapping in planning, design, development and evaluative tools. The focus of this work has been on creating a comprehensive tool that can support community design and development policy decisions. Community members have become active partners in evolving the digital interface as a tool for strategic planning at the agency/organization, coalition, city and regional levels. The active community members have either provided to the research team the self-generated data found to be significant to them (the stakeholders) or requested certain publicly available data sets to be incorporated in the interface. Significant geoprocessing using ArcGIS was used on these data sets (of various formats) in order to pre-process and evaluate the data for accuracy and quality assurance. These data were then exported to keyhole markup language (kml) or keyhole markup zip (kmz) files and the visualization of these data were developed in Google Earth, which included significant polygon and polyline extrusion (used to display multivariable attributes for single features). Sketch Up models were also used to display density of historic sites, green infrastructure, parking and other features. The team will also incorporate three dimensional network diagrams in GIS to display the interactions and relationships that residential households have with religious, cultural and commercial assets, among others. These techniques have allowed the community groups to visually identify over-or under-served resources, conflicting planning objectives, environmental health impacts, or areas of social inequality, with an end-goal of developing a dynamic, unified development and preservation strategy for the community. The VDCmp has evolved from a pilot project to an ever expanding collaborative initiative featuring multiple institutions, clients, stakeholders and geographies. The VDCmp has a triprtite nature. It is at once a Research Initiative; a Tool; and a Community Process, each requiring very different approaches to collaboration, deliverables and dissemination. Now developed, this framework may be replicated in other Detroit neighborhoods or across the region or country to further advance the concepts of Value Densification mapping.

2006. Place-identity and geographical inequalities in health: A qualitative study. Psychology & Health

Psychological research on health inequalities has yet to consider the geographical dimension to these injustices. The study reported here is aimed to describe accounts of health, well-being and place-identity associated with two inner-city locales within a southern English city, distinct in terms of the health of their populations, to advance psychosocial explanations of geographical inequalities in health. Thirty participants, sampled using a combination of purposive and theoretical strategies, completed semi-structured interviews which were subsequently analysed using discourse analysis. The three key themes of pollution, space and community elucidate the material, psychological and social domains of place-identity in accounts of health, well-being and inequality. By centring upon the locatedness of human subjectivity, analysis of place-identity may be a useful tool in explicating how multiple dimensions of stratification interact within local contexts to reproduce geographical inequalities in health and social (dis)identification with place, without losing sight of the objective structural and material context of space.

2009. Counselling in rural Scotland: care, proximity and trust. Gender Place and Culture

People living in small rural communities tend to interact with each other in multiple aspects of their lives and are generally less anonymous to one another than those living in urban places. This density of social connectedness tends to militate against the boundaries normally associated with professionalised forms of care. This article explores how these tensions are negotiated by people who have developed local counselling services in two rural areas in Scotland. Counselling is becoming increasingly widely used as a response to a variety of forms of distress and is argued to constitute a modern urban and feminised form of care. However, notwithstanding its urban origins and associations, people in some rural places in Scotland have successfully arranged for training to be delivered locally to men as well as women. Nevertheless they recognise that for many rural residents, counselling continues to be alien and viewed with suspicion. They describe how they protect the identities of service-users using locational and social network strategies. They also discuss the issues that flow from the challenges of providing well-boundaried relationships. In so doing they point to an inverse relationship between social proximity and trust, thereby supplementing existing accounts of the disadvantages of social proximity in rural places.

2006. Avoiding the local trap - Scale and food systems in planning research. Journal of Planning Education and Research

g Current of food-systems research A strong holds that local food systems are preferable to systems at larger scales. Many assume that eating local food is more ecologically sustainable and socially just. We term this the local trap and argue strongly against it. We draw on current scale theory in political and economic geography to argue that local food systems are no more likely to be sustainable or just than systems at other scales. The theory argues that scale is socially produced: scales (and their interrelations) are not independent entities with inherent qualities but strategies pursued by social actors with a particular agenda. It is the content of that agenda, not the scales themselves, that produces outcomes such as sustainability or justice. As planners move increasingly into food-systems research, we argue it is critical to avoid the local trap. The article's theoretical approach to scale offers one way to do so.

2005. Proximity and innovation: A critical assessment. Regional Studies

A key issue in economic geography is to determine the impact of geographical proximity on interactive learning and innovation. We argue that the importance of geographical proximity cannot be assessed in isolation, but should always be examined in relation to other dimensions of proximity that may provide alternative solutions to the problem of coordination. We claim that geographical proximity per se is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for learning to take place. Nevertheless, it facilitates interactive learning, most likely by strengthening the other dimensions of proximity. However, proximity may also have negative impacts on innovation due to the problem of lock-in. Accordingly, not only too little, but also too much proximity may be detrimental to interactive learning and innovation. This may be the case for all five dimensions of proximity discussed in the paper, i.e. cognitive, organizational, social, institutional and geographical proximity. Finally, the paper presents a number of mechanisms that offer, by their own, or in combination, solutions to the problems of coordination and lock-in. That is, they enhance effective coordination and control (solving the problem of too little proximity), while they prevent actors to become locked-in through ensuring openness and flexibility (solving the problem of too much proximity).

2006. The Madres de Plaza de Mayo and three decades of human rights' activism: Embeddedness, emotions, and social movements. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

The Madres de Plaza de Mayo is a community of mothers and human rights activists in Argentina that has remained active for almost three decades. Based on a qualitative analysis of archival and ethnographic data assembled through fieldwork, this article examines the crucial role emotions play in maintaining the Madres' embeddedness in territorially dispersed social networks. The Madres de Plaza de Mayo perform emotional labor within their movement to sustain their activism. The Madres' emotional geographies emerge through their individual and collective practices in key places, which are themselves layered with emotions. Over the years, such practices have allowed the Madres to create widespread networks of activists and to sustain a social movement community that extends all across Argentina. The Madres' emotional labor and their sustained activism over time demonstrate that an open sense of place (place understood as a network of social relations that flow across space) is more important than the local (as a bounded geographic scale) in explaining how embeddedness, cohesion in social networks, and activism are maintained. This account of the embeddedness of actors in social networks is consistent with current relational views of spatiality in human geography.

2007. Emotions that build networks: Geographies of human rights movements in Argentina and beyond. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie

Social movement activists perform emotional labour that helps create and mobilise networks of collective action. The emotions of activism often contribute to social movements' different organisational geographies. Two grassroots networks of human rights activists that originated in Argentina (the Madres de Plaza de Mayo and HIJOS) developed different emotional geographies over time. Both human rights movements were formed by relatives of victims of past human rights abuses and operated throughout Latin America and beyond. The movements incorporated activists and supporters who were linked by shared emotional bonds and by a common interpretation of the emotions of their activism. Activists in the two networks strategically deployed and framed the emotions of their activism in order to sustain it and to enhance possibilities for building broader networks of collective action. The comparison of these two human rights activist groups demonstrates that social movements' organisational and geographic trajectories are often related to activists' shared emotional connections and to the emotional labour that they perform through their networks.

2011. Women and children in a neighborhood advocacy group: engaging community and refashioning citizenship at the United States-Mexico border. Gender Place and Culture

This article looks at the community participation of recent Latina immigrant mothers and their children in a neighborhood advocacy group near the US-Mexico border. It documents the work that women and children do as they struggle to become involved in their new community and improve their quality of life - despite legal, social, economic and cultural obstacles. Local context, family and ethnic networks, gendered patterns of women's experiences as immigrants and children participation in 'adult' decision-making are hugely important in understanding their community engagement. The article reflects on the advocacy work that women and children perform through a neighborhood group to argue for a difference-centered perspective on citizenship that is inspired by feminist thinking. Such a perspective makes sense in light of the ironic tensions within neo-liberal policies that, on the one hand, burden people with more responsibilities while, on the other hand, legislating against their freedom to pursue those responsibilities.

2009. Building events in inner-city Gdansk, Poland: exploring the sociospatial construction of agency in built form. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

In this paper, I explore the ways in which buildings interact with the social fabric of everyday life. My main argument is that agency in the built environment is practised and performed through a dynamic relation between households and the built fabric, among other actants. The paper is based on an ethnographic study of forty-two inner-city households in the Polish city of Gdansk, combined with archival research. I investigate the forces that constrain and enable the transformation of residential dwellings over time, with the aid of Jacobs's concept of 'building events' I wish to provide a more elaborate theorisation and operationalisation of the building event, while applying it to the interrogation of relations between buildings and households in the given context. The paper explores the different modalities through which buildings have been forced to create new allies and associations-allowing for the interpretive flexibility of their technological frame-in order to keep surviving and functioning in different sociopolitical circumstances.

2011. Friendship, co-presence and care: neglected spaces. Social & Cultural Geography

This paper explores the spaces important to friendship, arguing for a better understanding of the significance of friendship in geographies of care. It examines the intertwining of friendship, care and co-presence and explores the social contexts and spaces of friendship, with a particular focus on the space of the home. While friendships are an important form of care and support for most people, they have been neglected in geographical studies of care. There is an opportunity for geographers to add a new dimension to the existing literature on friendship and thereby to expand knowledge and understanding of change in the sources of intimacy, care and support.

2005. Analysis of transfer from one hospital to another in patient with myocardial infarction in the Provence-Alpes-Cote-d'Azur. Annales De Cardiologie Et D Angeiologie

Objective. - The aim of the study is to assess the transfer from one hospital to another in patients with myocardial infarction in the Provence Alpes Cote d'Azur (PACA). Methods. - To apply a methodology initially used in sociology "social network analysis" which allow us to describe and model the relational structure of a whole of actors, represented in this work by the establishments of care. Flows between the actors are represented by the transfers of patients. This approach is innovating in the analysis of the medical system. Resultats. - A total of 2049 patients were admitted in 74 hospitals. The average age is 68.9 years. The density of the hospital network is 0.12. The number of click is 51. Multivariate analysis showed that the following factors were associated with decreased mortality: prestige, age < 65 years, angioplasty alone or thrombolysis associated to angioplasty. Conclusion. - Social Network Analysis offers a synthetic sight of the relational systems in the health system. It constitutes an open field of search in Public health, and can also be applied to the evaluation of the networks. (c) 2005 Elsevier SAS. Tous droits reserves.

2011. Corporate competition: A self-organized network. Social Networks

A substantial number of studies have extended the work on universal properties in physical systems to complex networks in social, biological, and technological systems. In this paper, we present a complex networks perspective on interfirm organizational networks by mapping, analyzing and modeling the spatial structure of a large interfirm competition network across a variety of sectors and industries within the United States. We propose two micro-dynamic models that are able to reproduce empirically observed characteristics of competition networks as a natural outcome of a minimal set of general mechanisms governing the formation of competition networks. Both models, which utilize different approaches yet apply common principles to network formation give comparable results. There is an asymmetry between companies that are considered competitors, and companies that consider others as their competitors. All companies only consider a small number of other companies as competitors; however, there are a few companies that are considered as competitors by many others. Geographically, the density of corporate headquarters strongly correlates with local population density, and the probability two firms are competitors declines with geographic distance. We construct these properties by growing a corporate network with competitive links using random incorporations modulated by population density and geographic distance. Our new analysis, methodology and empirical results are relevant to various phenomena of social and market behavior, and have implications to research fields such as economic geography, economic sociology, and regional economic development. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2011. Governance, the state and sustainable tourism: a political economy approach. Journal of Sustainable Tourism

Collective actions are often needed to promote the objectives of sustainable tourism in destinations. Governance is the basis of these collective actions. This paper contends that research on the governance of tourism and sustainability would benefit from greater use of social theory. It shows how one social theory, a strategic-relational political economy approach, can offer insights into state interventions affecting tourism and sustainability in destinations. The paper uses a literature review and case studies incorporating ideas from this approach to understand the state's influences on tourism and sustainability. Case studies are taken from Germany, China, Malta, Turkey and the UK. A range of distinctive perspectives and themes associated with this approach are assessed. They include the approach's holistic, relational and dialectical perspective, its focus on the state's roles in regulating the economic and political systems, its concern with the interactions between agency and structure, and the adaptation of state activities at different spatial scales and at different times, together with the concepts of path dependence and path creation. These perspectives and themes are directions for future research on governance, the state and sustainable tourism.

2006. Geographies of exploration and improvement: William Scoresby and Arctic whaling, 1782-1822. Journal of Historical Geography

Although historians of the long eighteenth century have broadened our understanding of the concept of improvement beyond the agrarian reforms of a landed elite, to other social groups and geographical settings, the private ownership and access to the resources of the oceans and seas are phenomena that have until recently been largely neglected. This paper examines the concept of improvement in the maritime context by exploring a range of tensions between whaling as a form of economic private self-interest on the one hand and as a source of disinterested, virtuous knowledge about the oceans and the animal kingdom on the other hand. William Scoresby, a leading whaling captain and improver, embodied the spirit of those northern European nations which competed to improve the maritime sphere of the northern ocean by implementing different social and technical schemes of enlightenment. He went further than developing new and more efficient and profitable whaling technologies by cultivating disinterested virtue through providing privately obtained natural history specimens from the Greenland Seas for gentleman of science. This in turn gave him entry to participate in the civic circles of polite science and imperial networks of natural history. Although the ascent from industrial whaling in pursuit of profit to disinterested whaling in pursuit of science and exploration made perfect sense to Scoresby, his implicit social improvement laid him open to criticism from those who for different reasons disapproved of the marriage of industrial artisanship and polite natural history. The complexity of Scoresby's identity as an improver is revealed through Robert Jameson, the Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh University, who jealously controlled access to Scoresby's specimens, research, and publications from the Greenland Seas, while simultaneously promoting Scoresby as an intrepid, disinterested captain capable of representing the nation as an Arctic explorer. Through Jameson's Wernerian Natural History Society, they called on government to finance Arctic exploration to reach the North Pole, benefit science, and subsidise the costs through whaling. Their plans were consistent with a long tradition of commercial improvement serving state interests. The Royal Navy's response, to wrest control of Arctic exploration, was by contrast, not a rejection of improvement per se, but rather a determination to place itself at the centre of improvement, by renewing the Board of Longitude with elite, improvement-minded, gentlemen of science, while damning Scoresby with faint praise as an accomplished artisan. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006. Power geometries: Social networks and the 1930s multinational corporate elite. Geoforum

This paper employs the concept of power geometries that has been applied in analyses of today's corporate elite and the globalisation of the economy to explore the networks of an economic actor who ran British multinational companies in the early 1930s. By focusing on the contacts engendered by the Bank of England director who was appointed in 1931 as the 30th governor of the Hudson's Bay Company in order to rescue this most emblematic of imperial trading companies, we examine not only the architecture of the web of connections within which both the company and its governor were embedded, but also the ways in which channels of interaction and communication were actually used. We show that while structural analyses of multiple and interlocking directorships offer a useful initial means of understanding power geometries, more detailed, 'thick description' approaches, based on archival material, reveal that not all apparent links were active and, in the case of the early-20th century multinational elite, networks appear to have embraced a much broader array of contacts. These extended in both social and geographical space well beyond the corporate boardrooms of London. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. Where is creativity in the city? Integrating qualitative and GIS methods. Environment and Planning A

This paper discusses a new blend of methods developed to answer the question of where creativity is in the city. Experimentation with new methods was required because of empirical shortcomings with existing creative city research techniques; but also to respond to increasingly important questions of where nascent economic activities occur outside the formal sector, and governmental spheres of planning and economic development policy. In response we discuss here how qualitative methods can be used to address such concerns, based on experiences from an empirical project charged with the task of documenting creative activity in Darwin-a small city in Australia's tropical north. Diverse creative practitioners were interviewed about their interactions with the city-and hard-copy maps were used as anchoring devices around spatially orientated interview questions. Results from this interview-mapping process were accumulated and analysed in a geographical information system (GIS). Digital maps produced by this method revealed patterns of concentration and imagined 'epicentres' of creativity in Darwin, and showed how types of sites and spaces of the city arc imagined as 'creative' in different ways. Qualitative mapping of creativity enabled the teasing out of contradictory and divergent stories of the location of creativity in the urban landscape. The opportunities which such methods present for researchers interested in how economic activities are 'lived' by workers, situated in social networks, and reproduced in everyday, material, spaces of the city are described.

1998. Global cities, glocal states: global city formation and state territorial restructuring in contemporary Europe. Review of International Political Economy

This article examines the changing relationship between global cities and territorial states in contemporary Europe, and outlines some of its implications for the geography of world capitalism in the late twentieth century. Most accounts of global cities are based upon a 'zero-sum' conception of spatial scale that leads to an emphasis on the declining power of the territorial state: as the global scale expands, the state scale is said to contract. By contrast, I view globalization as a highly contradictory reconfiguration of superimposed spatial scales, including those on which the territorial state is organized. The state scale is not being eroded, but rearticulated and reterritorialized in relation to both sub-and supra-state scales. The resultant, re-scaled configuration of state territorial organization is provisionally labeled a 'glocal' state. As nodes of accumulation, global cities are sites of post-Fordist forms of global industrialization; as coordinates of state territorial power, global cities are local-regional levels within a larger, reterritorialized matrix of increasingly 'glocalized' state institutions. State re-scaling is a major accumulation strategy through which these transformed 'glocal' territorial states attempt to promote the global competitive advantage of their major urban regions. Global city formation and state re-scaling are therefore dialectically intertwined moments of a single dynamic of global capitalist restructuring. These arguments are illustrated through a discussion of the interface between global cities and territorial states in contemporary Europe, A concluding section argues that new theories and representations of spatial scale and its social production are needed to grasp the rapidly changing political geography of late twentieth-century capitalism.

2009. Mobility of skilled workers and co-invention networks: an anatomy of localized knowledge flows. Journal of Economic Geography

This article illustrates the contribution of mobile inventors and networks of inventors to the diffusion of knowledge across firms and within cities or states. It is based upon an original data set on US inventors patent applications at the European Patent Office, in the fields of drugs, biotechnology and organic chemistry. The study combines the methodology originally proposed by Jaffe et al. (1993, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108: 577598) with tools from social network analysis, in order to evaluate extent of the localization of knowledge flows, as measured by patent citations. After controlling for inventors mobility and for the resulting co-invention network, the residual effect of spatial proximity on knowledge diffusion is found to be greatly reduced. We argue that the most fundamental reason why geography matters in constraining the diffusion of knowledge is that mobile researchers are not likely to relocate in space, so that their co-invention network is also localized. In the light of these results, we revisit common interpretations of localized knowledge flows as externalities.

2010. Dots to boxes: Do the size and shape of spatial units jeopardize economic geography estimations? Journal of Urban Economics

This paper evaluates, in the context of economic geography estimates, the magnitude of the distortions arising from the choice of a specific zoning system, which is also known as the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP). We undertake three standard economic geography exercises (the analysis of spatial concentration, agglomeration economies, and trade determinants), using various French zoning systems differentiated according to the size and shape of their spatial units. While size might matter, especially when the dependent variable of a regression is not aggregated in the same way as the explanatory variables and/or the zoning system involves large spatial units, shape does so much less. In any case, both dimensions are of secondary importance compared to specification issues. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1994. GENTRIFICATION, CLASS, AND RESIDENCE - A REAPPRAISAL. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

This paper is an attempt to expose the inadequacies of current arguments on the influence of residence on class relations in a gentrifying neighbourhood. In the gentrification literature it is assumed that the influx of the middle class into working-class neighbourhoods disrupts the association between social relations and residential spaces and that this influences class relations. The results of research in a gentrifying London neighbourhood do not support such spatial formalism and, on the basis of social network analysis, suggest an array of socio-spatial relations which are not tied to neighbourhood. It is suggested that the involvement in neighbourhood varies temporally (according to stage in the life cycle) and by gender, rather than spatially or by class location. The discussion is concluded with an assessment of the implications of this argument for the gentrification literature in particular and for social geography in general.

1998. Brown kids in white suburbs: Housing mobility and the many faces of social capital. Housing Policy Debate

Social capital has many faces in the geography of urban opportunity, and as such, particular housing policies might have positive effects on some forms of social capital and negative effects on others. The author defines social support and social leverage as two key dimensions of social capital that can be accessed by individuals. A sample of 132 low-income African-American and Latino adolescents is used to examine the early impacts of a Yonkers, NY, housing mobility program on social capital.(1) Overall, program participants ("movers") appear to be no more cut off from social support than a control group of "stayer" youth. On the other hand, movers are also no more likely to report access to good sources of job information or school advice-to leverage that might enhance opportunity. Adding just one steadily employed adult to an adolescent's circle of significant ties has dramatic effects on perceived access to such leverage.

2008. Why did the moving to opportunity experiment not get young people into better schools? Housing Policy Debate

Educational failure is one of the costliest and most visible problems associated with ghetto poverty. We explore whether housing assistance that helps low-income families move to better neighborhoods can also improve access to good schools. Research on the Gautreaux housing desegregation program indicated significant, long-term educational benefits, yet results from the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment showed no measurable impacts on school outcomes for the experimental group. We use interviews and ethnographic fieldwork to explore this puzzle. Most MTO families did not relocate to communities with substantially better schools, and those who did often moved again after a few years. Where parents had meaningful school choices, these were typically driven by poor information obtained from insular social networks or by cultural logic centered on avoiding ghetto-type school insecurity and disorder, not garnering academic opportunity. Those factors may not shift if poor families with less educated parents are served by a relocation-only strategy.

2012. New Media and Urban Motilities: A Territoriologic Point of View. Urban Studies

The paper aims to contribute to the study of new media technologies in urban environments. It unfolds at two levels, epistemological and substantive. First, it discusses the issue of the conceptual tools that we can deploy to understand new media, arguing in favour of notions and methods that enable research to capture the double nature, socio-technical and bio-political, of the new media in urban environments. In particular, the paper claims that new media can be seen as a continuation of the process of 'urbanisation of territory' described by Foucault, aimed at the creation of a flexibly controllable space of events. Secondly, it criticises substantively the techno-enthusiast user-empowerment ideology that surrounds new media and addresses issues of inequality, control and resistance in and through new media in the city. The argument is that the augmented, hybrid or mixed urban reality of new media like personal and locative media is neither determinist nor unboundedly mobile. While the freedom of movement and the diverging styles of mobility are becoming a crucial factor of stratification, new tensions and struggles over the nature of urban 'events' are likely to take place.

2010. Assessing spatial equity and efficiency impacts of transport infrastructure projects. Transportation Research Part B-Methodological

Policy decisions on transport infrastructure investments often require knowledge of welfare effects generated from using these infrastructures on a detailed regional level. This is in particular true for the EU initiative promoting the development of the trans-European transport (TEN-T) networks. As projects within this initiative affect regions in different countries, incentive compatible financing schemes cannot be designed without knowing where the benefits accrue. Furthermore, this initiative is also intended to contribute to the cohesion objective on a community scale, and only with regional impact studies one can assess to which extent these objectives are attained. As standard cost-benefit analysis is unable to assign benefits to eventual beneficiaries in the economy, we develop and apply a spatial computable general equilibrium (SCGE) model as a suitable alternative. The model has a household sector and a production sector with two industries, one producing local goods, the other producing tradables. Regions interact through costly trade, with trade costs depending, among others, on the state of the infrastructure. New links reduce trade costs, which changes trade flows, production, goods prices and factor prices and thus eventually the welfare of households in different regions. We present the formal structure of the model, the calibration procedure and the data sources for calibrating the model and estimating the trade cost reductions stemming from new transport links. As the model is only able to quantify effects related to trade in goods we also suggest a simplified approach to add effects stemming from passenger transport. We apply the methods to a policy experiment related to the TEN-T priority list of projects. We quantify project by project the social return, check whether significant benefit spillovers to countries not involved in financing might prevent realization of projects in spite of their respective profitability from European wide point of view, and finally we evaluate the contribution of each project to the spatial cohesion objective. Our results confirm sceptical views on EU involvement in infrastructure policy that have been expressed in the literature. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012. Knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry: the proximity paradox. Journal of Economic Geography

The importance of geographical proximity for interaction and knowledge sharing has been discussed extensively in recent years. There is increasing consensus that geographical proximity is just one out of many types of proximities that might be relevant. We argue that proximity may be a crucial driver for agents to connect and exchange knowledge, but too much proximity between agents on any of the dimensions might harm their innovative performance at the same time. In a study on knowledge networks in the Dutch aviation industry, we test this so-called proximity paradox empirically. We found evidence that the proximity paradox holds to a considerable degree. Our study clearly showed that cognitive, social, organizational and geographical proximity were crucial for explaining the knowledge network of the Dutch aviation industry. However, we found strong evidence that too much cognitive proximity lowered firms' innovative performance, and organizational proximity did not have an effect.

2011. From the Lesbian Ghetto to Ambient Community: The Perceived Costs and Benefits of Integration for Community. Social Problems

Drawing on an ethnography of queer women in Ithaca, New York, this article documents the perceived costs and benefits for a minority group's ties of changing attitudes, identities, and legislation. It reveals that despite the high proportion of queer women in Ithaca most informants report disappointment with "community." However, this disappointment does not correlate with a dearth of affective local ties; queer women detail a wealth of supportive ties to heterosexual and queer neighbors. Informants' simultaneous disappointment with "community" and rich local ties emerge from: (1) a shift from identity politics and networks to emphasis on shared cultural, social, and political tastes and activities; (2) the breadth of the queer female population; and (3) queer women's successful integration into Ithaca's social, cultural, and political spheres. From informants' perspectives these conditions weaken "real" community, which they associate with homogenous place-based networks of marginalized individuals, and promote a strong sense of ambient community: feelings of belonging and connection that arise from informal, voluntary, and affective ties largely fashioned around shared tastes and activities and predicated on a sense of safety and acceptance forged among heterogeneous proximate individuals. Contra the prevailing expectation that place-based ties best flourish among marginalized individuals who share a dominant identity and formal institutions, the article demonstrates that when social and cultural conditions change local ties change, too they do not simply disappear. Social and cultural shifts alter the foundation of local ties and informants' assessment thereof

1999. Research and communication in the "invisible college" of the Human Dimensions of Global Change. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions

The human dimensions of global change research community includes scholars in the natural and social sciences working in universities and government laboratories who share common interests and who communicate with each other through journals, workshops, and conferences and via the Internet. Information and communication technologies, in particular, e-mail, listservs, and the WWW, where speed and low cost are key features, from the backbone of an "electronic invisible college". The results of a survey of scientists attending the Laxenburg conference in 1997 illustrates the transdisciplinary and international nature of HDGC research, the local and international scale of research, their commitment to public policy, and their increased use of the Internet for networking, data acquisition and analysis, and publication. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Visualising a safe space: the perspective of people using mental health day services. Disability & Society

Day services for people using mental health services have been required to refocus on social inclusion rather than building-based services. This research explored how this policy was perceived by people using such services, using photography to capture their experience of areas of a mental health resource centre. An action research group took the photographs and analysed them for themes. The second author created a model to summarise the findings. Having a safe space was essential for getting involved, forming social networks and moving on. Constant organisational and staff changes impacted on this process. The findings raise questions about social inclusion. A safe space has been identified as centrally important, giving people a refuge, social contact and meaningful occupation.

2002. Chasing a 'loose and baggy monster': almshouses and the geography of charity. Area

This paper goes some way towards redressing the lack of geographical literature on charity through exploring the geography of the British domestic charitable sector. The size and geography of the third sector is outlined, followed by an analysis of how almshouses can be understood as inherently geographical and deeply embedded in local social networks of inclusion as well as exclusion.

2008. Transnational corporations and spatial divisions of 'service' expertise as a competitive strategy: the example of 3M and Boeing. Service Industries Journal

Production processes are becoming increasingly more complicated as firms develop corporate strategies that are designed to increase profitability or capture market share. The focus of this article is on manufacturing companies (3M and Boeing) and on understanding the social organisation of production and the ways in which firms manipulate spatial divisions of expertise (service inputs) as well as labour (manufacturing inputs). This distinction recognises that there are important differences between production and non-production tasks. The 3M case examines the firm's global labour market by exploring the geographies of its transnational or foreign service employees. The Boeing case examines the design and manufacture of the 787 and the development by Boeing of a new complex spatial division of expertise.

2009. The software-simulated airworld: anticipatory code and affective aeromobilities. Environment and Planning A

This paper is concerned with the way in which airspaces are organised, managed, and understood by virtual representations-software simulations that are tested and used both preemptively and in real time. We suggest that, while airspaces are often understood as simulations themselves-models and blueprints for real-world futures-they are among the most mediated of all contemporary social environments, produced not only through code, but based on scenarios which predict and plan for future events-real virtualities that might come true. Drawing on historical and contemporary examples of aeronautical software simulation employed by civilian and military aviation, we explore how code has become increasingly sophisticated and ubiquitous in response to the challenges set by the mobilities the simulations model and the affective susceptibility of the corporeal body that uses them. The paper explores how software simulations work to structure and mediate behaviour by producing specific emotional and affective experiences in order to prepare the body for future encounters.

2011. On being aeromobile: airline passengers and the affective experiences of flight. Journal of Transport Geography

The advent of heavier-than-air powered flight and the subsequent inauguration of regular passenger air services at the beginning of the twentieth century transformed not only the practical geographies but also the affective human experiences of travelling. Aircraft enabled passengers to accomplish journeys, which would once have taken many days or weeks to complete, in a matter of hours, and transformed the sensory experiences of being mobile. However, while much has been written about the development of global commercial aviation and the metaphorical compression of time and space air travel has effected, research into the individual embodied human experiences of being aeromobile remains relatively scarce. Drawing on powerful theoretical arguments inspired by the mobilities turn within the social sciences and recent concern with the 'affective' dimensions of everyday life, this paper uses firsthand written historical records of passengers' experiences of travelling by air during the 1920s and 1930s to uncover the diverse kin/aesthetic and affective experiences of flight. While recognising that such experiences are shaped, at least in part, by gender, age, nationality, race, and past experiences of air travel, passengers' descriptions of the unique bodily (dis)comforts, fears, and anxieties associated with flying are used to illustrate how aeromobile bodies experience their airborne environment in ways which have yet to be adequately addressed. The paper concludes by calling for a more nuanced understanding of air travel that recognises that the advent of powered flight has fundamentally changed our perceptions of time, space, distance, and speed, and transformed what it means to be mobile. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2002. Cities for nations? Examining the city-nation-state relation in information age Malaysia. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

Accounts of new forms of society and economy supported by advances in information and communications technology have both identified and fostered a belief in the growing importance of cities and urban-regions. Cities, indeed, would appear to be replacing nation-states as the dominant unit of economic organization and social identification. Yet conceptualizations in the existing literature are derived from a small number of supposedly paradigmatic urban cases. This article argues that urban and regional studies should be attentive to a diversity which is perhaps lost in the universalizing epochal phrase 'Information Age'. The on-going development of the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), a high-tech urban expansion of the Malaysian national capital, Kuala Lumpur, is used as a case study to (re)examine city-nation-state relations. Rather than presuming a substitution of 'cities for nations', the article identifies dimensions of reworked mutuality between the MSC city-region and the Malaysian nation-state. MSC urban development is shown to be: (1) an expression of re-scaled central (federal) state power; (2) a 'national node' for plugging Malaysia into the global information society; and (3) an exemplary space of high-tech Malaysian nationalism. These traits may have resonances elsewhere. However, the intention here is not to posit a set of generalized new city-nation-state mutualities, but rather to highlight the importance of exploration through specific urban-national cases.

2008. New geographies of tourism in Peru: Nature-based tourism and conservation in the Cordillera Huayhuash. Tourism Geographies

This research examines new tourism networks, conservation, and social and economic changes in Peru. In doing so, the article illustrates how current political and economic change, global tourism and new forms of conservation are contributing to new geographies of tourism in the country. Through a case study of the Cordillera Huayhuash, the article evaluates the nature of recent increases in tourism in the region, the ways in which these new tourist-related activities are interfacing with new conservation areas, and how they are contributing to local environmental, economic and political change. Based on a mix-methods qualitative approach, the article's major findings illustrate the magnitude and composition of recent increases in tourism to the Cordillera Huayhuash and the economic and social impacts of these activities on communities and households in the region. The article concludes with a set of questions for further geographical research concerned with the ways in which tourism is related to these changes in the Andes.

2000. Geography, international trade, and political mobilization in US industries. American Journal of Political Science

From studies of "Silicon Valley effects" to regional economic development, the spatial proximity of firms is shedding new light on some of the most enduring puzzles in business and economics. Yet few studies examine whether spatial proximity leads individuals with shared interests to be more politically active. We address this question by examining whether geographic concentration makes individuals in industries exposed to international trade (i.e., through export orientation or import competition) more likely to mobilize politically. Studying U.S. manufacturers in 1998 and 1990, we find that, for trade-exposed industries, geographic concentration strongly increases (a) the formation of common trade policy preferences among workers; (b) employees' contributions to political campaigns; and (c) voter turnout. This activism traces not to the behavior of political elites, but rather to the increased possibility for collective action that spatial proximity affords individuals in trade-exposed industries.

2007. 'I'm not in it for the money': Constructing and mediating ethical reconnections in UK social banking. Geoforum

Over the last decade a range of social banks and Community Development Finance Initiatives (CDFIs) have developed a social investment sector in the UK. Some of these organisations emphasise their belief in partnership, association, reconnecting and re-humanising the relationship between investors with borrowers in order to reap social returns. 'Ethical' investors are encouraged to take sub-market returns on their investments in order for surpluses to be distributed to the organisations' beneficiaries. Some key theoretical and political questions include: how are investors enrolled in these initiatives? What discourses of ethics are constructed and how do investors relate to them? How do these discourses relate to debates in geography revolving around 'caring at a distance'? Drawing on work on the Charity Bank and the Industrial Common Ownership Fund (ICOF), this paper analyses how these discourses are constructed and mediates the relationship between investors and borrowers. It explores stakeholders both investors' and borrowers' perceptions of these activities as well as the way investors construct their own reasons for investing. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Butts, C. T. (2007). PERMUTATION MODELS FOR RELATIONAL DATA. Sociological Methodology 2007, Vol 37. Y. Xie. 37: 257-281.

A common problem in sociology, psychology, biology, geography, and management science is the comparison of dyadic relational structures (i.e., graphs). Where these structures are formed on a common set of elements, a natural question that arises is whether there is a tendency for elements that are strongly connected in one set of structures to be more-or less-strongly connected within another set. We may ask,for instance, whether there is a correspondence between golf games and business deals, trade and warfare, or spatial proximity and genetic similarity. In each case, the data for such comparisons may be continuous or discrete, and multiple relations may be involved simultaneously (e.g., when comparing multiple measures of international trade volume with multiple types of political interactions). We propose here an exponential family of permutation models that is suitable for inferring the direction and strength of association among dyadic relational structures. A linear-time algorithm is shown for MCMC simulation of model draws, as is the use of simulated draws for maximum likelihood estimation (MCMC-MLE) and/or estimation of Monte Carlo standard errors. We also provide an easily performed maximum pseudo-likelihood estimation procedure for the permutation model family, which provides a reasonable means of generating seed models for the MCMC-MLE procedure. Use of the modeling framework is demonstrated via an application involving relationships among managers in a high-tech firm.

2006. In search of a 'good mix': 'Race', class, gender and practices of mothering. Sociology-the Journal of the British Sociological Association

Drawing on interviews with white middle-class mothers, this article examines the ways in which mothering involves practices and identities which are classed, raced and gendered. In particular, it focuses on the construction and articulation of middle-classness with whiteness. The article examines the women's descriptions of how they constructed social networks as mothers, chose schools for their children and planned their after-school activities. It argues that these activities involved in being mothers and bringing up children can be understood as performative of race, class and gender. That is, practices of mothering, are implicated in repeating and re-inscribing classed and raced discourses.

2011. Translocal Ecologies: The Norfolk Broads, the "Natural," and the International Phytogeographical Excursion, 1911. Journal of the History of Biology

What we consider "nature" is always historical and relational, shaped in contingent configurations of representational and social practices. In the early twentieth century, the English ecologist A.G. Tansley lamented the pervasive problem of international misunderstandings concerning the nature of "nature." In order to create some consensus on the concepts and language of ecological plant geography, Tansley founded the International Phytogeographical Excursion, which brought together leading plant geographers and botanists from North America and Europe. The first IPE in August 1911 started with the Norfolk Broads. It was led by Marietta Pallis, Tansley's former student at Cambridge. This trip and the work of Pallis, neglected in other accounts of this early period of the history of ecology, influenced the relations between Tansley and important American ecologists H.C. Cowles and F.E. Clements. Understanding "place" as a network of relations, our regional focus shows how taking international dialogue, travel and interchange into account enriches understanding of ecological practice.

2005. Actor networking, technological planning and conceptions of space: The dynamics of irrigation farming in the coastal savanna of Ghana. Applied Geography

The sustainability of introduced technology in rural contexts is based on the socioenvironmental networking of local stakeholders, a point generally ignored in Ghana. A case study is given of an irrigation project from the coastal savanna of Ghana, a region appraised by contested assessments of drought and social conflict. Using a methodology based on a strand of actor network theory (ANT), including social surveys, meteorological and field data, it is concluded that such analyses of spatial linkages, serve as an effective methodology for assessing technological developments and socio-cultural contexts of various scales, and has applied relevance for environmental and development planning. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007. Hospitality of the use of cities ('Hospitality - Space, Travel and Translation'). Architecture D Aujourd Hui

Hospitality is an on-going project using Rome as a test-base. As part of an international art practice, the project explores contemporary preoccupations with location, mobility, travel and translation. These key terms illuminate cross-disciplinary positions in relation to spatial theory, urban geographies and architectures, social and community networks, cultural translation and participation. The project began in May 2006 with a Symposium subtitled Space, Travel and Translation, which took place at the Olivetti Foundation in Rome. The invited guests included artists and academics from all over Europe : Johanna Billing, Bik van der Pol, Tim Brennan, Oliver Kochta-Kalleinen, Jane Rendell, Irit Rogoff, Romalab, Lorenzo Romico, schleuser.net and Stealth[u]ltd. Further to the guests' presentations and lectures, three local artists, Arabeschi di Latte, Formazero and Cesare Pietroiusti, had been commissioned by Hospitality for this occasion. The idea of Hospitality -we argue- acts as a useful tool to unpick the binary definitions such as local/foreigner, east/west, self/other, inside/outside and so on. Hospitality is expected to overcome particular codes of behavior, conventions and rituals bound by a dualistic understanding of inside and outside, agency and structure, centre and periphery. Hospitality considers the possibility that artists, curators, cultural workers and audiences can operate in a space of ongoing, contingent and restless translation and negotiation, where the margins navigate and occupy the centers. How can the potential inherent to this space of dialogue be articulated within cultural practices? What kind of spaces do participatory practices produce? The artists Formazero, Arabeschi di Latte and Cesare Petrouisti answered those question within their work that uses walking, conversation and food as ritual forms to frame communication and collaboration beyond traditional institutional structures. The intention was for invited guests to couple their role as visiting experts with that of participants and producers in a particular contextual situation. Our project aims to embody the type of space that Jean-Luc Nancy' suggests is produced by the 'sharing of a simultaneous space-time', that leads to the production of 'we'. This space in between makes possible the presentation of a here and now, in which the potential for participation finds place. Before the formal part of the symposium took place, the Roman artists' collective Formazero invited guest speakers as well as local artists and architects to perform a 'dissection' of central Rome. Twenty-seven participants took part in simultaneous walks starting from Largo Argentina, which is a central meeting point and busy intersection in the city The guests were divided into groups of three, and instructed to follow random passers-by, using a simple methodology for both performing and documenting the task. At the end of the task, each group traced its route back to the starting point. The event aimed to distract participants from their expected role as either tourist or local to develop a layering of chance and encounter as a response to the complex nature of the experience of the city. Arabeschi di Latte's practice revolves around the power of food to create situations and relationships by creating a sense of conviviality and everyday pleasure. The collective, composed of six architects, use strategies of participation and functional models that respond to the basic needs of social life. For Hospitality: Space, Travel and Translation, Arabeschi di Latte created a special kiosk and information desk providing snack packs, refreshments, lunch and drinks, as well as notebooks, dictionaries and guides for use during the symposium. The final day of the symposium was conducted by local artist Cesare Petrouisti, who invited participants to take part in Corsetta Filosofica, a Sunday jog through central Rome taking in the monumental centre as well as its generic and less marked margins. During the jog, participants took part in a conversation on Hospitality and Inhospitality with reference to both theoretical approaches via Derrida's discussion of cosmopolitanism and specific issues to do with the regulation of urban space by local authorities and access provided to visitors and immigrants. The conversation was amplified so that passers-by could catch snippets of the discussion. Within the group, elements of strain and fatigue from jogging and talking impacted on the nature of the conversation as time went on, so the physical nature of the event affected the mental exercise of the conversation. The jog concluded with lunch in the artist's studio, underlining the connection between hospitality on a private and public level. Failing somewhere between a Sunday ritual, a philosophical practice and a political march, the Corsetta Filosofica transforms the Sunday jog from solitary exercise into collective action, a conversation - disclosing the potential of participatory practice. The second stage of the project took place in October and consisted of both, a video and film program, held at the German Academy in Rome,Villa Massimo and a second commission to Formazero. The Hospitality film program presented a selection of short artists' films in various genres that documented, narrated or imagined processes of engagement, displacement and exchange. Starting with Rome, the films ranged out geographically to the Balkans, Iran, Iraq, England, America and Thailand, offering a series of portraits and snapshots of the intimate experience of space and place, The performance-work of Formazero, entitled Vivisezione, was directed primarily to the artistic local community, in its broader sense: Rome in fact has the peculiarity to host Academies from all over the world. Vivisezione was attempting to provide links between local artists architects, and visiting residents of the national art academies in Rome. Vivisezione urbano focused on the juxtaposition of Rome's dense city centre and the anonymity of the suburbs. As a metaphor of hospitality, Formazero invited the participants to join one of three itineraries on suburban train lines, following simple instructions and methodology to per-form the intervention. Again, the members of each group were necessary one to the other, each providing information and recording documents. The outcome of the exploration consists of a choral work: the participants are composing a map of Rome on MySpace a website, which can be perceived as a space of exchange and participation.

2010. Networked Geography at the beginning of the Third Millennium: for a solidary and collaborative science. Scripta Nova-Revista Electronica De Geografia Y Ciencias Sociales

Internet has undergone very deep changes with the generalization of what is known as Web 2 Users are also actively involved lit data entry, in the creation and modification of network content. It allows and encourages interaction and collaboration, its evidenced fit social networks, wikis and folesonomies. The Web 2 is also changing communication in science, and some aspects of scientific activity. Geography has been one of the disciplines that has experienced it greater impact with the change of Internet, which has opened new possibilities for the dissemination and new uses of new technologies of geographic information and the possibility of making maps in collaboration with volunteers introducing geographical data, which has been called Neogeography

2008. Internal colonisation, hegemony and coercion: Investigating migration to Southern Lazio, Italy, in the 1930s. Geoforum

This paper investigates the Italian fascist regime's use of internal colonisation as part of a wider ruralisation policy aimed at promoting population growth, curbing rural-urban migration, staunching emigration, and halting the spread of industrial urbanisation. By focusing on the case study of the Pontine Marshes, the paper demonstrates how, through targeted selection procedures aimed at displacing defined social and political undesirables, migrants were chosen and effectively coerced into migrating to the "fascist" landscape of the marshes. The area, reclaimed and developed in the 1930s, was celebrated as a sign of the regime's engineering and social success. The paper utilises Antonio Gramsci's thought on hegemony, and argues that the overt use of coercion hints at the fact that fascism, although ideologically totalitarian and hegemonic, was contested. Although statisticians, demographers and state bureaucrats were organised and institutionalised in the construction of hegemony based on consent, fascism based itself more in coercion than in passive consent in the case of internal colonisation. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2005. Innovation, networks, patrimonial resources and territorial development. Eure-Revista Latinoamericana De Estudios Urbano Regionales

Deep transformations occurred during the last decades demand different responses to ride out new problems and challenges. In this way, it is necessary to emphasize the role played by three determining factors: innovation, networks and the rational use of resources. In this general context, this paper attempts to take part in social and scientific scenes main theoretical debates, focusing on the influence that these factors exert to create intelligent territories, the ones that are able to support the improvement of citizens' welfare.

2009. Knowledge flows and the geography of networks: A strategic model of small world formation. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization

This paper aims to demonstrate that the strategic approach to link formation can generate networks that share some of the main structural properties of most real social networks. For this purpose, we introduce a spatialized variation of the Connections model [Jackson. M.O., Wolinsky, A., 1996. A strategic model of social and economic networks. journal of Economic Theory 71, 44-74] to describe the strategic formation of links by agents who balance the benefits of forming links resulting from imperfect knowledge flows against their costs, which increase with geographic distance. We show, for intermediate levels of knowledge transferability, clustering occurs in geographical space and a few agents sustain distant connections. Such networks exhibit the small world property (high clustering and short average relational distances). When the costs of link formation are normally distributed across agents, asymmetric degree distributions are also obtained. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2011. Interpreting the role of proximity on Industrial District competitiveness using a complexity science-based view and Systems Dynamics simulation. Journal of Geographical Systems

The paper investigates how proximity affects Industrial District competitiveness. We adopt the complexity theory by analyzing the influence of the proximity on the Industrial District adaptive capacity. Our argument in fact is that the more adaptive the Industrial District, the more the competitive success. Based on the complexity theory, we identify the structural features that allow Industrial District adaptation and their best values. Then, by developing a computational model based on the Systems Dynamics, we conduct a simulation analysis to evaluate the influence of proximity on the values of Industrial District structural features affecting its adaptive capacity. Results show that too much proximity is detrimental for the Industrial District competitiveness.

2006. Writing place: a comparison of nursing research and health geography. Nursing Inquiry

The concept of 'place', and general references to 'geographies of...' are making gradual incursions into nursing literature. Although the idea of place in nursing is not new, this recent spatial turn seems to be influenced by the increasing profile of the discipline of health geography, and the broadening of its scope to incorporate smaller and more intimate spatial scales. A wider emphasis within the social sciences on place from a social and cultural perspective, and a wider turn to 'place' across disciplines are probably equally important factors. This trend is raising some interesting questions for nurses, but at the same time contributes some confusion with regard to imputed meanings of 'place'. While it is clear that most nurse clinicians and researchers certainly understand that place of care matters to their practices and patients, many diverse uses of 'place' are found within nursing literature, and contemporary understandings of the term 'place' within nursing are not immediately clear. It is in this context that this article plans to advance the discussion of place. More specifically, the aims of this paper are threefold: to critique 'place' as it appears in nursing literature, to explore the use of 'place' within health geography, whence notions of place and 'geographies of' have originated and, finally, to compare and contrast the use of 'place' in both disciplines. This critique intends to address a deficit in the literature, in this era of growing spatialization in nursing research. The specific questions of interest here are: 'what is "place" in nursing?' and 'how do concepts of place in nursing compare to concepts of place in health geography"'

2008. When good smells go bad: a sociohistorical understanding of agricultural odor pollution. Environment and Planning A

In this paper, I seek to add to the sociological and geographical literature on odor by documenting the processes through which perceptions of agricultural odors are mediated and contested. Specifically, its empirical focus is on how residents living near a large-scale hog facility within the state of Iowa actively 'do' smell. In doing this, this papers draws not only from the historical, anthropological, and sociological literature on odor, but also from the field of animal (rural) geography. The findings of this research are organized around the following themes: (1) rural-urban transgressions; (2) inside-outside policing; (3) ties to local social network; (4) perceptions of agriculture; (5) a sense of powerlessness; and (6) shaping smell through sight. When taken together, an understanding of agricultural odor is provided that is both active (in that it is something we 'do') and historical (recognizing that such 'doing' always occurs within a particular sociohistorical milieu).

2002. False antitheses? Marxism, nature and actor-networks. Antipode

This paper stages an encounter between two critical approaches that have been central to the recent "greening" of left geography. The theoretical and normative claims of the first approach, eco-Marxism, have been subject to sometimes biting criticism from advocates of the second approach, actor-network theory (ANT). Taking a non-orthodox Marxist perspective, I argue that the ANT critique of political economy approaches to nature is overstated and only partly defensible. By distinguishing between different modalities of eco-Marxism and ANT, I show the seeming standoff between the two approaches to society-nature relations to be false. Splitting the difference between a weak version of ANT and a relational version of eco-Marxism yields a political economy approach to socionature that arguably avoids the excesses of strong modalities of ANT and dualistic forms of eco-Marxism. By seeking to bridge the apparent gap between Marxism and ANT, the paper avoids reducing either approach to society-nature relations to one fixed position or theoretical-normative "essence". Instead, a particular modality of ANT is used to address the weaknesses of certain extant versions of eco-Marxism. The resulting synthesis offers conceptual tools with which Marxists can still critique a pervasive mode of human relationality to nature-namely, capitalist-while multiplying the actors and complicating the politics involved in approaching the society-environment nexus.

2010. Therapeutic networks of pregnancy care: Bengali immigrant women in New York City. Social Science & Medicine

The aim of this paper is to elucidate the links between place and Bengali immigrant women's use of social networks in their efforts to live a healthy pregnancy. The literature on therapeutic landscapes has mostly emphasized characteristics of local places. I argue that social networks constituted in and beyond the places where people live are equally important. I draw on findings of a qualitative study conducted with Bengali immigrant women in New York City between 2004 and 2006 to understand the place-creating characteristics of social therapeutic networks. In-depth interviews with 40 women in selected neighborhoods in New York City show that such networks operated at multiple scales, ranging from the local to the transnational. A mix of tangible and virtual care and support were received through face-to face interaction and phone conversations. Advice on how to live a healthy pregnancy, cooking and bringing or sending food and therapeutic conversations emerged as important kinds of care and support provided by therapeutic networks. These networks worked in complex ways, reflecting: 1) the situational context of women's lives, shaped by the temporal (e.g. length of residence) and place-based (e.g. residential geographies) aspects of migration, 2) the importance of 'imaginative aspects' in shaping the meanings women formed of therapeutic networks and 3) the diverse ways in which women created and sustained these networks, based on class, country of origin, religion and culture. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2005. Making autonomous geographies: Argentina's popular uprising and the 'Movimiento de Trabajadores Desocupados' (Unemployed Workers Movement). Geoforum

This paper addresses the idea of autonomy-the desire for freedom, self-organisation and mutual aid. Through challenging economic neoliberalism, state repression, a powerful transnational elite, and the commodification of nature and resources, many communities, especially in the global south, are trying to manage their own affairs. Using the example of the Movement of Unemployed Workers (El Movimiento de Trabajadores Desocupados) in Argentina, I explore the idea of autonomous geographies and how they are made and remade at three overlapping levels: the territorial, through the emergence of networked autonomous neighbourhoods which are selectively open and closed to translocal links; the material, through the development of a solidarity economy where immediate needs are met and work is redefined, and; the social, where collective action and daily practice helps constitute more collective, autonomous forms of social interactions. In their desire to manage connections with the outside world while at the same time inspire autonomous place projects elsewhere, the MTDs represent both a 'militant localism' and 'militant pluriversalism'. Moreover, while such experiments in making and embedding 'autonomous geographies' face limits and have few widespread examples on which to draw, it is through constant questioning and collective struggle at the everyday level that autonomy is made real. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Everyday activism and transitions towards post-capitalist worlds. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

This article aims to broaden and deepen debates on the everyday practices of autonomous activists. To do this we present three main research findings from a recent research project that looked in detail at what we called 'autonomous geographies'. First, in terms of political identity, we highlight how participants in political projects problematise and go beyond the simple idea of the militant subject, set apart from the everyday who opposes the present condition. Second, we highlight how everyday practices are used to build hoped-for futures in the present, but that this process is experimental, messy and contingent, and necessarily so. Finally, we illuminate the contested spatialities embedded within political activism that are neither locally bounded nor easily transferable to the transnational. This exploration of everyday activism has illuminated that the participants we engaged with express identities, practices and spatial forms that are simultaneously anti-, despite- and post- capitalist. We argue that it is through its everyday rhythms that meaning is given to post-capitalism and it is this reconceptualisation that makes post-capitalist practice mundane, but at the same time also accessible, exciting, feasible and powerful. This paper draws upon material collected during a 30-month empirical research project into the everyday lives of grassroots, non-party political activists in the UK between 2005 and 2008. Three case studies were explored in detail - autonomous social centres, Low Impact Developments, and tenants' networks resisting gentrification.

2009. Relationships between Economics, Welfare, Social Network Factors, and Net Migration in the United States. International Migration

By using economics, welfare and social network factors as frames of reference, this study aims to explore the relationship between these three factors and net migration to various US states. Adopting related variables collected from official aggregate data, this study first utilizes Logit Regression analysis to draw out seven variables that best explain net migration to the various states, then employs these variables in LISREL analyses to build a model explaining the factors influencing net migration to the various US states. Concretely, this research obtained the following findings: (1) the seven variables - the average rate of net migrants of 2002-2005, Medicaid, federal aid, employment rate, non-poverty population rate, and SSI subsidy - all significantly affected (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) net migration in 2006; (2) the main influences on net migration for the various states are, from highest to lowest, social network, economic, and welfare factors. More specifically, a better explanation is that, through the social network factor, economic and welfare factors exert an increased influence on the net number of migrants; and (3) as for the influence of social network factors on the number of net migrants, the social network factor for the previous year was found to best explain domestic migration flows, while the social network factor for the previous three-to-four years best explained international migration flows.

2006. Constructing quality: The multinational histories of chocolate. Geoforum

Geographic research on food quality, while considering many of the ways in which quality is socially constructed, has largely focused on the place-based aspects of the raw materials of food production. Here, we use French convention theory to look at a highly processed food in order to show how place associations in the social construction of food quality extend to manufacturing. For chocolate, quality is based on material characteristics whose relative importance in determining quality depends on the country in which different stages of economic innovation took place. Struggles over the definition of quality chocolate, as exemplified by the "European Chocolate War," show how quality issues are connected to geographies of manufacturing and innovation. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2004. Market revenue and the scope and scale of SME networks in Europe's vulnerable regions. Environment and Planning A

For some, networks have ontological status, being associated with the embeddedness of social life in general and the necessary embeddedness of firms in their industries and regions in particular. For others less certain about ontology, networks are vital ingredients in firm-specific competitive strategies and long-term growth prospects. In this paper we approach the issue with reference to firm-specific competitive strategies, reporting the results of a large-scale pan-European survey of small and medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs) network-related responses to changing market conditions. Distinguishing between different types of production network (supply and distribution) operating at various geographical scales (regional, national, EU, and global), it is shown that the scope and scale of firm networks are strategic issues. All things being equal, firms adopt advanced technologies in response to changing market conditions, enabling their networks to change in scope and geographical scale. We also show that the significance of local as opposed to national and EU networks is changing with less 'localism' and wider geographical scope becoming increasingly important. Using probit models for different types of networks, we identify and distinguish between predictive variables driving network formation, including the type of SME ownership. Implications are drawn for the theoretical status of networks in industrial organisation and their significance for European economic development.

2010. What counts as farming: how classification limits regionalization of the food system. Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society

Regionalization is offered as a solution to the challenges that both communities and farmers face in our globalized food system. However, our research reveals that farmers' willingness and ability to adapt to a regionalized food system are tempered by social meanings of and social relationships with agriculture-or what farmers classify as 'farming'. These classifications are developed and reinforced over time and are reflective of the regional commodity history, infrastructure and policy. In essence, the 'region' simultaneously provides a space of opportunity and constrains the possibilities for adaptation. Therefore, without having an understanding of the regional commodity history and embedded classifications of farming, it is difficult for communities to assist with transforming a food system.

2011. From the Arab Street to the Silk Road: Implications of the Unrest in North Africa for the Central Asian States. Eurasian Geography and Economics

An American political geographer and noted specialist in the electoral geography of the post-Soviet states explores the extent to which underlying social, political, and economic conditions in North African countries experiencing regime change prompted by mass political unrest (Egypt, Tunisia) resemble those prevailing in the five Central Asian states. The author compares the countries' rankings on a number of relevant indicators (e. g., Human Development Index, Corruption Perceptions Index, Freedom House indices of political rights and civil liberties) before undertaking a more qualitative assessment of human rights, institutional control, and external support for current Central Asian regimes. Although Uzbekistan, the most populous state with the most repressive regime in the region, is a focus of attention, the same abuses and challenges are evident, albeit in varying degrees, in other vulnerable post-Soviet countries of Central Asia. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: F500, I000, J200, O100. 52 references, 1 table.

2009. Examining social isolation by gender and geography: conceptual and operational challenges using population health data in Canada. Gender Place and Culture

In 2003, the Canadian Federal/Provincial/Territorial Task Force on Seniors identified social isolation as an important issue for further study and policy development given that socially isolated persons are considered to be more vulnerable to both inappropriate use of the health care system and poorer health outcomes. In order to provide adequate support to this vulnerable population, it is critical to untangle the complex web of relationships that influence the need for care, and the health status and service utilization patterns of socially isolated older adults. Using data from the 2000-01 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), this article explores social isolation as a multidimensional social construct examining in particular the axes of gender and geography to try to tease out some of this complexity and its relationship to health status and service utilization. When individual characteristics like gender are considered together with broader contextual variables like place of residence, a more comprehensive and layered portrait of vulnerability among socially isolated persons begins to emerge with insights into their unique patterns of health and service use. For example, home care may be an extremely critical resource for keeping older women in their homes and out of hospital. On the other hand, among socially isolated older men, those living in rural communities may be particularly 'invisible', neither benefiting from home care nor having strong social supports. It seems plausible then that both men and women may be in need of special interventions or targeted programmes to help them to remain, or to become, more socially integrated in their communities as they age in place. In addition, this article addresses some of the limitations of using both a quantitative analytic approach and the CCHS dataset itself in grappling with such complexity.

1999. The role of corporate, professional, and personal networks in the provision of offshore financial services. Environment and Planning A

In a small island offshore financial center (OFC), different kinds of networks influence the provision of financial services. In this paper I will analyze the roles played by corporate, professional, and personal networks in the creation of a superior reputation among competing OFCs. Empirical evidence has shown that the success of an OFC is driven by appropriate financial regulation and supervision addressing the critical precepts of reputation and trust. Such spatially focused regulation can be created by networks of professional associations such as banking or insurance associations interacting with public sector officials on a regular basis. Continued growth of an OFC occurs through marketing efforts of both corporate and personal networks. The dynamic nature of these networks and their social structure encompassing power and gender relations will be explored.

2000. The view from out West: embeddedness, inter-personal relations and the development of an indigenous film industry in Vancouver. Geoforum

This paper considers the development of a particular cultural industry, the indigenous film and television production sector, in a specific locality, Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). Vancouver's film and television industry exhibits a high level of dependency on the location shooting of US funded productions, a relatively mobile form of foreign investment capital. As such, the development of locally developed and funded projects is crucial to the long-term sustainability of the industry. The key facilitators of growth in the indigenous sector are a small group of independent producers that are attempting to develop their own projects within a whole series of constraints apparently operating at the local, national and international levels. At the international level, they are situated within a North American cultural industry where the funding, production, distribution and exhibition of projects is dominated by US multinationals. At the national level, both government funding schemes and broadcaster purchasing patterns favour the larger production companies of central Canada. At the local level, producers have to compete with the demands of US productions for crew, locations and equipment. I frame my analysis within notions of the embeddedness or embodiment of social and economic relations, and suggest that the material realities of processes operating at the three inter-linked scales, are effectively embodied in a small group of individual producers and their inter-personal networks. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2003. 'Spatializing' knowledge communities: towards a conceptualization of transnational innovation networks. Global Networks-a Journal of Transnational Affairs

In this article we seek to move beyond existing conceptualizations of innovation systems in two key respects. First, we identify the need for a shift away from research that focuses on discrete scales as the locus for understanding innovation towards that which places more emphasis on network relationships operating between and across different scales. Second, we illustrate the need for approaches that recognize the significance of innovative networks that extend beyond firms and, in particular, those associated with the movement of knowledgeable individuals. By synthesizing recent insights from three literatures on 'communities' of varying kinds namely communities of practice, knowledge communities and transnational communities - we propose a conceptualization of transnational innovation networks based around three overlapping and mutually constitutive domains. In addition to the much-studied 'corporate-institutional' domain, we also identify 'social network' and 'hegemonic-discursive' domains that may be important components of transnational innovation networks operating across different localities.

2011. Constrained agency? Re-evaluating the geographies of labour. Progress in Human Geography

This article critically evaluates the concept of labour agency. First, we briefly reprise structure/agency debates in human geography in order to distil how agency is best conceived. Second, we propose a more discerning approach to labour agency that unpacks its many spatial and temporal dimensions. Third, we develop a 're-embedded' notion of labour agency and identify global production networks, the state, the community and labour market intermediaries as key arenas for consideration. The paper argues that worker strategies must always be assessed in relation to these wider social relations, suggesting a constrained, variegated notion of labour agency.

2007. Cyberspace as/and space. Columbia Law Review

The appropriate role of place- and space-based metaphors for the Internet and its constituent nodes and networks is hotly contested. This Essay seeks to provoke critical reflection on the implications of place- and space-based theories of cyberspace for the ongoing production of networked space more generally. It argues, first, that adherents of the "cyberspace" metaphor have been insufficiently sensitive to the ways in which theories of cyberspace as space themselves function as acts of social construction. Specifically, the leading theories all have deployed the metaphoric construct of cyberspace to situate cyberspace, explicitly or implicitly, as separate space. This denies all of the ways in which cyberspace operates as both extension and evolution of everyday spatial practice. Next, it argues that critics of the "cyberspace" metaphor have confused two senses of space and two senses of metaphor. The cyberspace metaphor does not refer to abstract, Cartesian space, but instead expresses an experienced spatiality mediated by embodied human cognition. Cyberspace in this sense is relative, mutable, and constituted via the interactions among practice, conceptualization, and representation. The insights drawn from this exercise suggest a very different way of understanding both the spatiality of cyberspace and its architectural and regulatory challenges. In particular, they suggest closer attention to three ongoing shafts: the emergence of a new sense of social space, which I call networked space; the interpenetration of embodied, formerly bounded space by networked space; and the ways in which these developments alter, instantiate, and disrupt geographies of power.

2011. The empirics of economic geography: how to draw policy implications? Review of World Economics

Using both reduced-form and structural approaches, the spectrum of policy recommendations that can be drawn from empirical economic geography is pretty large. Reduced-form approaches allow the researchers to consider many variables that impact on regional disparities, as long as they are careful about interpretation and endogeneity issues. Structural approaches have the opposite advantages. Less issues can be simultaneously addressed, but one can be more precise in terms of which intuitions are considered and the underlying mechanisms and effects at work. Many regional policy issues remain unanswered, opening some interesting future lines of research.

2005. The trade-creating effects of business and social networks: evidence from France. Journal of International Economics

Using theory-grounded estimations of trade flow equations, this paper investigates the role that business and social networks play in shaping trade between French regions. The bilateral intensity of networks is quantified using the financial structure and location of French firms and bilateral stocks of migrants. Compared to a situation without networks, migrants are shown to double bilateral trade flows, while networks of firms multiply trade flows by as much as four in some specifications. Finally, taking network effects into account divides the estimation of the impact of transport costs and of the effect of administrative borders by around three. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2003. Doing organisational space: practices of voluntary welfare in the city. Environment and Planning A

In this paper I consider the doing of organisational space. Within a sociopolitical context that presents opportunities and constraints, my interest is in how a particular set of organisational spaces-those of a voluntary welfare agency-are brought into being within the city and in how we might best apprehend their experiential texture. Drawing on research undertaken in a community drop-in centre in Christchurch, New Zealand, I explore the utility of two bodies of thought which emphasise social practices for this task. The first of these is actor-network theory. This frames organisation as a relational achievement, rooted in the successful translation of various actors, resources, and other material entities into a network through which an agency is constituted over time. Although an actor-network perspective affords insights into organisational formation and subsequent durability, I argue that it functions less well when one is seeking to apprehend the intersubjective spaces of affect that constitute so much of the daily goings-on of organisational life. As a way of approaching these matters, I turn to a second and related body of work that foregrounds notions of embodied practice. This, I suggest, enables us to attend more fully to the sometimes fleeting immaterial and affective dimensions of organisational space. It helps us, as Thrift (1997) has written, to touch the invisible in the visible.

2005. Landscape, care and the relational self: Therapeutic encounters in rural England. Health & Place

Over the last decade a number of studies have employed notions of therapeutic landscape to describe the ways in which places become implicated in processes of healing or health enhancement. While this work has usefully highlighted the environmental, social and symbolic dimensions Of Such places, relatively less consideration has been given to the relational dynamics through which these therapeutic effects emerge. In this paper I seek to address this absence through engagement with two related bodies of work: ecological formulations of place and relational notions of selfhood. These ideas are explored with reference to the experiences of guests at a respite care centre in Dorset, a predominantly rural county in southern England. Alongside its residential services, this centre places a strong emphasis on facilitating guests' engagement with the wider natural environment in which it is set. A number of general analytical and methodological points are developed with regard to future therapeutic landscape research. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007. 'It's more than just what it is': Defetishising commodities, expanding fields, mobilising change. Geoforum

Commodity geographies are politically weak. Geographical pedagogy isn't particularly engaging. Radical geography should make connections. But it rarely leaves room for interpretation. Too much seems to be too didactic. And to preach to the converted. That's a problem that needs attention. So, is it possible to develop a radical, less didactic, geography? With research funding, publication and teaching the way they are? To engage more students, more heartily, in the issues studied? To promote social justice, critical citizenship, and participatory democracy? But not by setting out the right ways to think, be, or act. Some film-makers, artists and writers have been able to do this. It seems. Subtly and cleverly. Through projects attempting to de-fetishise commodities. But their politics have been placed largely in the background, between the lines of, or separated out from, the presentation of scenes, things, relations, bodies, lives and voices. Seen and unseen elements of their audiences' lives. Re-connected. Perhaps. Through communication strategies giving audiences something to think about and to think with, to argue about and to argue with. Putting themselves in the picture, in the process. These less didactic materials may be difficult to master for an exam or an essay. They may not make it clear who or what's right or wrong or what audiences are supposed to do. But they could engage them in less direct ways. When they're shopping for petrol or fish, or when they're doing or thinking about completely different things. Things that may not even come under the heading of 'production' or 'consumption'. This approach might be labelled as 'weak', 'relativist', a bit too 'cultural' 'post-modern', or 'defunct'. But it's an approach that may be radical in effect because its 'politics' aren't so straightforward or 'up front'. This paper is about changing relationships between research, writing, teaching, learning and assessment; expanding fields of commodity geographies to include classrooms as sites not only of 'instruction', but also of learning, for researchers and their students'; showing how such learning might usefully shape research and writing elsewhere in these fields for those engaged in this defetishising project. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2005. Regionally asymmetric knowledge capabilities and open innovation exploring 'Globalisation 2' - A new model of industry organisation. Research Policy

This paper proposes to review and assess social scientific debate about the origins and nature of innovation in modem society. It focuses on three sub-sets of conceptualisation, critique and commentary that refer specifically to sub-national or regional innovation systems. Research in the latter field has grown enormously in recent years. Moreover, new perspectives from other disciplines than regional science have been promoted. One distinctive view of relevance in that it is focused on the role in innovation of specific 'entrepreneurial universities' in relation to industry and government is, of course, the 'Triple Helix' approach. This is reviewed and sympathetically critiqued. A second view, less sympathetically critiqued here, is one that itself attacks all so-called 'new regionalism' for stressing the importance of institutions, industry embeddedness and the micro-science of regional economic development. Dazzled by 'Globalisation 1' and the totalising power of 'scale' geographies, this rejection of the worth of spatial analysis at less than the global or national 'scalar envelope' is assessed for its potential insights into weaknesses of the regional innovation systems approach but found wanting in both technical accuracy and scholarly competence. Finally, the state of the art in regional innovation systems research is sketched by reference both to recent longitudinal findings and elaborations into specific technological fields, particularly but not only Bioregional Innovation Systems that help move us towards a newer theory of economic geography in the knowledge economy, based on 'regional knowledge capabilities.' The analysis conclusively proposes 'Globalisation 2', a 'ground-up' knowledge-driven evolution of the earlier 'top-down' multilateral trade institution and corporately driven 'Globalisation 1.' (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2004. Local politics, central power: The future of representative local government in England. Local Government Studies

When Labour took power it? 1997, local government was battered and bruised, but it had survived, and indeed retained much of its vitality. What would happen next? Where the Conservatives had used the language of competition, New Labour promoted its policies around an ideology of modernisation, and rapidly introduced a new legal framework, new powers and strong incentives to improve performance. But bill 2004, in the run-up to another general election. Labour increasingly emphasised the rights of consumers to choose providers of services, and the value of involving the private sector in public sector provision. There were proposals to take the finance for education and social services out of local authority control. A complex geography of partnerships and networks had developed, which which required small executives of salaried councillors, for fewer than the large numbers needed by the committee system. But turnout in local elections remained low, and membership of both Labour and Conservative pat-ties declined. The paper uses a simple stakeholder analysis to show how councillors and local activists were marginalised. It suggests that the government has a choice: it could either accept that the era of multi-skilled councillors responsible for the multi-purpose local authorities is ending or it could radically rationalise the present quangros, partnerships and other governance structures to re-create it.

2010. A Geography of Logistics: Market Authority and the Security of Supply Chains. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

In recent years, U.S. military and civilian agencies have been rethinking security in the context of globalized production and trade. No longer lodged in a conflict between territorial borders and global flows, national security is increasingly a project of securing supranational systems. The maritime border has been a critical site for experimentation, and a spate of new policy is blurring oinsideo and ooutsideo national space, reconfiguring border security, and reorganizing citizenship and labor rights. These programs seek to govern integrated economic space while they resurrect borders and sanction new forms of containment. Forces that disrupt commodity flows are cast as security threats with labor actions a key target of policy. Direct connections result between market rule created to secure logistic space and the broader project of neoliberalism. Even as neoliberalism is credited with expanding capitalist markets and market logics, it is logistics that have put the cold calculation of cost at the center of the production of space. Since World War II, logistics experts have conceptualized economy anew by spatializing cost-benefit analysis and applying systems analysis to distribution networks. The orevolution in logisticso has changed how space is conceived and represented, and transformed the practical management of supply chains. Historically a military technology of war and colonialism abroad, today logistics lead rather than support the strategies of firms and the security of nations across transnational space. These shifts have implications for the geopolitics of borders and security but also for social and political forms premised on the territory and ontology of national space.

2001. Developing socio-spatial knowledge networks: a qualitative methodology for chronic disease prevention. Social Science & Medicine

Chronic disease is a significant and costly social problem. The burden is even more pronounced in communities with high rates of a particular chronic disease. Assessment of health belief systems and the local geographies of health beliefs can assist community health planners to create cost-effective strategic intervention programs where populations are at high risk for chronic diseases. In this paper, we elaborate the concept of socio-spatial knowledge networks (SSKNs) and demonstrate that SSKNs can be useful in informing the design of health care prevention strategies. In our project, we demonstrate how to identify key socio-spatial information for intervention strategies which will prevent or delay the onset of a particular chronic disease, Type 2 diabetes. Our qualitative framework allows us to determine which sites might be best characterized as socio-spatial knowledge network nodes for sharing diabetes information and which sites might be less suited to such exchange. Our strategy explores cross-cultural similarities, differences, and overlap in a multi-ethnic rural North Carolina context through simple techniques such as mapping social networks and sites in which people share their knowledge and beliefs about diabetes. This geographical analysis allows us to examine exactly where health knowledge coincides with other social support, and where such resources may be improved in a particular community. Knowing precisely what people in a community understand about a chronic disease and its treatment or prevention and knowing where people go to share that information helps to (1) identify strategic locations within a community for future interventions and, (2) evaluate the effectiveness of existing interventions. The geographical approach presented here is one that can serve other communities and health practitioners who hope to improve chronic disease management in diverse local environments. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006. Commodifying children: fashion, space, and the production of the profitable child. Environment and Planning A

In this paper we address the emergence of the children's fashion market as part of a broader concern to explore the geographies of children's consumption. We argue that this market is significant in that it offers some theoretical purchase on new forms of commodification, on shifting sourcing and supply relations, and on the varied spatialities of retailing more broadly. We discuss the ways in which children's fashioned bodies act as a site through which they explore and express their self-identity. We focus specifically on the ways in which knowledge, branding, and temporality are shaping this emergent sector, and argue that the speeding up of the industry's 'clocktimes' and the spreading out of design impulses are generating particular sets of problems for the industry. We conclude with some reflections on the ways in which children's consumption might be more fully theorised as the combined product of familial relations, social network effects, individualisation, and market structures.

2008. Labour agency and union positionalities in global production networks. Journal of Economic Geography

The development of a global production networks (GPN) perspective in economic geography has brought valuable insights into the social and political relations between regional, state and corporate actors in understanding processes of value capture in the production of commodities. However, to date, little has been said about labour as an active constituent of the global economy, rather than the passive victim of restructuring processes. In this article, we seek to rectify this situation by, first, theorizing the agency of labour in GPNs and the continuing role of class struggle in shaping the global economy, and second, exploring the positionality of unions within this framework. Through a case study of ICEM (the International Chemical, Energy, Mining and General Workers Federation), we show how union strategies evolve through contested socio-spatial relations both within unions themselves and with other social actors. Promoting transnational labour rights and improved employment conditions at the global scale is an aspiration of most union actors, but this is inevitably compromised by different subject positions in relation to broader processes of capital accumulation.

2008. The entangled geographies of global justice networks. Progress in Human Geography

The recent emergence of global justice networks (GJNs) to counter neoliberal globalization has been an important political and geographical phenomenon. Much has been written about the emergence of a new global civil society, centred upon a new 'network' ontology. In engaging with these debates in this paper, our purpose is to develop a more critical spatial perspective. We argue that issues of space and place are critical in understanding the operation of GJNs and their potential to contribute to an alternative global politics. Spatially, the global linkages of GJNs can be seen as creating cultural and spatial configurations that connect places with each other in opposition to neoliberalism. However, the individual movements that comprise networks, while not necessarily place-restricted, remain heavily territorialized in their struggles. Additionally, networks evolve unevenly over space. Some groups and actors within them are able to develop extensive translocal connections and associations whereas others remain relatively more localized. Potential conflicts arise from such complex geographies, which only become evident through analysing the operation and evolution of different networks. This leads us to focus not solely on the transnational character of networks but also upon how the global is enacted through the localized practices of movements within them, in considering the potential for GJNs to form more sustainable political alternatives to neoliberalism.

2009. Culture, nature and particulate matter - Hybrid reframings in air pollution scholarship. Atmospheric Environment

Air pollution is a thoroughly hybrid Phenomenon. It is composed of inseparable physical, scientific, cultural, social, economic and political dimensions. It is both an object of environmental science embedded in our everyday social and Cultural worlds. Nevertheless, much air pollution scholarship focuses solely on the Physical dimensions Of air Pollution which are expressed quantitatively and pays little or no regard to the identities, discourses, bodies and emotions by air Pollution as a physical reality. This article argues for a more reflexive and hybrid approach to air pollution research which bridges intellectually confining binaries. Drawing on the work of Bruno Latour and other actor-network theorists. it argues that if we can let go of a foundational nature, disrupt Our humanism and take non-scientific knowledges seriously, we might develop a new respect for the atmospheric environment and begin the task of building a better common World. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Shifting Networks of Power in Nicaragua: Relational Materialisms in the Consumption of Privatized Electricity. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Drawing primarily on actor-network theory, this article explores the aftermath of electricity privatization in Nicaragua. Privatization has not gone well for most low-income consumers in Nicaragua, who have faced rising and unaffordable tariffs and frequent power cuts that have been economically and psychologically devastating. Scholarship on privatization has focused on the social injustices and exclusions that privatization often engenders, but very little attention has been paid to how privatization is enacted materially. To implement privatization successfully across space, privatizers have to delegate some of their action to nonhumans that they anticipate will function as black-boxed intermediaries. In landscapes of economic hardship and popular suspicion, however, these intermediaries sometimes turn into mediators or technologies with political effects. Electricity consumers have resorted to a range of tactics to subvert the strategies of Spanish multinational Union Fenosa, which took over the distribution of electricity, and these tactics have involved the creative and opportunistic enrollment of nonhumans. By tracing the shifting associations between the heterogeneous actors that make up the electricity (actor-) network, I seek to illuminate the relational materialisms in the consumption of privatized electricity and their potential for political transformation. An actor-network theory approach enables us to observe, amidst the entanglement of neoliberalizing maneuvers and disabling effects, material practices and translations in the network that are not always disempowering for ordinary people. It also reveals the contingency of multinational power and the (un)making of the global political economy in the spaces of everyday life.

2010. Two Cities, Five Industries: Similarities and Differences within and between Cultural Industries in New York and Los Angeles. Journal of Planning Education and Research

Recent work has pointed towards the possibility that industries are not tied to their specific urban location as much as to their linkages with particular types of infrastructure and to their social and economic networks. Industries have similar clustering patterns even in very different cities. Using Bureau of Labor Statistics data, we conducted geographic information systems (GIS) analysis to compare cultural industries in Los Angeles and New York City, two cities with very different types of geography and urban environments. Two distinct findings emerged: (1) when cultural industries are disaggregated into distinct industrial subsectors (art, fashion, music, design), important differences among them emerge; and (2) cultural industries "behave" similarly in each city because their subsectors tend to colocate (e.g., art with design; music with film) in similar ways, and this colocation pattern remains consistent in both locations. Such notable clustering tendencies of cultural industries help inform future research and further enlighten our understanding of their location patterns.

2009. Finding common ground: relational concepts of land tenure and economy in the oil palm frontier of Papua New Guinea. Geographical Journal

In the oil palm frontier regions of West New Britain and Oro provinces, Papua New Guinea, customary land tenure arrangements are changing in response to the growing demand for land for agricultural development. This paper examines one aspect of these changes, namely the gifting and selling of customary land for oil palm development to people who have no customary birthrights to the land. By analysing how access rights are maintained over the relatively long cultivation cycle of oil palm (approximately 25 years), and in the context of the rapidly changing socio-economic and demographic environments of the oil palm frontiers, the paper demonstrates that while land transactions seemingly entail the commodification of land, land rights and security of land tenure remain embedded in social relationships. For customary landowners, the moral basis of land rights is contingent on 'outsiders' maintaining particular kinds of social and economic relationships with their customary landowning 'hosts'. In exploring how these social relationships are constituted through the performance of particular kinds of exchange relationships, the paper provides insights into relational concepts of land rights and how these are able to persist in Papua New Guinea's oil palm frontier regions where resource struggles are often intense and where large migrant populations are seeking land for agricultural development.

2010. Differentiating Trust in Rural Decision-making, Drawing on an English Case Study. Sociologia Ruralis

Within the context of rural civic participation, three different types of trust are described, based on Simmelian-related constructs: personal trust, system trust and instrumental trust. Each has two components, a justification and a leap of faith. These vary in proportion according to degrees of knowledge held. Shifts in public domain decision-making have changed the emphasis of different types of trust. In using constructs of social capital to explore rural decision-making, bonding social capital is seen to cohere around notions of personal trust, bridging social capital around system trust and contested social capital around instrumental trust. In rural decision-making it is suggested, drawing from case study evidence in Gloucestershire, that personal trust is becoming increasingly important because of the localisation of decision-making and ambiguities in representation. A greater reliance is also being placed on system trust because of increasingly complex decision-making structures. While in principle instrumental trust can be ameliorated through access to knowledge and information, increasingly, the volume of information is problematic, and decision-makers are relinquishing their knowledge to 'experts'.

2008. How can we address health inequality through healthy public policy in Europe? European Urban and Regional Studies

In many parts of the world, there is growing commitment to the idea that public policy and public interventions in all domains (not only the medical and public health sector) should be scrutinized in terms of their potential impact on public health for the populations affected. Prospective Health Impact Assessment (HIA) considers the likely significance of these potential public health outcomes. This article considers some examples of strategies which are being used in European countries to facilitate HIA. These are interpreted in terms of theories of a world risk society, put forward by Ulrich Beck. The application of HIA to promote healthy public policy is complex because it crosses professional, disciplinary and geographical borders and involves some challenging issues of knowledge translation and social construction of environmental risks. It therefore shares some characteristics with other forms of regional planning for sustainable development. This article considers the relevance of literature from regional science concerning the appropriate scale and type of agency to handle complex regional planning issues and how to create learning regions that successfully integrate new knowledge into regional policy. HIA also poses some broader general questions about the role of science in society. This article considers the implications for the communication of research findings on health risk, and the contribution of geography and regional science to interdisciplinary research in this field.

2005. Spaces for inquiry into the role of place for older people's care. Journal of Clinical Nursing

In this paper, I expand the scope of the two preceding papers and suggest emerging opportunities and needs relevant to future inquiry about place and older people. I cover these in three sections. The first section suggests several topical areas for inquiry: stress and health, social epidemiology and healthy ageing. The second section focuses on theoretical developments that could be extended to further inform research on place and older people. I discuss the concepts of therapeutic landscapes and home as well as actor-network theory and pragmatism. The last section briefly addresses methodological needs. I contend that while place is a complex object of inquiry, it is vital to older adults' well-being and offers many interesting and interdisciplinary avenues for important scholarly endeavour in nursing and related fields.

2007. Context and attitude formation: Social interaction, default information, or local interests? Political Geography

Contextual influences on public opinion have usually been conceived as the result of interpersonal discussion. More recently, some have suggested the locale provides a default source of political information in the absence of national-level information. I test an alternative mechanism for the influence of the local context: citizens who weigh the local interest in forming political attitudes. Using the 1993 Canadian Election Study merged to census and economic data down to the neighbourhood level, I find that very specific indicators of local interests influence issue-opinions and group feelings to which those interests are directly relevant. This influence is no stronger among those who discuss politics, nor among those lacking national political information. This is powerful circumstantial evidence that supports the hypothesis that the local interest is an important determinant of political attitudes. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2005. Social networks in the R&D process: the case of the wireless communication industry around Aalborg, Denmark. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management

Whether social networks diffuse knowledge across firm boundaries has been the topic of much debate. To inform these theories, this article considers two questions. First, who has contacts across firm boundaries? And second, when do these relations diffuse knowledge? Our empirical evidence comes from a survey of 346 engineers in the wireless communication industry around Aalborg in Northern Denmark. Our analysis finds that social contact between these engineers is frequent and is used to diffuse knowledge that receivers find useful. More experienced engineers are more likely to receive valuable knowledge from their networks. These findings show that the long-term relationships, which are more likely based on trust and reputation, are also more likely to be a channel valuable knowledge. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2012. Networks and geography: Modelling community network structures as the outcome of both spatial and network processes. Social Networks

This paper focuses on how to extend the exponential random graph models to take into account the geographical embeddedness of individuals in modelling social networks. We develop a hierarchical set of nested models for spatially embedded social networks, in which, following Butts (2002), an interaction function between tie probability and Euclidean distance between nodes is introduced. The models are illustrated by an empirical example from a study of the role of social networks in understanding spatial clustering in unemployment in Australia. The analysis suggests that a spatial effect cannot solely explain the emergence of organised network structure and it is necessary to include both spatial and endogenous network effects in the model. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2011. The US military base network and contemporary colonialism: Power projection, resistance and the quest for operational unilateralism. Political Geography

This article explores the contemporary global network of US military bases. This paper examines how the geography of this network is shaped not only by military objectives but also by resistance from allied governments and communities adjacent to bases. Using examples from Guam, Puerto Rico, Okinawa and other locales this paper examines how local resistances to US bases have caused the Department of Defense to increasingly rely on non-sovereign islands as sites for bases. These sites, military strategists believe, will enable the military to train without hindrance and to operate without the need for consultation with allies. These colonies, however, are also sites were military activities are actively resisted. The resulting base network is thus shaped not only by global military priorities, but also by an increasingly globalized network of local social movements resisting militarization. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2008. Mapping corporations, connecting communities: Remaking steel geographies in northern England and southern Poland. European Urban and Regional Studies

In recent years, economic geographers have turned their attention to the growing geographical reach and complexity of economic networks to focus on the increasing integration of economies, the geographical organization of economic activity and the social, economic and political relationships within these networks. Within this work, particular attention has been paid to the corporation, allowing for corporate geographies to be rethought using new approaches and new methodologies. Building on these approaches, we seek to develop a holistic economic geography which embeds the globalizing corporation within a broad array of economic, social, political and cultural settings shaped by multiple social agents. We do this in the context of the European steel industry. We argue that refocusing attention on the steel industry is important for two reasons. First, the industry itself has radically changed in the last decade. Persistent global overcapacity and cycles of profitability, ongoing consolidation and privatization, the emergence of new steel regions and of more 'globalized' steel producers have all altered the industry's anatomy. Second, the tools of economic geography have changed. New approaches enable us to look again at the steel industry and to rethink its corporate geographies. This article develops these arguments by using an innovative approach, integrating the narratives of two steel corporations and two European steel regions, and focusing on issues of corporate geography, financialization, government and governance, labour and community. In this way, we seek to continue the strong tradition within economic geography of conceptualizing the spatial contexts and consequences of economic change through accounts of the continuous remaking of steel geographies.

2003. Development geography at the crossroads of livelihood and globalisation. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie

This paper explores new insights generated by livelihood research with respect to poverty problems in the world and how people deal with global challenges. Through the examination of the changing outlines of livelihood in the present era of globalisation, the authors unravel the fuzzy relationship between globalisation and local development from an actor point of view. First, the paper analyses the historical and theoretical context in which the modern livelihood approach developed, followed by a short explanation of its contemporary definition. Globalisation trends in livelihoods are then considered in order to determine the consequences for local development. The main issues reviewed are the decomposition of households, the increased diversification of livelihoods, and the emergence of multi-local livelihoods and livelihood networks. In the conclusion it is argued that the future agenda on local development in development geography should include the study of rooted and dispersed livelihoods.

2010. Geographers Mobilize: A Network-Diffusion Analysis of the Campaign to Free Ghazi-Walid Falah. Antipode

In summer 2006, Professor Ghazi-Walid Falah, a political geographer and editor-in-chief of the journal Arab World Geographer, was arrested by Israeli police after taking photographs of rural landscapes in Northern Galilee. Falah was subsequently held for 23 days, incommunicado, and without charge. An international campaign to "Free Ghazi" was launched by his family, friends and colleagues, largely over academic listservs and other media. Utilizing social network analysis and contextualizing the campaign within structures of telecommunications technologies, the purpose of this paper is to assess the various factors that contributed to the campaign's coalescence, its rapid development, and its global reach.


This monograph examines how the concept of a 'service hub' could assist in the delivery of human services. This concept emphasizes and builds upon the networks that exist between human service clients and the facilities designed to help them and concludes that by co-location of facilities relative to groups in need, a more effective service delivery is achieved. The problematic of human services focuses on the notion of service hubs, but also incorporates four other elements: assessing and assigning needy clients to appropriate treatment settings; facilitating the actual and potential social networks of clients; addressing the relationship between the service facility and its host community; and determining the socio-spatial goals of the service delivery system. The principles of the service hub concept involve the co-location of a set of relatively small-scale, community-based facilities in such close physical proximity that interaction between them is feasible to the extent that the set of facilities functions as an integrated unit. Service hub interaction depends on the effectiveness of the assignment and referral process, as well as the hub's ability to capitalize on client-coping networks. Two case studies of service hubs in Los Angeles underscore the significance of geography in service hub structure and in the lives of homeless people. A third case study demonstrates how service hubs are constructed by adding-on carefully selected facilities to existing community networks. As any plan for the construction of a region-wide system of service hubs is likely to run into community opposition at the local level, such a plan should also include a community outreach program as part of its overall strategy. 'Fair-share' principles in regional human service systems are also considered, and the fundamental issue of overcoming stigma and discrimination based on disability and difference is highlighted in a future research agenda.

2001. Healthier geographies: Mediating the gaps between the needs of people living with HIV and AIDS and health care in Chiang Mai,Thailand. Professional Geographer

In this article, I contribute to our understanding of the plurality of approaches that construct the geographies of health care through an examination of the distribution of health care services for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. In particular, I focus on the development of a network of support groups for PLWHA in order to examine the differences in the sociospatial organization of these groups, the practices of social actors participating in the groups' activities, and how these activities are mediated through place-based social relations. The first section of the article analyzes the spatial distribution of PLWHA support groups in relation to the distribution of AIDS cases over two time periods, 1994 and 1997. The second section goes below the surface of the spatial distribution, examining similarities and differences in PLWHA support groups through an analysis of survey data collected on thirty-five groups in 1997. The final section deepens this examination through an analysis of ethnographic data collected on the outreach efforts of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and one PLWHA support group with which it worked. Each section offers opportunities for the extension of our understanding of the development of PLWHA support groups, their distribution in relation to the spread of AIDS cases, and their place-based meanings.

2002. What is the 'social construction of nature'? A typology and sympathetic critique. Progress in Human Geography

This paper seeks to clarify what is meant by the 'social construction of nature', which has become a crude but common term used to describe very different understandings of nature, knowledge and the world. I distinguish two broad varieties of construction talk in the social sciences: construction-as-refutation and construction-as-philosophical-critique. The first uses the construction metaphor to refute false beliefs about the world and is consistent with orthodox philosophical stances, such as positivism and realism. By contrast, I identify four other, more radical sorts of construction-as-philosophical-critique that use the construction metaphor to question the culture/nature, subject/object and representation/reality dualisms that provide the conventional philosophical foundation for distinguishing true conceptions of nature from false ones. Another source of confusion has been the question of precisely what is meant by the term 'nature'. Making distinctions among different senses of that term can provide some badly needed clarity in debates about the social construction of nature. It also highlights a broad difference between those for whom the social construction of nature refers to the construction of our concepts of nature and those for whom the construction of nature refers to the process of constructing nature in the physical and material sense. That distinction, in turn, suggests two major, if also somewhat related, points of theoretical contention: first, the epistemological significance of understanding concepts of nature as constructed; second, the philosophical and political implications of arguing that nature is a socially constructed and contingent phenomenon. These are difficult philosophical and political questions, and the variety of constructionisms suggests that it is possible to answer them in a number of different ways.

2005. Exporting the German model: The establishment of a new automobile industry cluster in Shanghai. Economic Geography

Recent work has provided evidence that the establishment of new industry clusters cannot be jump-started through policy initiatives alone. This evidence does not imply, however, that the genesis of a new cluster cannot be planned at all. Especially in the context of a developing economy, it seems useful to reinvestigate the relation among economic development, the strategies of multinational firms, and state intervention in this respect. Drawing from the case of the automobile industry and its supplier system in Shanghai in which German firms play an important role, we provide empirical evidence of the evolution of a new cluster that is supported by the state in various forms and characterized by a focal, hierarchically structured production system. We use a multidimensional approach to clusters, which leads to a more nuanced understanding of the evolution and growth of a cluster than that provided by earlier accounts. This approach allows us to distinguish the development of the Shanghai automobile industry cluster along its vertical, horizontal, external, institutional, and power dimensions. We provide evidence that another dimension-"culture"-plays an important role, especially in its relation to issues of power and institutions. The role of this dimension is demonstrated in the case of German firms, which tap into the Chinese innovation system. This system is characterized by particular business relations, institutions, norms, and various social practices that are new to German firms. We demonstrate how this difference creates problems in establishing local production and supplier relations and how these problems can be overcome.


A key issue facing researchers of economic, political, social, and cultural change is the dialectical tension between globalizing and localizing processes. From an economic geography perspective, a major question concerns the relationship between the globalizing tendencies of many business firms and the prospects for a genuinely local economic development, particularly in light of the organizational and technological changes associated with the alleged transition to a post-Fordist world. This paper addresses a specific aspect of the ''global-local nexus'' that has not been well developed in the geographic literature: the relationships between transnational corporations and nation-states. Each can be conceptualized as highly embedded interacting networks. Firms and states are locked in competitive struggles. The competitive strategies they employ are both diverse and the outcome of contested power relations, internal and external. Increasingly, too, they involve various forms of collaborative relationship. Concrete spatial outcomes, therefore, reflect complex competitive and bargaining relationships between and within firms, between and within states, and between firms and states.


In the complex set of economic, social, political and cultural processes which interact to create a continuously changing and uneven geographical structure of economic activity the role of the business enterprise remains central. This paper first addresses Walker's (1989) critique of 'corporate geography' and argues that business organization does matter. Particular emphasis is placed upon the need to take a broader socio-organizational view of the business enterprise in which transactional relationships between, and within, business organizations are conceptualized in terms of differential power relationships within interdependent production systems. Both intra- and inter-firm structures are best seen as complex networks of enormous diversity. Business organizations organize production systems but are themselves produced through an historical process of embedding. Geographical industrialization needs to be seen, therefore, not only in terms of changing industry trajectories but also in terms of dynamic webs of power relationships.

2007. The Panopticon's changing geography. Geographical Review

Over the past two centuries, surveillance technology has advanced in three major spurts. In the first instance the surveillance instrument was a specially designed building, Bentham's Panopticon; in the second, a tightly controlled television network, Orwell's Big Brother; today, an electronic human-tracking service. Functionally, each technology provided total surveillance within the confines of its designated geographical coverage, but costs, geographical coverage, and benefits have changed dramatically through time. In less than a decade, costs have plummeted from hundreds of thousands of dollars per watched person per year for analog surveillance or tens of thousands of dollars for incarceration to mere hundreds of dollars for electronic human-tracking systems. Simultaneously, benefits to those being watched have increased enormously, so that individual and public resistence are minimized. The end result is a fertile new field of investigation for surveillance studies involving an endless variety of power relationships. Our literal, empirical approach to panopticism has yielded insights that might have been less obvious under the metaphorical approach that has dominated recent scholarly discourse. We conclude that both approaches-literal and metaphorical-are essential to understand what promises to be the greatest instrument of social change arising from the Information Revolution. We urge public and scholarly debate-local, national, and global-on this grand social experiment that has already begun without forethought.

2009. Miserly thinking/excessful geography: from restricted economy to global financial crisis. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

Against the horizon of Earthly depletion and social exhaustion, miserly thinking is once again on the ascendancy, catching hold of critical and radical thought as well as the popular and conservative imagination. Whatever its ethicopolitical inflection, miserly thought enjoins one to conserve, constrain, and sustain. It is consumed by scarcity: specifically, the inability of the world to accommodate itself to the insatiable demands that are placed upon it. Faced with lack, miserly thought advances its ethic of restraint, the target of which is everything that would exceed the paucity of means placed at our world's disposal. Pitching itself against miserly thinking, the paper unfolds a form of thought animated by excession rather than immiseration, by a world given as excess rather than as privation. This is accomplished in four parts, the first of which dislodges the grip of miserly thinking by recourse to Georges Bataille's notion of general economy. The paper then considers arguably the best-known form of excessful thinking: Marxian political economy, as rendered by David Harvey. Nevertheless, while this successfully reveals how social formations are animated by surplus rather than by scarcity, its desire to restitute excess remains mired in miserly thinking. Consequently, the third part of the paper considers the fate of excess once it suffuses the whole of existence. With its ontology of association, Bruno Latour's actor-network theory has gone the furthest in this regard. However, this ontology runs aground upon an inconsistent excess held in reserve: plasma. The final part of the paper addresses the limitations of Latour's actor-network theory by way of Alain Badiou's ontology of subtraction. In the final analysis, the sequence of 'lack, 'surplus', and 'association' gives way to the constellation of 'multiplicity', 'situation', and 'event', which is illustrated with reference to the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009.


Progress in the social sciences is by way of growing specialization. which entails the fragmentation of formal disciplines. Specialities are recombined with the result that new hybrid fields come into being. Since it is not entire disciplines that are being crossed with each other. the concept of interdisciplinarity seems misleading. Scientific innovations generally occur at the intersections between specialities and hence the concept of paradigm, which is valid for the natural sciences, does not seem appropriate for the social sciences. This process is described for five traditional disciplines: history, geography, political science, sociology and economics. The social sciences produce hybrids. A varied and complex network of new mixed fields is thus established, with the result that the old world map of the formal sciences is becoming barely recognizable.

2011. The Role of Embeddedness in Industrial Symbiosis Networks: Phases in the Evolution of Industrial Symbiosis Networks. Business Strategy and the Environment

Industrial symbiosis (IS) has emerged as a body of exchange structures to progress to a more eco-efficient industrial system, by establishing a collaborative web of knowledge, material and energy exchanges among different organizational units. However, even given the potential economic and environmental benefits derived from IS networks, the process of emergence and development of these networks seems far from straightforward. The effective operation of such networks relies heavily on aspects such as trust and general reciprocity, aspects insufficiently covered in the IS literature. Based on the theoretical framework provided by social network analysis and economic geography and the empirical data collected through qualitative methods, based on the approach of Grounded Theory, the authors propose a modelling framework to analyse the main mechanisms in the building of trust and embeddedness and identify different phases in cooperation leading to effective IS exchanges. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley &. Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

2008. Food Systems Planning and Sustainable Cities and Regions: The Role of the Firm in Sustainable Food Capitalism. Regional Studies

This paper takes stock of the growing food systems planning movement in North American cities, regions and towns as a possibility for sustainable regional development through the lens of new directions in everyday food practices. Drawing upon theoretical insights from the economic geography literature as well as empirical insights from the author's recent five-year study into the organic, ethnic and specialty food industry in the Toronto area in Canada, it is argued that a firm-centred perspective into food systems planning can help to deconstruct complexities in the system and also sheds light onto challenges of this form of sustainable regional development.

2006. The urban creative-food economy: producing food for the urban elite or social inclusion opportunity? Environment and Planning A

The food industry has always been a major generator of economic activity in the Greater Toronto Area. However, recently the innovative and creative elements of the industry have changed. Since the mid-1990s, the fastest growing segment within the industry has been small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The specialty, ethnic, and organic SMEs (hereinafter referred to as the 'creative-food' industry) appear to be particularly innovative as they respond to consumer demand for local, fresh, ethnic, and fusion cuisine. On the basis of sixty-five interviews with food producers, processors, restaurateurs, food media, non-government organizations, government, and private sector agencies, it is suggested that this creative-food sector is thriving despite existing public policies that bias toward large-scale, industrialized agri-food firms in the region. As such, a disconnect currently exists between on the one hand, the traditional agrifood paradigm that the government regulatory environment is promoting and, on the other hand, the locally consumer-driven food cluster that is emerging. Public policies of multiculturalism and education have done more to facilitate the unprecedented growth of this creative subcomponent of the food sector than have explicit public food-policy initiatives. However, there is still room for policy initiatives that advance the development of this dynamic sector, especially in the area of supportive infrastructure, access to health-based ethnically appropriate food, food education, and fair labour standards. Contrary to a widely held view, the creative-food industry is not just about promoting exclusive foods for the pleasure of urban elite. Rather, it offers an opportunity for a more socially inclusive and sustainable urban development model. The findings also have implications for multilevel governance in cluster formation and policy, future research on food, as well as for theories on innovation, urban creativity, and governance.

2004. Surveilling strange materialities: categorisation in the evolving geographies of FMD biosecurity. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

The 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom resulted in the popularisation of the concept of biosecurity. At its most basic, biosecurity refers to simple cleansing and disinfecting, but during the FMD epidemic it became associated with a powerful system of surveillance. We characterise surveillance as a thing in itself, a mode of ordering that can be added to others. The establishment and maintenance of categories are fundamental to the practice of surveillance, but social studies of surveillance have not yet fully realised the way such categorisation operates within the nonhuman and the spatial. Strange materialities are those things which do not quite belong within a particular order. We examine the actions of surveillance in the world of strange materialities that was the FMD epidemic. Here we see that surveillant practices acted on the nonhuman FMD virus by constructing territories to control humans. Surveillance seems to proceed as the translation of a worldview (a system of categorisation) into materiality and we conclude with some thoughts on what this may mean for geographical studies of technical, biological, and human materialities in which surveillant processes are at work.

2011. The influence of culture on home-based family caregiving at end-of-life: A case study of Dutch reformed family care givers in Ontario, Canada. Social Science & Medicine

Families are facing increased pressure to provide care to their terminally-ill or dying kin in the home. It is known that balancing care with other personal and social roles can adversely affect family caregivers' (FCGs) health, yet access to supportive services which can mitigate burden is often inadequate. Cultural factors are known to shape the experience of caregiving: however, most research to date tends to neglect the experiences of FCGs from different cultural groups. This understanding is necessary to ensure that supportive services are both meaningful and culturally-appropriate. Using qualitative methods, we undertook longitudinal research with a sample of Dutch Reformed FCGs (n = 5) to understand their experiences of caregiving and bereavement. The results of the study are suggestive of a cultural specificity with respect to caregiving that impacts both responsibilities and reactions to care. Three themes were salient to this group as a cultural entity: cultural attitudes towards care, religious beliefs and coping, and culturally-informed care-seeking behaviours. These three themes were seen to be a function of their religious and ethnic identities and were reinforced by ties to the communities in which they resided. Cultural identity provided a framework through which to understand and make sense of the experience, while group membership provided access to networks of informal support. This research contributes to the geographical literature on care/caregiving by providing insight into the social, cultural and religious context of informal family caregiving with a population who live in close geographic proximity. On a practical level. this case study indicates the importance of considering how these factors may operate in other settings in order to implement timely and appropriate interventions to better support FCGs who are caring for their terminally-ill loved-ones at home. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012. Social context, spatial structure and social network structure. Social Networks

Frequently, social networks are studied in their own right with analyses devoid of contextual details. Yet contextual features - both social and spatial - can have impacts on the networks formed within them. This idea is explored with five empirical networks representing different contexts and the use of distinct modeling strategies. These strategies include network visualizations, QAP regression, exponential random graph models, blockmodeling and a combination of blockmodels with exponential random graph models within a single framework. We start with two empirical examples of networks inside organizations. The familiar Bank Wiring Room data show that the social organization (social context) and spatial arrangement of the room help account for the social relations formed there. The second example comes from a police academy where two designed arrangements, one social and one spatial, powerfully determine the relational social structures formed by recruits. The next example is an inter-organizational network that emerged as part of a response to a natural disaster where features of the improvised context helped account for the relations that formed between organizations participating in the search and rescue mission. We then consider an anthropological example of signed relations among sub-tribes in the New Guinea highlands where the physical geography is fixed. This is followed by a trading network off the Dalmatian coast where geography and physical conditions matter. Through these examples, we show that context matters by shaping the structure of networks that form and that a variety of network analytic tools can be mobilized to reveal how networks are shaped, in part, by social and spatial contexts. Implications for studying social networks are suggested. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2010. Geographies of identity: climate change, governmentality and activism. Progress in Human Geography

The possibilities for, and impediments to, progressive social transformation have underpinned many strands of research in human geography. In this, the last of my series of reports on geographies of identity, I tour through the ways in which identities are figuring in geographical explorations of potentials for 'alternative' political futures beyond those of current hegemonies. In particular, I draw attention to the diverse scholarship on identity and subject formation that focuses on the practices of development professionals, ethical consumption activities, and climate change activism, among others. Highlighting the growing salience of governmentality as a perspective through which to comprehend identity, the report canvasses: the intensification of economic logics as a rubric of subject formation; the role of food and consumption in both opening up and closing down new political subjectivities; and the identities produced and required to address the challenges of climate change.

2009. The drifting city: The role of affect and repair in the development of "Enabling Environments". International Journal of Drug Policy

Background: The city has become a defining feature of contemporary human experience, supporting diverse risk and enabling environments. Whilst urban risk environments have been the subject of numerous innovative research projects in recent years, the figure of the enabling environment is less well understood. This paper seeks to develop this figure through reference to recent scholarship in social theory, human geography and urban sociology. Methods: This figure will be illustrated throughout with data drawn from various qualitative research projects conducted in Melbourne, Australia and Vancouver, Canada. This qualitative research highlights the array of enabling characteristics present in urban drug use contexts, characteristics that have yet to be fully explored in relation to the development of innovative settings-based harm reduction strategies. Results: This research draws attention to the ways particular urban settings support the development of affective and relational networks of "social repair" vital to the maintenance of health and wellbeing. These enabling characteristics serve to build social ties and enhance local networks; increase belonging and "connection to place"; and reinforce local "cultures of care". They also represent resources of enormous potential for harm reduction policy and practice. Conclusions: Greater attention to the array of assets and opportunities present in urban settings offers fresh insights into the nature of enabling environments and their role in reducing drug related harms and facilitating healthy growth and development. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2011. Networks, resources and agencies: On the character and production of enabling places. Health & Place

The study of therapeutic landscapes, restorative places and enabling environments - what might collectively be referred to as enabling places - has revealed much of the relationship between place and health promotion. However, it is arguable that this work has only partially accounted for the diverse therapeutic features of enabling places and the various means of their production. Drawing on Bruno Latour, this paper introduces a conceptual logic of enabling places grounded in the analysis of enabling resources. Three categories of enabling resources will be considered: social, affective and material resources. It will be argued that enabling places are composed in diverse actor-networks, facilitating access to enabling resources and supporting the development of novel agencies or capacities. This draws attention to the various networks and associations that promote health and wellbeing, as well as the resources and agencies necessary to maintain these states. The paper concludes that the analysis of enabling resources, and the networks and agencies that comprise them, provides a novel basis for describing the character and production of enabling places, as well as the diverse benefits associated with them. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2003. Theorizing regional economic performance and the changing territorial division of labour. Regional Studies

After identifying the general mechanisms underling the centripetal and centrifugal forces whose interplay shapes the relative performance of regional economies, a case is made for disaggregating macroeconomic indicators and examining the sectoral and occupational changes they conceal. Once regional performance is seen as reflecting underling changes in the profiles of regional economies, it is clear that research should examine the forces that determine the changing territorial division of labour. To explain the latter a conceptual framework is presented. This framework combines value chain approaches to the strategies of individual enterprises and analyses of the impact on the performance of enterprises of their wider social environment. Explicit links are established between this framework and some of the insights of the new economic geography.

2010. Diffusion of Competing Innovations: The Effects of Network Structure on the Provision of Healthcare. Jasss-the Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation

Medical innovations, in the form of new medication or other clinical practices, evolve and spread through health care systems, impacting on the quality and standards of health care provision, which is demonstrably heterogeneous by geography. Our aim is to investigate the potential for the diffusion of innovation to influence health inequality and overall levels of recommended care. We extend existing diffusion of innovation models to produce agent-based simulations that mimic populationwide adoption of new practices by doctors within a network of influence. Using a computational model of network construction in lieu of empirical data about a network, we simulate the diffusion of competing innovations as they enter and proliferate through a state system comprising 24 geopolitical regions, 216 facilities and over 77,000 individuals. Results show that stronger clustering within hospitals or geo-political regions is associated with slower adoption amongst smaller and rural facilities. Results of repeated simulation show how the nature of uptake and competition can contribute to low average levels of recommended care within a system that relies on diffusive adoption. We conclude that an increased disparity in adoption rates is associated with high levels of clustering in the network, and the social phenomena of competitive diffusion of innovation potentially contributes to low levels of recommended care.

2010. A geographic approach to place and natural resource use in local food systems. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems

This article illuminates the geographic concept of 'place' in local foods. Because the social aspects of local food have been more fully addressed in previous literature, this review focuses instead on the ecological aspects of farming and food. First, the literature on natural resource use in agriculture provides contextual understanding of water use, biodiversity, soils and agro-ecological methods. The complex relationship between climate change and agriculture is described and models assessing the impacts of climate change on agriculture are detailed. The geography of local food is specifically addressed by describing methods for assessing natural resource use in local food, including food miles, consumer transportation, scale and community, agricultural methods and diet. Finally, future research paths are suggested to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the environmental impact of local food. Such research would encompass the geography of local food through development of broader, more inclusive strategy, including the concept of the 'ecological appetite' of crops and foods, the union of both social and ecological aspects of resource use, the linkages between rural and urban producers and consumers and the inclusion of farmers' ecological knowledge. Overall, the geography of local food seeks to assess the where of food production and consumption, while incorporating key issues of how (agro-ecological methods benefiting the community) and what (locally appropriate crops).

1995. Putting chronic illness 'in place'. Women immigrants' accounts of their health care. Geoforum

This paper discusses the ways in which first generation Canadian women of Vancouver's Chinese and South Asian communities manage their chronic illness. The study reported was concerned with the women's experiences of health care encounters in hospitals and clinics, and their subsequent incorporation or modification of biomedical knowledge as they managed the day-to-day consequences of their illness. The paper presents a critique of culturalist explanations of personal health care practices, through an ethnographic account of the women's institutional and occupational emplacement and their racialized experience of place. In the study women's accounts of their illness and its management indicated a search for the alleviation of symptoms that involved a plurality of illness management strategies. The women's health care practices were mediated by local social networks and a distribution of non-medical resources rooted in the process of 'place', in addition to specific barriers to the use of biomedical techniques. The study suggests that inquiry into problems of health care for minority population groups needs to go beyond a narrow focus on biomedical services, and analysis must be wary of attributing primacy to untheorized concepts of culture, ethnicity or `race' in explanation.

2007. Place, health and home: Gender and migration in the constitution of healthy space. Health & Place

This paper contributes to recent literature that considers the role of everyday activity in constructing 'healthy space', specifically exploring the tension between agency and structural processes in explanation. The focus is a comparison of two groups of migrant women in British Columbia, Canada: South Asian Sikhs from Punjab, India, and Afghan-Muslim refugees. It explores the routine practices whereby they work to create 'healthy space' as they orchestrate their families' health. Through food preparation and consumption practices, traditional healing and religious observance, the women delineate the physical, social and symbolic dimensions of healthy space. The women's narratives demonstrate the productive capacity of everyday routines in forging healthy space within the particularities of migrant settlement. Crown Copyright (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Disparate routes through support: Negotiating the sites, stages and support of informal dementia care. Health & Place

Worldwide people with dementia are usually cared for at home by informal carers who may themselves have poor health and/or live in social situations which intensify their needs. The scale of these needs continues to be underappreciated and they are exacerbated by the limited social, cultural and emotional resources that carets can draw upon. This paper looks at the disparities in support, and the complex negotiations made by carers, as they reconcile the everyday realities of informal care in the home. Appreciation of these issues is essential in understanding carers' coping strategies in an ageing population. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006. Giorgio Agamben and the spatialities of the camp: An introduction. Geografiska Annaler Series B-Human Geography

The Italian political philosopher Giorgio Agamben's conclusion that the camp has replaced the city as the biopolitical paradigm of the West is as difficult to digest as it is easy to see how it responds to contemporary political tendencies in the world today. In this introduction to this theme issue on Giorgio Agamben and the spatialities of the camp, a detailed exposition emulating the structure of Agamben's seminal book Homo Sacer: is conducted, tracing the genealogies of Agamben's ideas and commenting on his swiftly enhanced importance in the social sciences and humanities. The introduction concludes by outlining some possible research fields in human geogrphy where much insight could be gained if Agamben's work is given more detailed consideration.

2009. Regimes of Information: Land Use, Management, and Policy. Information Society

Socio-ecological systems are inherently complex. One source of complexity is the uncertainties involved in the decisions and behaviors of human actors that determine how landholdings are managed. Land management decisions are often influenced by diverse factors and considerations. Particularly significant among these are (1) the sources of information land managers utilize with their perceived quality, reliability, and accessibility; (2) the social networks of the decision maker with their pertinent history, appeal, and authority; and (3) the interests, resources, and prior experiences of individual decision makers. This degree of diversity and uncertainty gives rise to behaviors that cannot be entirely explained in terms of rational choice or any variation thereof. How can we best understand and explain these behaviors, as spatial but also social and informational, in land-use decision making? This article presents the case of land management in a county in the Midwest United States to develop a conceptual model of decision making of environmental resources in socio-ecological systems. This model conceives environmental decision making as a multivalent process that operates on the basis of different "regimes of worth," incorporating not only the economic value of outcomes but also other personal and social values within different worlds or polities. These worlds, in turn, incorporate particular " regimes of information" based on particular higher principles that they uphold. The article examines these regimes, provides examples of what constitutes information in each regimes, and explores the management and policy implications of this framework.

2011. Challenging the boundaries of entrepreneurship: The spatialities and practices of UK 'Mumpreneurs'. Geoforum

This paper examines the spatialities and practices of an illustrative sample of UK mumpreneurs, a subgroup of female entrepreneurs who operate at the interface between paid work and motherhood, who are increasing numerically, and who are carving for themselves, a sub-culture of entrepreneurship. They have great policy-importance, not least because the UK government has recognised mothers as a group who need to be encouraged into business ownership. Employing mixed methods with emphasis on qualitative approaches, the research findings suggest that policy makers need to understand better some key aspects of this entrepreneurial activity before their interventions can be effective. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007. Geography and the immigrant division of labor. Economic Geography

Immigrants concentrate in particular lines of work. Most investigations of such employment niching have accented either the demand for labor in a limited set of mostly low-wage industries or the efficiency of immigrant networks in supplying that labor; space has taken a backseat or has been ignored. In contrast, this article's account of immigrant employment niching modulates insights bat on social network theories with understandings derived from relative location. We do so by altering the thinking about employment niches as being metropolitan wide to considering them as local phenomena. Specifically, the analysis examines the intraurban variation in niching by Mexican, Salvadoran, Chinese, and Vietnamese men and women in four industries in Los Angeles. Niching is uneven; in some parts of the metropolitan area, these groups niche at high rates in these industries, whereas in others, there is no unusual concentration. We show how a group's propensity to niche in an industry is generally higher when the industry is located close to the group's residential neighborhoods and demonstrate the ways in which the proximity of competing groups dampens this geographic advantage. The study speaks to debates on immigrant niching and connects with research on minority access to employment and accounts of the agglomeration of firms. More generally, it links the geographies of home and work in a new way, relating patterns of immigrant residential segregation to those of immigrant employment niches.

2011. Changing Istanbul City Region Dynamics: Re-regulations to Challenge the Consequences of Uneven Development and Inequality. European Planning Studies

In this paper, it is claimed that the dynamics that enabled the emergence of city regions as new places of globalization brought about significant changes and restructuring in these areas in the early years of neo-liberal policies. Subsequently, from the 1990s onwards a new neo-liberalist agenda, in reply to the problems of the early period of globalization, defined new relations and new dynamics for city regions. The aim of this paper, with the help of earlier Istanbul case studies, is to discuss the changes taking place in city regions, including the outcomes of the neo-liberal policies induced by the competitiveness of the 1980s, especially those related to the distribution of welfare and social cohesion, which forced the nation state to reconfigure its neo-liberal project.

2010. Geography and Community: New Forms of Interaction Among People and Places. American Behavioral Scientist

Today location-based data, such as GPS coordinates, are increasingly being incorporated into Internet sites such as Flickr, Jaiku, and Placeopedia. In turn, new practices are emerging that evoke innovative ways of relating among people and between individuals and places. This article investigates this geographic turn in networked interaction-particularly, emergent sensemaking regarding the role of location in distributed communities. The author uses an inductive, grounded theory methodology based on ethnographic interview and artifact data to compare the microblogging practices of two communities: those using Twitter and those using Jaiku. Findings suggest that the organizing practices of the two groups are quite different, despite the similarities in the tools they use to interact. Although each platform allows for the development of peripheral awareness and ambient intimacy within user groups, the design affordances of Twitter as a straightforward broadcasting tool result in social patterns that are quite distinct from those of Jaiku, whose design enables threaded conversation. As a result, the communal bonds among Jaiku users appear to be built on thematic, conversational interaction that relies little on shared geographical references. Twitter users, with less robust means of threaded response, tend to broadcast individual reports from various geographical outposts. Communal bonds are thus formed on the basis of recognizing the highly indexical references, which in turn reinforce a common geographical locus for the community. The article concludes with a discussion of how design, though not determinate of interaction directly, is influential in shaping social patterns that emphasize different types of communal bonds.

2010. Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems. Ambio

Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities-New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix-the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

2001. Culture sits in places: reflections on globalism and subaltern strategies of localization. Political Geography

The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the concept of place in anthropology, geography, and political ecology. "Place" - or, more accurately, the defense of constructions of place - has also become an important object of struggle in the strategies of social movements. This paper is situated at the intersection of conversations in the disciplines about globalization and place, on the one hand, and conversation in social movements about place and political strategy, on the other. By arguing against a certain globalocentrism in the disciplines that tends to effect an erasure of place, the paper suggests ways in which the defense of place by social movements might be constituted as a rallying point for both theory construction and political action. The paper proposes that place-based struggles might be seen as multi-scale, network-oriented subaltern strategies of localization. The argument is illustrated with the case of the social movement of black communities of the Pacific rainforest region of Colombia. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ethington, P. J. and J. A. McDaniel (2007). Political places and institutional spaces: The intersection of political science and political geography. Annual Review of Political Science. 10: 127-142.

Political geography is one of the most exciting subdisciplines to emerge from the "spatial turn" in the social sciences. Arising largely within the discipline of geography, political geography has deep implications for political science, and yet these implications have not yet been widely recognized among political scientists. Conversely, political geographers have not yet profited enough from the rich field of political science. Political geography has the potential to dramatically transform many areas of established political science research. We focus on two: (a) the study of "contextual effects" on political behavior and (b) the study of governance by applying the "new institutionalism." By spatializing the basic premises of these political science subfields, researchers can find new ways of looking at old questions. We conclude that political scientists should move beyond territorial questions of geography and begin thinking about the intrinsic spatiality of all political action, events, and institutions.

2003. Cultural economic geography and a relational and microspace approach to trusts, rationalities, networks, and change in collaborative workplaces. Journal of Economic Geography

This paper develops a relational, microspace framework to explain how social interaction (in and outside of workplaces) affects decision making, behavior, and performance in collaborative work. The transfer of critical intangible resources such as trust, across persons outside conventional loci of power in overlapping social networks, entails an evolution of different types of trust. Bridging networks informally on a bottom-up basis depends on complementary social relations and the transformation of trusts based on different rationalities formed in different places and social networks. Understanding collaboration can help as much in constructing positive change as in thwarting destructive, discriminatory work practices.

2004. Toward a critical theory of untidy geographies: The spatiality of emotions in consumption and production. Feminist Economics

This paper offers a non-essentialist, normative view of the spatiality of emotions in consumption and production, underscoring issues of difference in everyday life. As people interweave thoughts and feelings across spheres of life, over time, economic and noneconomic logics become blurred, leading to multiple, often conflicting sentiments. Cognitive dissonance is not necessarily resolved and manifests in incoherent consumer practices. Understanding individuals' often covert disarticulation from communities can help proactively uncover avenues for expressing agency within structures of constraint. The geographies of multiple logics also clarify behavior in production regarding thoughts and feelings emanating from outside the workplace. Managers can use this knowledge to achieve competitiveness by accommodating workers' needs and nurturing collaboration, tapping overlapping social networks across time and space. Thinking normatively about the spatiality of emotions requires analytical fluidity to relate context-specific and mobile, mutable processes. The process-oriented framework developed here is intended to complement, not replace, pattern-oriented analysis.

2008. The predicament of firms in the new and old economies: a critical inquiry into traditional binaries in the study of the space-economy. Progress in Human Geography

Working with the assumption that the social and the material are mutually embedded, this article suggests that actors in the business world tend to separate social from material concerns despite the entanglement of these two dimensions. This disconnection - a binary logic applied in the context of blurry realities - creates problems, the resolution of which requires change in production logic. The predicament of firms is the apparent inability of actors to develop a production logic that recognizes the entwinement of the material and the social; rather than changing from a unidimensional to a multidimensional logic, strategies continuously oscillate between one unidimensional logic (emphasizing social or material concerns) and another (emphasizing the opposite), thus perpetuating the predicament. The oscillation occurs in both the old and new economies, but is compressed in the new economy. Recognizing this oscillation in the new and old economies requires dehomogenizing each to uncover problems that prompt change. Recognizing the transformation of production logics within the old and new economies requires awareness of, and retreat from, binary logic in academic analysis.

2009. Surmounting City Silences: Knowledge Creation and the Design of Urban Democracy in the Everyday Economy. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

This essay presents segregation as a fundamental, longstanding and widespread problem that impedes democratic urban life and is intelligible from a critical geographic perspective. Ignorance is spatially produced by segregation at multiple scales so as to legitimize and perpetuate silence about problems among marginalized groups. This spatialized understanding explains inequality, problematizes and difference prompts an agenda that forefronts the creation of new social knowledges. The focus here is on the everyday economy as a crucial but commonly overlooked context for developing such knowledges. I re-present a theory of knowledge creation developed for the pursuit of commercial competitiveness and reconfigure it to mesh socio-political and economic goals. A central challenge is to change prevailing discourses by cultivating new practices that entail meaningful interaction among people otherwise segregated. Efficiency becomes a means to social as well as economic ends, as respect and trust grow from collaborative experience among people who might otherwise not interact.

2011. Consuming conventions: sustainable consumption, ecological citizenship and the worlds of worth. Journal of Rural Studies

In light of the recognition that current patterns of consumption in the developed world are environmentally damaging, the question of sustainable consumption has become increasingly prominent in public and policy discourse. This paper joins an emerging body of work that critiques the behaviorist perspectives that currently dominate the field and specifically, a case is made for using conventions theory (Boltanski and Thevenot, 1991) to complement the 'social practices' approach to consumption, sustainability and everyday life. Drawing on a qualitative study of persons who identified themselves as attempting to live in ways that are environmentally more friendly, the analysis first explores the ways in which sustainable consumption intersects and overlaps with other practices and imperatives. Attention is paid to the competing demands of day to day living and the ways in which cultural conventions work or not to legitimate practices of sustainable consumption. The second part of the analysis discusses the citizenship relations that are articulated through practices of sustainable consumption and here, attention is paid to the conventions that underpin the imperative to reduce the environmental impacts of personal consumption. Taken together, I consider the possibility that environmental conventions might be emerging from the empirical material alongside the ways in which these might operate in support of sustainable consumption. To conclude I suggest that the experiments in practice encountered here are unlikely to generate the conventions through which sustainable forms of consumption can be normalized and integrated into everyday lives. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Community structure and patterns of scientific collaboration in Business and Management. Scientometrics

This paper investigates the role of homophily and focus constraint in shaping collaborative scientific research. First, homophily structures collaboration when scientists adhere to a norm of exclusivity in selecting similar partners at a higher rate than dissimilar ones. Two dimensions on which similarity between scientists can be assessed are their research specialties and status positions. Second, focus constraint shapes collaboration when connections among scientists depend on opportunities for social contact. Constraint comes in two forms, depending on whether it originates in institutional or geographic space. Institutional constraint refers to the tendency of scientists to select collaborators within rather than across institutional boundaries. Geographic constraint is the principle that, when collaborations span different institutions, they are more likely to involve scientists that are geographically co-located than dispersed. To study homophily and focus constraint, the paper will argue in favour of an idea of collaboration that moves beyond formal co-authorship to include also other forms of informal intellectual exchange that do not translate into the publication of joint work. A community-detection algorithm for formalising this perspective will be proposed and applied to the co-authorship network of the scientists that submitted to the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise in Business and Management in the UK. While results only partially support research-based homophily, they indicate that scientists use status positions for discriminating between potential partners by selecting collaborators from institutions with a rating similar to their own. Strong support is provided in favour of institutional and geographic constraints. Scientists tend to forge intra-institutional collaborations; yet, when they seek collaborators outside their own institutions, they tend to select those who are in geographic proximity. The implications of this analysis for tie creation in joint scientific endeavours are discussed.

2008. "Don't I long for Montreal": Hybrid identity of a young French-American migrant during the First World War. Histoire Sociale-Social History

Between July 1917 and October 1918, Alma Drouin, a young Franco-American woman from Laconia, New Hampshire, sojourned in Montreal. She had been drawn to Canada metropolis by the opportunities that it offered for professional mobility, as well as by its big-city attractions. Through an analysis of Alma's correspondence and her diaries, we have attempted to understand the ways in which she represented her daily life in Montreal, along with the place of this big city in her broader mental geography. Alma Drouin possessed a hybrid identity and a transnational consciousness, the latter evident in her participation in a cross-border network of correspondents. Both this network and Alma's use of geographical mobility to achieve social mobility were part of a long migratory tradition in the western world and in French Canada. While Alma constructed herself in her correspondence and her diaries as an independent "working girl", she was nonetheless dependent upon a significant cross-border network of relatives, friends, and acquaintances.

2011. Human geography and the institutions that underlie economic growth. Progress in Human Geography

Human geography is in a unique position to understand how local structural factors shape social, political, and ultimately economic outcomes. Indeed, the discipline has had much to say about the interaction between local institutions and the economy in general, and about how the broader institutions of society influence local economic development. Yet, to date, geographers have for the most part avoided debates on more generalized theories of economic growth and development. With the increasing recognition - among sociologists, political scientists and even economists - that explaining economic growth robustly requires taking into account the role of both formal society-wide institutions and local and sometimes informal institutions, geographers are in a position to make an important contribution. In order to do so, however, they will need to take greater account of the theories and developments that are taking place outside the discipline. Using the framework of community and society as complementary structural forces shaping development trajectories, this paper presents a broad overview of the principal theoretical and empirical developments in the institutionalist approaches to economic development and identifies areas in which geographical research could contribute to them.

2006. Stretching tacit knowledge beyond a local fix? Global spaces of learning in advertising professional service firms. Journal of Economic Geography

The 'knowledge economy' is now widely debated and economic geographers have made a significant contribution to understanding of the influences upon the production and dissemination of tacit knowledge within and between firms. However, the continued association of tacit knowledge with practices rooted at the local scale and suggestions of territorially sticky knowledge have proven controversial. Through examination of empirical material exploring the stretching of learning in advertising professional service firms, the paper argues that we need to recognize the use of two different epistemologies of organizational knowledge leverage-'knowledge transfer' in the form of best practice and 'the social production of new knowledge'-and their complementary yet differentiated roles in organizations and differing spatial reaches. This highlights the existence of multiple geographies of tacit knowledge and the need to be more subtle in our arguments about its geographies. In particular, the paper reveals that tacit knowledge can have global geographies when knowledge management practices focus on reproducing rather than transferring knowledge across space.

2007. Relational networks of knowledge production in transnational law firms. Geoforum

For geographers, debates surrounding the knowledge economy have reinvigorated interest in the geographies of learning and knowledge production. Particularly topical are discussions of the possibility of spatially stretched (global) learning, something especially relevant to professional service firms where the production and management of knowledge across transnational organizational networks is essential. Taking this as its starting point, the paper explores the way knowledge is produced and circulated in transnational legal professional service firms. Drawing on the ideas of relational economic geography to analyse original empirical material, it highlights the way relational networks are socially constructed to allow learning to be stretched across space. The paper then goes on to identify the 'politics' of inclusion in these networks and the exclusivity of membership. It also highlights the geographies of power that influence the nature and effect of the knowledge produced and circulated. It does this by examining the role of relational knowledge networks in the 'Americanization' of legal practice in Europe and the impacts of such changes on national institutional and regulatory contexts. It is, therefore, argued that transnational corporate networks need to be viewed as heterogeneous and 'embedded spaces of social practice'. It is shown that studying the actors and their interactions across relational networks is vital to fully understand how global relational forms are constructed and to understand their structuring effects on the global economy. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. The Regulation of Design in Global Architecture Firms: Embedding and Emplacing Buildings. Urban Studies

The emergence of global architecture firms and their role in the production of city architectures raises a number of questions for social scientists. For example, how-indeed do-global architects ensure that the buildings they design are 'in place' and appropriate for the urban cultural, economic, social and political contexts in which they are to be built? The aim of the paper is to consider this question. 'Regulation' is taken in its broadest sense and the paper explores the role of standards and codes as well as other forms of social regulation in the process of emplacing designs. It is argued that, in order to understand how buildings are put in their place, analysis is needed of both the design-side adaptations architects make to buildings and also the consumption side regulation of designs and the way the behaviours of those inhabiting buildings produce 'local' meaning.

2007. The place of food: mapping out the 'local' in local food systems. Progress in Human Geography

'Local food systems' movements, practices, and writings pose increasingly visible structures of resistance and counter-pressure to conventional globalizing food systems. The place of food seems to be the quiet centre of the discourses emerging with these movements. The purpose of this paper is to identify issues of 'place', which are variously described as the 'local' and 'community' in the local food systems literature, and to do so in conjunction with the geographic discussion focused on questions and meanings around these spatial concepts. I see raising the profile of questions, complexity and potential of these concepts as an important role and challenge for the scholar-advocate in the realm of local food systems, and for geographers sorting through them. Both literatures benefit from such a foray. The paper concludes, following a 'cautiously normative' tone, that there is strong argument for emplacing our food systems, while simultaneously calling for careful circumspection and greater clarity regarding how we delineate and understand the 'local'. Being conscious of the constructed nature of the 'local', 'community' and 'place' means seeing the importance of local social, cultural and ecological particularity in our everyday worlds, while also recognizing that we are reflexively and dialectially tied to many and diverse locals around the world.

2004. Spatial relations and the materialities of political conflict: the construction of entangled political identities in the London and Newcastle Port Strikes of 1768. Geoforum

This paper engages with the material geographies of political conflict. It applies the concerns of actor-network theory around the entangled character of material/social relations to the geographies of subaltern politics. It explores how interconnected strikes of riverside labourers and sailors in the London and Newcastle Port Strikes of 1768 contested the terms on which materials were enrolled into mercantile capitalist networks. The dynamic geographies of these strikes are used to unsettle constructions of subaltern spaces of politics as bounded and localised. The paper then demonstrates how labourers crafted multiple antagonisms through negotiating their location in materially heterogeneous networks. It uses this concern with contested material geographies to engage with the entangled construction of political identities. The paper concludes that interrogating the materialities of political conflict does not just add a neglected technical dimension to the study of political activity; it provides considerable resources for engaging with the inventiveness of subaltern political activity amd agency. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2005. Constructing jurisdictional advantage. Research Policy

This paper aims to advance economic development theory through the concept of jurisdictional advantage; demonstrating how places might strategically position themselves to gain economic advantage; then considering how this place-specific advantage might be constructed. We choose the term jurisdiction to define the set of actors that have a common interest in a spatially bound community. Jurisdictions are entities with a legitimate political ability to influence social and economic outcomes within their boundaries. Borrowing from the literature on corporate strategy, the uniqueness of local capabilities becomes a source of advantage for jurisdictions. We consider how to measure and construct jurisdictional advantage. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2004. Space in the study of labor markets. Annual Review of Sociology

A common claim in the economic, geographic, and sociological literatures on labor markets is that space "matters" for labor market outcomes. We review three distinct literatures that take the relationship between labor markets and geographic space as a central concern, in particular: (a) the research on race and spatial mismatch; (b) the literature on gender, space, and labor markets; and (c) the research on the spatial agglomeration of employers and its relationship to workers' careers and economic growth. Our goal in this review is to shed light on the key mechanisms by which spatial factors might work in the context of the labor market. Despite taking contrasting positions-for some of these discussions, the emphasis is on space as a constraining factor, whereas for others space is primarily a facilitator of labor market transactions - the issue of social networks emerges as an important theoretical thread across all these literatures. We conclude by considering the implications of this mechanism and suggesting lines of future research for the study of space and labor markets.

2010. Formation Process and Geography of Science-Industry Partnerships: The Case of the University of Poitiers. Industry and Innovation

This paper tries to elicit new explanations into the geography of collaborations between science and industry by focusing on how they are initially set up. Two determining factors could influence this: constraints linked to the search for complementary resources and possibilities to connect with partners. An empirical study on collaborations established by several laboratories of the University of Poitiers with companies confirms this hypothesis. Searching for specific resources means fewer potential partners are available and explains the small number of local collaborations and the high number of partnerships with certain regions. However, these constraints alone do not suffice to determine the spatial scale of such collaborations. Analysing how connections are established particularly reveals that partners generally prefer to renew collaborations rather than initiate new ones. This leads to the existing geography of partnerships being reinforced.

2011. Distant allies, proximate enemies: Rethinking the scales of the antibase movement in Ecuador. American Ethnologist

In this article, I analyze the processes by which transnational peace activists opposed to the U.S. military's largest "forward operating location" (FOL) in Manta, Ecuador, came to be read by some of that city's residents as more imperialist than the U.S. Air Force itself. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted between 2006 and 2008, I argue that this "inversion" was the product of disparate "scale-making practices" on the part of both activists and military officers. Whereas the former encouraged city residents to think of the facility as part of a global military network, the latter successfully pushed for more localized topographies and "geographies of blame." Attention to these scale-making practices complicates social movement theory about "vertical scale shifts."

2011. Local Convergence and Global Diversity: From Interpersonal to Social Influence. Journal of Conflict Resolution

How can minority cultures resist assimilation into a global monolith in an increasingly "small world"? Paradoxically, Axelrod found that local convergence can actually preserve global diversity if cultural influence is combined with homophily, the principle that "likes attract." However, follow-up studies showed that this diversity collapses under random cultural perturbation. The authors discovered a new source of this fragility-the assumption in Axelrod's model that cultural influence is interpersonal (dyadic). The authors replicated previous models but with the more empirically plausible assumption that influence is social-people can be simultaneously influenced by several network neighbors. Computational experiments show that cultural diversity then becomes much more robust than in Axelrod's original model or in published variations that included either social influence or homophily but not both. The authors conclude that global diversity may be sustained not by cultural experimentation and innovation but by the ability of cultural groups to discourage those activities.

2011. Small Worlds and Cultural Polarization. Journal of Mathematical Sociology

Building on Granovetter's theory of the "strength of weak ties,'' research on "small-world'' networks suggests that bridges between clusters in a social network (long-range ties) promote cultural diffusion, homogeneity, and integration. We show that this macro-level implication of network structure depends on hidden micro-level assumptions. Using a computational model similar to earlier studies, we find that ties between clusters facilitate cultural convergence under the micro-level assumptions of assimilation and attraction to similar others. However, these assumptions also have negative counterparts-differentiation and xenophobia. We found that when these negative possibilities are no longer assumed away, the effect of long-range ties reverses: Even very small amounts of contact between highly clustered communities sharply increased polarization at the population level.

2009. Conceptualizing ConflictSpace: Toward a Geography of Relational Power and Embeddedness in the Analysis of Interstate Conflict. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

The concept of ConflictSpace facilitates the systematic analysis of interstate conflict data. Building on relational theories of power, we identify the spatiality of conflict as a combination of territorial and network embeddedness. The former is modeled through spatial analysis and the latter by social network analysis. A brief empirical example of the spread of World War I illustrates how the position of states within physical and network spaces explains their roles within a broader geography of territorial settings and network relations.

2007. Commodification of rural places: A narrative of social fields, rural development, and football. Journal of Rural Studies

One of the most significant recent elements of restructuring in rural areas is the transition from an economy based on agricultural production to an economy based on the countryside as a form of commodity. In this transition process, different narratives or images of an area are produced to promote villages and other places in the countryside as commodities. Much of the literature takes it for granted that outsiders control the processes of branding rural areas, but our case study demonstrates that the producers (as well as potential consumers) of the countryside as a commodity can be insiders within a community. In this paper, we demonstrate how a local football club can take a leading role in the process of commodification of rural places in the post-modern era. Football clubs are presented as commodities to attract investors, sponsors, and expertise from private businesses. In both commodification of rural places and football, the challenge is to construct narratives or images that correspond to the pre-existing expectations of consumers, whoever they might be. Our theory-informed empirical analyses illustrate the way in which the Norwegian football club Sogndal Football has been instrumental in the restructuring of the Sogndal community. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. WiFi Geographies: When Code Meets Place. Information Society

This article argues that as our homes, offices, cities, and spaces get layered with digital information networks, it is vital that we develop new conceptual categories that integrate digital and physical spaces. With that objective in mind, it examines how WiFi networks interact with socioeconomic factors to reconfigure people, places, and information in physical spaces. Drawing on empirical research from ethnographic observations, a survey, and in-depth interviews, it shows how the availability of WiFi public hotspots has opened up new ways for freelancers to do their work, often using different locales for different phases of their work. Also, for freelancers in search of opportunities for co-working, WiFi hotspots are sites of informal interaction, social support, collaboration, and innovation. The article also illustrates how a WiFi network does not map onto existing physical or architectural boundaries. Instead, it reconfigures them in a number of ways by permeating walls, bleeding into public spaces, and breaking down some traditional notions of privacy and property while reinforcing others. Such reconfigurations of people, places and information require a new conceptual framing-codescapes-built on earlier notions of digital information and physical space.

2011. Shaping children's mobilities: expectations of gendered parenting in the English rural idyll. Childrens Geographies

This paper explores the impact of local parenting practices and children's everyday use of public space within two villages in the rural South West of England, an issue that has been underexplored in recent research. Drawing upon the concept of hybridity, it explores the interplay between the social, natural and material in shaping local cultures of rural parenting. The paper begins by drawing upon recent research on parenting in the global North, the gendering of rural space and hybridity to show how these bodies of work can be interlinked to better understand rural parenting practices and norms. Through empirical research that focused on the relationships between gendered parenting strategies, idealised notions of rural motherhood and materiality, the paper explores the diverse ways in which a group of working and middle-class mothers construct and define ideas about their children's lives and mobilities. Whilst dominant discourses of rurality focus upon the idyll, and gendered identities of rural women still remain within the domestic sphere, so we examine how these deeply embedded notions of 'normality' can be powerful social tools in rural villages, mobilised through discourses of materiality and anxiety. In our conclusions, we argue that the hybrid integration of the material and social provides a useful framework for understanding the everyday geographies of rural parenting.

2011. Where (star)R they all? The Geography and History of (star)R-loss in Southern Oceanic Languages. Oceanic Linguistics

Some twenty years ago, Paul Geraghty offered a large-scale survey of the retention and loss of Proto-Oceanic *R across Eastern Oceanic languages, and concluded that *R was "lost in proportion to distance from Western Oceanic." This paper aims at testing Geraghty's hypothesis based on a larger body of data now available, with a primary focus on a tightly knit set of languages spoken in Vanuatu. By observing the dialectology of individual lexical items in this region, I show that the boundaries between languages retaining vs. losing *R differ for each word, yet they all define a consistent north-to-south cline whereby *R is lost in the south. This cline, which confirms Geraghty's observations, can be recognized all the way to southern Vanuatu and New Caledonia. Such a neat geographic distribution observed today can be interpreted in historical terms. I propose that the tendency to lose *R emerged somewhere south of Efate, at an early date in the settlement of the archipelago. This sound change triggered a range of individual lexical innovations, each of which spread across what was then a vast social and linguistic network, encompassing the whole of Vanuatu and New Caledonia. The geography of *R reflexes constitutes a fossilized picture of prehistoric social networks, as the once unitary world of Lapita settlers was beginning to break down into increasingly diversified dialects-the ancestors of modern languages.

1996. Mapping interactions within and between cohesive subgroups. Social Networks

The structure of interactions and the pattern of influence in an organization can be characterized in terms of a map of interactions within and between cohesive subgroups. I extend the work of Festinger, Schachter and Back (Social Pressures in Informal Groups, 1950, Stanford University Press) who constructed a map based on the pattern of communication within and between apartment courts. In order to generalize Festinger et al.'s approach, I substitute a posteriori subgroups for Festinger et al.'s apartment courts, and I replace the distances of a physical geography with those of a metric multidimensional scaling. I apply the technique to data indicating professional discussions among teachers in a high school. After confirming that discussions are concentrated within a posteriori subgroups at a level that is unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, I construct a map of discussions within and between the cohesive subgroups. The map allows me to characterize the processes of influence at the teacher and school levels through which the school responds to external conditions, and I argue that a map based on blocks of structurally similar actors does not sustain a comparable characterization.

2008. Fragile empowerment: The dynamic cultural economy of British drum and bass music. Geoforum

This paper discusses the dynamic cultural economy of British drum and bass (D&B) music, which emerged out of Britain's rave culture in the early 1990s. We suggest that D&B offers insight into more general issues regarding the relation between alternative cultural economies and capitalism. We examine relations between D&B and the mainstream capitalist economy and argue that D&B calls attention to the possibility for alternatives to conventional capitalist relations to survive and possibly thrive without pursuing separation from capitalism. We also theorize D&B as a vehicle towards empowerment regarding the industry segment vis-a-vis the mainstream music industry and also regarding D&B's practitioners, many of whom can be understood as marginalized discursively and/or materially. However, D&B empowerment is fragile, due in part to technological changes that threaten practices that have helped cultivate innovativeness as well as communal relations. The empowerment of alternative practices is fragile not only for D&B as an industry segment, but also from the vantage point of internal power relations - notably with respect to differences along axes of gender and generation/age. Our conclusions indicate the broader significance of the paper for critical social theory and propose how new research might build on our dynamic view of D&B's cultural economy. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Freeman, J. H. and P. G. Audia (2006). Community ecology and the sociology of organizations. Annual Review of Sociology. 32: 145-169.

Research on organizations is increasingly informed by analysis of community context. Community can be conceptualized as sets of relations between organizational forms or as places where organizations are located in resource space or in geography. In both modes, organizations operate interdependently with social institutions and with other units of social structure. Because such relationships channel flows of resources, opportunities are granted or withheld from social actors depending in part on their organization connections. Such considerations encourage analyses of organizations in ways that spread the relevance of results beyond organizationally defined research problem areas.

2003. Cleaning up down South: supermarkets, ethical trade and African horticulture. Social & Cultural Geography

Supermarkets in Great Britain have joined the country's Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) in order to demonstrate their commitment to social welfare and environmental standards in their supply chains. They have been particularly concerned to enforce ethical as well as food safety standards in the African horticultural industry, which has historically depended on cheap labour to produce high-value vegetables. The supermarkets' 'ethical turn' appears to signal an important change from forms of commodity fetishism that obscured exploitative relations of food production in the South. This paper, however, argues that in an era of high food anxiety for both retailers and consumers, ethical standards are themselves fetishized. It also shows how the effort to impose such standards on Zambia's horticultural export industry resembles the colonial 'hygienic mission', and faces a similar contradiction.

2003. Social norms in distressed neighbourhoods: Testing the Wilson hypothesis. Housing Studies

Poverty or distressed neighbourhoods are assumed to have a negative impact on their residents, e.g. on deviant behaviour. This context effect is reviewed, in particular the work of Wilson (1987). Based upon his assumptions, the paper analyses the impact of distressed neighbourhoods on the acceptance of deviant behaviour by their residents in a sample of four neighbourhoods in Cologne, Germany. Findings support some of Wilson's propositions, in particular the impact of the neighbourhood on the acceptance of deviant behaviour, even when individual variables are controlled. In contrast, the assumed impact of exposure to neighbourhood on deviant norms, measured by time spent in the neighbourhood and total network size, are supported only in bivariate but not multivariate analyses. It is found, however, that total network size and annoyance about deviance are negatively related to acceptance of deviance.

2010. The impact of network structure on knowledge transfer: an application of social network analysis in the context of regional innovation networks. Annals of Regional Science

We analyze information and knowledge transfer in a sample of 16 German regional innovation networks with almost 300 firms and research organizations involved. The results indicate that strong ties are more beneficial for the exchange of knowledge and information than weak ties. Moreover, our results suggest that broker positions tend to be associated with social returns rather than with private benefits.

2009. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities. Biology Letters

Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerating and the consequences for green space are unclear. Here, we use standardized major axis regression to explore the relationships between urban green space coverage, city area and population size across 386 European cities. We show that green space coverage increases more rapidly than city area, yet declines only weakly as human population density increases. Thus, green space provision within a city is primarily related to city area rather than the number of inhabitants that it serves, or a simple space-filling effect. Thus, compact cities (small size and high density) show very low per capita green space allocation. However, at high levels of urbanicity, the green space network is robust to further city compaction. As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens.

2008. The post-social turn: Challenges for housing research. Housing Studies

In an editorial entitled 'Living Room' for the journal Urban Geography (Vol. 25, 2004) Susan Smith made reference to the 'tired state of housing studies'. Smith argued that the 'post-social turn' in sociology and cultural geography has largely gone unnoticed by housing researchers and because of this, the radical implications of its epistemology have yet to be explicitly addressed. This post-social turn, elsewhere referred to as Science and Technology Studies, Actor Network theory, feminist technoscience and post-humanism, calls on researchers to decentre the human as the nucleus of social life and in turn recognize the significance of non-human actors (e.g. animals, technology and material artefacts) within social analysis. While in recent years housing scholars have begun to embrace post-structuralist accounts of social life, including discursive and constructionist theories, there has only been limited engagement with post-social assumptions and concepts. In view of this gap, this paper reviews recent developments in post-social theory with a specific focus on the implications of this approach for housing studies.


We present a conceptual framework for metropolitan opportunity and a model of individual decision making about issues affecting youth's future socioeconomic status. Decision making and its geographic context have objective and subjective aspects. Objective spatial variations occur in the metropolitan opportunity structure-social systems, markets, and institutions that aid upward mobility. Decisions are based on the decision-maker's values, aspirations, preferences, and subjective perceptions of possible outcomes, which are all shaped by the local social network (e.g., kin, neighbors, and friends). We also review the psychological literature on decision making. We hypothesize that the decision-making method varies with the range of opportunities considered: Those with fewer options adopt a less considered method wherein mistakes and short-term focus are more likely. Our review also finds empirical evidence that the local social network has an important effect on youth's decisions regarding education, fertility, work, and crime. Policy implications are discussed.


This article uses tabular and mapping presentations of 1990 census tract data to investigate variations in adverse socioeconomic conditions across Washington, DC, neighborhoods. It also examines the levels of exposure of youth of different races or ethnicities to these adverse conditions. Underlying this analysis is the premise that aggregate neighborhood conditions related to poverty and welfare status, educational attainment, out-of-wedlock births, employment, drug use, and crime serve as proxies for resident youth's perceptions of the opportunity structure as filtered through the local social network. Empirical analyses show two distinct clusters of indicators that vary consistently across Washington neighborhoods; one is related to socioeconomic status, drug use, and fertility, and the other is related to crime rates. Both sets vary systematically by the racial-ethnic composition of youth in the neighborhood. Youth in black, female-headed families are exposed to the most negative neighborhood conditions.

2008. A mathematical programming formulation of the household activity rescheduling problem. Transportation Research Part B-Methodological

The so-called activity-based approach to analysis of human interaction with the social and physical environments dates back to the original time-space geography works of Hagerstrand and his colleagues at the Lund School. Despite their obvious theoretical attractiveness, activity-based approaches to understanding and predicting travel behavior have suffered from the absence of an analytical framework that unifies the complex interactions among the resource allocation decisions made by households in conducting their daily affairs outside the home, while preserving the utility-maximizing principles presumed to guide such decisions. In this paper, we develop a computationally tractable system, based on an extension and modification of some rather well-known network-based formulations in operations research, to model human dynamics in uncertain environments. The research builds on the mixed integer linear program formulation of the Household Activity Pattern Problem (HAPP) by embedding in the household activity schedule decision process a means of capturing uncertainty by introducing the dynamics of rescheduling. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. (Re)conceptualizing International Student Mobility The Potential of Transnational Social Fields. Journal of Studies in International Education

Although educational border crossings are not new, the creation of innovative theoretical constructs, such as transnational social fields, to examine the flow of students and social networks across national borders is a profound development. Within transnational social fields, a constant flow of ideas and practices is embedded within relationships, offering a framework for addressing evolving associations across borders to better understand how university students construct identities and negotiate social spaces, physical locales, and the geography of the mind. Employing the concept of transnational social fields in an analysis of student mobility illuminates student negotiations by recognizing simultaneity in localities and multiplicity in identities and refuting the generalization or homogenization of student experiences. This article aims to provide a working understanding of transnational social fields and justify adopting concepts that currently reside outside of the existing cross-border education discourse to frame international student negotiations that are not thoroughly explored or understood.

2005. Complexity theory and geographies of health: a critical assessment. Social Science & Medicine

The interest of social scientists in complexity theory has developed rapidly in recent years. Here, I consider briefly the primary characteristics of complexity theory, with particular emphasis given to relations and networks, non-linearity, emergence, and hybrids. I assess the 'added value' compared with other, existing perspectives that emphasise relationality and connectedness. I also consider the philosophical underpinnings of complexity theory and its reliance on metaphor. As a vehicle for moving away from reductionist accounts, complexity theory potentially has much to say to those interested in research on health inequalities, spatial diffusion, emerging and resurgent infections, and risk. These and other applications in health geography that have invoked complexity theory are examined in the paper. Finally, I consider some of the missing elements in complexity theory and argue that while it is refreshing to see a fruitful line of theoretical debate in health geography, we need good empirical work to illuminate it. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Return migration and the reiteration of gender norms in water management politics: Insights from a Chinese village. Geoforum

Recent work on return migration in China suggests return migrants bring with them new knowledge, skills, and potentially beneficial relationships accumulated during their sojourns, enabling them to introduce new forms of leadership and community action. Social remittances of this kind could be read as carrying the potential to enhance collective action in support of sustainable local natural resource-based livelihoods. This study of the links between return migration, leadership and collective action in water management sounds a more cautionary note, demonstrating that home communities may respond to return migrants in ways that repeatedly mark and reiterate gender and kinship norms, reiterating gender, generational and clan-based social hierarchies. The paper draws on and contributes to recent feminist political ecology approaches to show how migrant returnees' social remittances' translate into leadership in collective action in a rural Chinese village in ways that reinforce existing gender hierarchies and social positions within the community, thus questioning the extent to which any influx of new ideas, relationships and practices acquired from migrant experiences necessarily destabilizes power and authority in the village in any meaningful way. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Urban fictions: a critical reflection on locative art and performative geographies. Digital Creativity

This article critically examines the mapmaking practices of locative art and explores its potential to produce alternative maps that respond to the spatial and social multiplicity of our urban fabric. Starting from a critique of traditional cartographic practice and how locative art shares its Cartesian anchorage and technological lenses, we investigate the conceptual challenges, methodological issues and technological constraints related to entangling geographic locations and social dynamics. We introduce our locative artworks Urban Fiction (2007) and Urban Fiction 2.0 (2011) that engage participants in corporeal negotiations of urban spaces to generate dynamic, fictional maps. Reflecting on these works allows us to examine the potential of locative media against a backdrop of technological advances and co-evolving social practices. Situated within post-colonial and feminist perspectives, we develop the notion of a 'performative geography' based on a generative mapping approach that understands maps as a dynamic process, rather than a fixed representation.

1992. FLEXIBILITY REVISITED - DISTRICTS, NATION-STATES, AND THE FORCES OF PRODUCTION. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

A vibrant debate has raged in geography and other social sciences over the past several years, concerning the nature and extent of changes to contemporary capitalism that might be identified as more flexible. This paper critically surveys the recent work on this theme, identifying areas of consensus, continuing disagreement, and important but still neglected questions. Some consensus appears to have emerged over the types of new practices that firms are pursuing in their production systems, about the nature of contemporary competition, and about the continuing importance of politics and social relations in production. Disagreement remains evident on empirical questions concerning the pervasiveness and significance of flexible practices, on the characteristics of a 'true' industrial district, and on the role and importance of large versus small firms. Theoretical debates continue over how to interpret local cases of success or failure, as well as the motive forces underlying contemporary economic change. As for neglected issues, there is a pressing need for more systematic and comparative analysis cutting across a wider range of local experiences. There is also a need to redress the relative lack of attention directed toward declining regions, service industries, and gender relations in the economy. Nor have the continuing importance of nation-states, nor the geographical determinants of forces of production, yet received their due. The paper concludes by highlighting new dilemmas facing geographers as the theory of flexible industrialization is translated increasingly into practice.


Industrial surveys reveal that manufacturers in mature industrial regions of Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom have been adopting advanced process technologies at reasonable rates during the 1980s. However, the expected improvements in productivity growth have failed to materialize, and case-study evidence suggests that such manufacturers are indeed encountering considerable difficulty in utilizing such technologies effectively. Increasingly, such regions share a common characteristic: that they are geographically removed from the now-dominant sources of production of advanced industrial machinery. Based on a critical review of recent theoretical contributions from geography, regional development, economic history, management studies and the economics of technological change, this paper explores the implications of spatial separation of advanced machinery users and producers. It offers an interpretation of technology implementation pathologies which shows the spatial context of technology production and use to be important, and also considers counter-arguments to this claim. It concludes that, because process technologies are socially constructed, and because the socio-political context surrounding machinery production and use in the workplace will normally differ from region to region and country to country, one can generally expect implementation difficulties to arise whenever users and producers of advanced machinery are physically, organizationally or socially distant from one another. Implications for spatial trade theory and regional industrial policy are also explored.

1997. In search of the new social economy: collaborative relations between users and producers of advanced manufacturing technologies. Environment and Planning A

Geographers and other social scientists have paid considerable attention recently to what has been characterized as the increasingly social character of economic activity. Of particular interest has been the rise of more collaborative relations among firms and the formation of territorial production networks predicated upon joint product development and manufacturing, trust-based buyer-supplier interaction, and the freer exchange of proprietary information. Much of the empirical evidence for such claims comes from a relatively small number of regional case studies of particular industries which have enjoyed a high degree of economic success in recent years. At issue, however, is the extent to which such collaborative activity has diffused to other industries and other regions, especially the more mature industrial regions. Furthermore, even in cases where collaborative relationships have been documented, much debate remains over their effectiveness and the kinds of benefits arising from such activity, especially in North America. Previous research on the adoption and implementation of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) in Ontario indicates that strong collaboration between AMT producers (largely outside the region) and AMT users is relatively rare. In this paper this work is deepened and extended by an examination of the frequency of collaboration, the forms such collaboration takes, and the factors which seem to be critical in determining whether or not firms will collaborate with one another. Evaluating the results of a survey analysis of AMT users, follow-up interviews both with users and with producers, and a comparison with the AMT sector in Germany, the authors conclude that the apparent scarcity of collaborative activity in the Ontario AMT industry is closely related to the physical and organizational distance between suppliers and customers, and also arises from the high degree of foreign ownership of AMT users in Ontario. They conclude that, despite the well-recognized rise of global economic players, nationality of ownership and geography still matter.

2011. Sexually Transmitted Disease Core Theory: Roles of Person, Place, and Time. American Journal of Epidemiology

The authors' purpose was to expand sexually transmitted disease core theory by examining the roles of person, place, and time in differentiating geographic core areas from outbreak areas. The authors mapped yearly censustract-level syphilis rates for San Francisco, California, based on new primary and secondary syphilis cases reported to the San Francisco City sexually transmitted disease surveillance program between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2007. SaTScan software (Information Management Services, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland) was used to identify geographic clusters of significantly elevated syphilis rates over space and time. The authors graphed epidemic curves for 1) core areas, 2) outbreak areas, 3) neither core nor outbreak areas, and 4) noncore areas, where noncore areas included outbreaks, and stratified these curves according to demographic characteristics. Five clusters of significantly elevated primary and secondary syphilis rates were identified. A 5-year threshold was useful for differentiating core clusters from outbreak clusters. Epidemic curves for core areas, outbreak areas, neither core nor outbreak areas, and noncore areas were perfectly synchronized in phase trends and wavelength over time, even when broken down by demographic characteristics. Between epidemics, the occurrence of syphilis affected all demographic groups equally. During an epidemic, a temporary disparity in syphilis occurrence arose and a homogeneous core group of cases could be defined.

2011. A comparison of spatial and social clustering of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh. Health & Place

Infectious diseases often cluster spatially, but can also cluster socially because they are transmitted within social networks. This study compares spatial and social clustering of cholera in rural Bangladesh. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database, which consists of approximately 200,000 people and laboratory-confirmed cholera cases from 1983 to 2003. Matrices are created of kinship ties between households using a complete network design and distance matrices are also created to model spatial relationships. Moran's I statistics are calculated to measure clustering within both social and spatial matrices. The results show that cholera always clusters in space and seldom within social networks. Cholera is transmitted mostly through the local environment rather than through person-to-person contact. Comparing spatial and social network analysis can help improve understanding of disease transmission. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. A global sense of migrant places: towards a place perspective in the study of migrant transnationalism. Global Networks-a Journal of Transnational Affairs

Contemporary transnational migrants have complex social lives in that they live in a number of different cross-border social networks at the same time. Most transmigration scholars try to grasp this social complexity of migrant transnationalism by using a network lens. In this article, I argue in favour of adding a place lens to the analytical tool kit of transmigration scholars. Although a network lens works well for studying the internal complexity of cross-border social networks, a place lens is more useful for gaining an understanding of their external complexity, in other words the ways these networks interrelate. By drawing on geographical and anthropological literature on open and relational understandings of place, and especially on the work of Doreen Massey and Arjun Appadurai, I shall show that interrelating migrant networks are visible in place in two ways. On the one hand, migrant places are meeting places of social networks, and on the other hand they are sites (translocalities) where transmigrants can reach out to people in other places.

2010. Across Zomia with merchants, monks, and musk: process geographies, trade networks, and the Inner-East-Southeast Asian borderlands. Journal of Global History

For several decades, theorists have challenged notions of geographical space as fixed, instead arguing that spatial scales and regional configurations respond to transformations in politics and economies. This has raised questions about permanent regional studies configurations (such as Southeast Asia), sparking the proposal of 'Zomia', an alternative region focusing on Asia's highland borderlands. Building on these developments, this article employs 'process geography' methodologies to reconstruct trading networks through the mountains and river valleys of nineteenth-and early twentieth-century Inner Asia's Kham, East Asia's Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, and Southeast Asia. In doing so, it reveals who traded commodities, on what scales they operated, and how their increasingly complex networks were imbricated with state and local power. These networks linked Zomian communities to Chinese and global transformations and influenced local cultural and political changes, suggesting that studies of mobility can uncover hidden geographies of social, political, and cultural change.

2000. A space for place in sociology. Annual Review of Sociology

Sociological studies sensitive to the issue of place are rarely labeled thus, and at the same time there are far too many of them to fit in this review. It may be a good thing that this research is seldom gathered up as a "sociology of place," for that could ghettoize the subject as something of interest only to geographers, architects, or environmental historians. The point of this review is to indicate that sociologists have a stake in place no matter what they analyze, or how: The works cited below emplace inequality, difference, power, politics, interaction, community, social movements, deviance, crime, life course, science, identity, memory, history. After a prologue of definitions and methodological ruminations, I ask: How do places come to be the way they are, and how do places matter for social practices and historical change?

2010. Scale as an explanatory concept: evaluating Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit. Area

The concept of 'scale' and usage of this term have raised much debate within human geography over the past 25 years. At the same time, these very debates have developed the concept dramatically by offering new considerations of its use. Building on notions that scale is experienced and that scalar concepts offer a vocabulary to articulate complex phenomena, this analysis aims to explore the relevance of scale as an explanatory concept used by informal family caregivers and front-line health and social care workers when discussing their experiences with a Canadian social programme, the Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB). The goal of the CCB is to provide income assistance and job security to those who take temporary leave from employment to care for a terminally ill family member. As part of a larger evaluative study on the CCB, semi-structured interviews with 57 family caregivers and 50 front-line health and social care workers from across Canada were conducted and transcripts were thematically analysed. Emerging from analysis of both datasets was the common usage of scalar concepts, specifically 'region', 'community' and 'home'. Respondents employed these scalar categories to reference both differences and relationships in highly spatial and comparative ways, and also to organise and articulate their thoughts in ways meaningful to them and their lives in place. Based upon these scalar categories and issues highlighted by respondents, particular spatial challenges and inequities are illuminated, and implications for the CCB and its administration are identified. These findings provide insight into the complex ways family caregivers and front-line health and social care workers make sense of their world and more specifically, understand how federal programmes like the CCB operate. By considering how such programmes are experienced in scalar ways, knowledge can be maximised and thus, informed decision-makers can more effectively meet the needs of programme users.

1998. 'Ornamenting the facade of hell': iconographies of 19th-century Canadian paper money. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

In this paper I explore the iconographies on 19th-century Canadian paper money. Drawing upon the recent debates regarding the intersection of culture, society, and economy, it is argued that the form of paper money conveys not only economic but social and cultural values. The paper is divided into three parts. The first section situates Canadian paper currency in terms of the consolidation of paper monies more generally in the 18th and 19th centuries, but with particular reference to Britain and the United States. I then turn to a more specific analysis of the design and production of paper money, illustrating how monetary images were transferred among artistic media. A third section focuses on some of the spatial aspects of paper money by exploring national and imperial monetary narratives which are in turn related to specific monetary practices. In a brief conclusion the importance of an historical analysis to our contemporary understanding of paper and other kinds of monies is outlined and points to our complicity in economic, social, and cultural networks.

1998. "Race," space, and power: The survival strategies of working poor women. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Feminist geographers have documented that the spatial entrapment of many women negatively affects their economic opportunities. The experiences of many African-American women, however, suggest that the spatial-entrapment thesis requires refinement. I argue that the spatial-entrapment thesis is based on a problematic conceptualization of the links between space and power in people's daily lives, one that equates immobility with powerlessness and mobility with power. The thesis not only theorizes power as unidirectional (i.e., more power, more mobility), it also masks important differences among women by undertheorizing mobility and immobility relative to social relations other than gender, such as "race." I argue that, depending on the constellation of power relations, the spatial boundedness of women's lives is a potential resource for, as well as a constraint on, their economic security. The utility of this reconceptualization of the links between space and power for examining the opportunities for and barriers to women's economic security is demonstrated through an analysis of the role of place-based personal networks in the survival strategies of working poor African-American and white women with children in Worcester, Massachusetts. I first evaluate these women's experiences in terms of the spatial-entrapment thesis. Then I examine whether women's use of spatial rootedness in the construction of their survival strategies can be enabling as well as constraining. The results confirm that the spatial boundedness of women's daily lives and their survival strategies are mutually constituted; that is, place-based personal networks are an important component of survival strategies, and can be both enabling and constraining, depending on how racism structures women's experiences.

2008. Theorizing the digital divide: Information and communication technology use frameworks among poor women using a telemedicine system. Geoforum

In this paper, we argue that reconceptualizing the "digital divide" from the perspective of those with the least access requires that the policy concern shift from disparities in access to computers and the Internet toward an examination of how Internet information resources are differentially accessed and used. Drawing on an archive of clinical narrative descriptions documenting training sessions related to eight African American, low-income women involved in a clinical trial of a telemedicine system intervention for monitoring cardiovascular disease risk factors implemented at Temple University; we illustrate the shortcomings of a limited conceptualization of access. Rather, we propose a model that depicts information and communication technology (ICT) access in terms of four interrelated elements: (a) information delivery approaches (how information is shared, disseminated and accessed through the use of e-communication technologies), (b) technology use contexts (what are the specific settings in which technology is accessed), (c) social networks (what is the role of social networks in shaping access to and use of ICTs) and (d) the social policies and institutional mechanisms regulating technology access (specifically targeted to ICT use as well as more generally). This model highlights the embeddedness of ICT use in the geography of people's daily lives and suggests a number of policy concerns related to how ICTs may mitigate or exacerbate economic and political inequalities in the United States. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Pathologies of migrant place-making: the case of Polish migrants to the UK. Environment and Planning A

The author argues that migrant place-making can become counterproductive for migrant communities for a variety of reasons. Existing place-making literature is often optimistic about the ability of places to offer migrants common identities and means of mobilising collectively. The author constructs a four-stage general model of migrant place-making to examine the potential pathologies of migrant organisational strategies at each of these four stages. In order to demonstrate the use of this model, an analysis of post-2004 Polish migration to the UK, drawing upon forty-two semistructured interviews with Polish migrants and domestic service providers, is presented. Although earlier migration displayed a number of the ideal characteristics of positive place-making described in the ideal four-stage model, centring around the Polish Catholic churches of England and Wales, post-2004 migration has introduced a series of problems that illustrate the various pathologies that can occur. The author concludes by calling for (i) a greater appreciation of the role of host organisations in the production of successful and unsuccessful place-making, and (ii) a recognition that place-making as a migrant settlement strategy is deeply fallible at various stages of its development.

2006. The political geography of campaign contributions in American politics. Journal of Politics

This article examines the geographic origins of individual campaign contributions to the Republican and Democratic parties and their candidates from 1992 to 2004. Results demonstrate that contributions are affected by how potential givers are situated in space. There is a geographic pattern to giving independent of wealth, age, occupation, and other individual characteristics that predict donations. Campaign contributors are not only people with resources and incentives to participate, but also part of networks in which social influence can be brought to bear in the solicitation of contributions. The article also shows that the Republican and Democratic donor bases are much more similar geographically than their bases of electoral support.

2011. On Place and Space: Calculating Social and Spatial Networks in the Budapest Ghetto. Transactions in Gis

When studying spatial patterns, GIScientists often employ distance-based methods and techniques, such as network analysis. When studying human behavior, however, spatial patterns often emerge that cannot be adequately examined assuming a physical conceptualization of distance. Such patterns emerged during our study of the process of ghettoization of Jews as implemented in Budapest during the course of 1944. As part of an NSF-sponsored research project on the geography of the Holocaust, we built a Historical GIS of the Budapest Ghetto with the objective of discovering patterns of Jewish concentration and dispersion as well as simulating potential daily spatial interactions between the Jewish and the non-Jewish population. Spatial analytical techniques allowed us to discover distinct spatial patterns of isolation, interrelation and concentration, but a whole set of patterns appeared that were the opposite of what we expected, and that could only be explained by thinking of distance not in spatial terms but in social ones. In this article we employ social network analysis to examine the geography of oppression in the Budapest ghetto. What jumped out from our study is the interweaving of space and place - intended as a community bounded by social relations and living in a specific time and location.

2010. The Most Ancient Democracy in the World Is a Genetic Isolate: An Autosomal and Y-Chromosome Study of the Hermit Village of Malana (Himachal Pradesh, India). Human Biology

Malana, a small village in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India, has historically been considered a hermit village. Today it has a census size of 1,101 individuals. Geographic, linguistic, and population barriers have contributed to its seclusion. Little is known about the extent to which the population genetically differentiated during the years of isolation. To address this issue, we genotyped 48 Malani individuals at 15 highly polymorphic autosomal STR loci. We found that Malanis have lost some genetic variability compared with the present-day cosmopolitan caste populations and highly mobile pastoral cultures of India. But there is no evidence that they have gone through a severe bottleneck; the average population still shows a mean of 6.86 alleles per locus compared to a mean of 7.80-8.93 for nonisolated populations. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) differentiates Malanis from the rest of the comparison populations. The population structure revealed by multidimensional scaling analysis of standard genetic distances lends support to the AMOVA. Our results are consistent with the social heterogeneity of the Malanis. We also analyzed 17 Y-chromosome STRs in 30 individuals to assess the paternal gene pool. The Malanis are characterized by a generally low Y-chromosome haplotype diversity. A network analysis indicates that two closely related haplotypes account for a large proportion of Malani Y chromosomes. We predicted Y-chromosome haplogroups and found that J2 and R1a were the most prevalent. Genetic drift and limited gene flow leading to reduced genetic diversity were important in determining the present genetic structure of the highly endogamous Malana village.

2007. Does geography matter for science-based firms? Epistemic communities and the geography of research and patenting in biotechnology. Organization Science

The spatial clustering of innovation has been associated with localized knowledge flows among small, knowledge-intensive firms, but knowledge flows may extend beyond regional boundaries through the participation of firm employees in broader knowledge-based communities. This paper analyzes biotechnology firms jointly engaged in technological innovation and open scientific research and proposes that the geography of their collaborations should reflect the distinctive social logics of these activities. I hypothesize that projects involving local ties are more likely to be patented by a firm than are projects involving distant contacts, both because proximity is conducive to innovation and because a small firm's social capital is likely to be greatest in its home region. However, classic studies in the sociology of science show that scientific communities are socially stratified and geographically dispersed. As a result, I hypothesize that ties to distant partners and prestige in scientific communities are positively associated with scientific impact but negatively associated with firm patenting. The analysis focuses on 5,143 collaborative research papers published by a large sample of small biotechnology firms. The average distance among coauthors on a paper is some 1,500 miles, indicating that the firms are engaged in geographically far-flung research networks; however, the distribution of teams in space is strongly bimodal, revealing an important core of regional ties alongside a set of much more distant ties. Regression analysis show that the spatially clustered teams are more likely to publish papers that are subsequently cited in the authoring firms' patents, whereas teams that are globally dispersed produce papers that are more highly cited in the scientific literature, but less cited in the authoring firms' patents. Status in the scientific community has the expected positive effects on paper citations, but a negative effect on patent citations. The results give evidence of different-and in some respects conflicting-logics governing the creation of new technologies on the one hand and valuable ideas in science on the other, highlighting challenges faced by firms that aim to profit from knowledge created in open scientific communities.

2007. The selective nature of knowledge networks in clusters: evidence from the wine industry. Journal of Economic Geography

Most of the studies about industrial clusters and innovation stress the importance of firms' geographical proximity and their embeddedness in local business networks (BNs) as factors that positively affect their learning and innovation processes. More recently, scholars have started to claim that firm-specific characteristics should be considered to be central in the process of learning and innovation in clusters. This article contributes to this latter direction of research. It applies social network analysis to explore the structural properties of knowledge networks in three wine clusters in Italy and Chile. The results show that in spite of firms' geographical proximity and the pervasiveness of local BNs, in novation-related knowledge is diffused in clusters in a highly selective and uneven way. This pattern is found to be related to the heterogeneous and asymmetric distribution of firm knowledge bases in the clusters.

2005. The micro-determinants of meso-level learning and innovation: evidence from a Chilean wine cluster. Research Policy

Most analyses of the relationship between spatial clustering and the technological learning of firms have emphasised the influence of the former on the latter, and have focused on intra-cluster learning as the driver of innovative performance. This paper reverses those perspectives. It examines the influence of individual firms' absorptive capacities on both the functioning of the intra-cluster knowledge system and its interconnection with extra-cluster knowledge. It applies social network analysis to identify different cognitive roles played by cluster firms and the overall structure of the knowledge system of a wine cluster in Chile. The results show that knowledge is not diffused evenly 'in the air', but flows within a core group of firms characterised by advanced absorptive capacities. Firms' different cognitive roles include some-as in the case of technological gatekeepers-that contribute actively to the acquisition, creation and diffusion of knowledge. Others remain cognitively isolated from the cluster, though in some cases strongly linked to extra-cluster knowledge. Possible implications for policy are noted. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


There is growing speculation about the longevity of mass production as the underlying principle of manufacturing organization in advanced industrial economies. The Japanese manufacturing system is often cited as an example of this new mode of industrial organization. On the surface Japanese mass production is characterized by the dominance of large firms assisted by far-reaching government intervention. But another side to Japanese production is a network of very elaborate subcontracting relationships in which the largest firms are often only final assemblers organizing groups of smaller manufacturers. There are limited integrated examples of the internal mechanisms of the production system. Our understanding rests on assessments of discrete components of the system - the role of the state, large business, small business, subcontracting and the social division of labour. Few authors explore the pivotal role of Japan's physical geography and natural resource limitations, which have greatly influenced the organization of the industrial space economy. In this article we attempt to knit the various elements of the Japanese manufacturing system into an explanation of its current organization.

1997. Community care and disability: The limits to justice. Progress in Human Geography

This article considers the distinctive injustices experienced by disabled people and assesses recent institutional strategies which have sought to reduce these inequities and exclusions. A principle of 'enabling justice' is proposed. This is to emphasize that the attainment of a just society which respects social difference is dependent upon the creation of human environments which satisfy the material and cultural needs of all who occupy them. The article reviews a critical area of state policy practice in capitalist societies - the establishment of community care networks for socially dependent persons. While the policy of community care cannot alone produce enabling environments, it may well lessen one dynamic of oppression which disabled people experience: their sociospatial exclusion in remote, often dehumanizing, institutional settings. However, an examination of the practice of community care in particular national contexts reveals several problems which may frustrate the realization of its policy aims, including opposition to care facilities from nearby residents and structural changes to social policy by neoliberal governments. The article considers these challenges to community care using recent research which has examined the relationship between deinstitutionalization, urban regulation and social policy.

2009. A third place in the everyday lives of people living with cancer: Functions of Gilda's Club of Greater Toronto. Health & Place

The purpose of this paper was to examine the therapeutic functions of Gilda's Club of Greater Toronto in the everyday lives of people living with cancer. Gilda's Club is a non-institutional setting, where people living with cancer join together to build physical, social, and emotional support as a supplement to medical care. Findings reveal members regarded Gilda's Club as an escape from the stressors of home and hospital, a place where they could meet others living with cancer, and a social environment in which they could confront or distance themselves from their health problems. The paper demonstrates the significance of "third places" for health and calls on researchers to afford such places greater attention. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2001. The importance of embeddedness in economic geography. Geographische Zeitschrift

Debate in organisation theory has shifted focus from market and intra-firm types of economic exchange towards hybrid and network forms of organisation. This paper reviews the concept of embeddedness and its consequences for research in economic geography by distinguishing four conceptual levels of embeddedness: First, the idea of embeddedness is reconstructed as a critique of the neo-classical rationale of transaction costs put forward by neo-institutional economics. It introduces the specific meaning of social context and social structure in economic exchange and sets out a relational view of economic action. Second, trust and reputation are discussed as fundamental social mechanisms creating relational and structural aspects of embeddedness at the level of empirical phenomena. Third, exemplary research is discussed in order to explore the effects of empirical embeddedness of firm relations on economic performance. Fourth, in this context metaphorical and regional reductionism are criticised in the current use of embeddedness in economic geography. Instead, a refined concept is suggested as a basis for research in economic geography. The paper closes by formulating prospects for future research and application of embeddedness for the understanding of economic action in a spatial perspective.

2006. A relational assessment of international market entry in management consulting. Journal of Economic Geography

This paper criticizes conventional internationalization theory of the firm and argues for a relational perspective in the analysis of international expansion. Using in-depth empirical research from three European metropolitan case studies, the paper demonstrates that social networks (i) are the most frequent cause of international market entry and (ii) they systematically affect the organizational form of entry. A combination of qualitative exploration and logistic regression analysis of fieldwork and survey data suggests that the internationalization of business services cannot be fully understood from firm-specific resources alone, but it also has to take the context of external relationships into systematic consideration. The impact of social networks on entry form changes overtime. With increasing international experience firms face fewer constraints on entering a foreign market through brownfield FDI. For economic geography, future analysis should focus more on the context of inter-firm relationships in order to overcome some of the too mechanical arguments about the process of firm internationalization.

2007. Economic geography and the evolution of networks. Journal of Economic Geography

An evolutionary perspective on economic geography requires a dynamic understanding of change in networks. This article explores theories of network evolution for their use in geography and develops the conceptual framework of geographical network trajectories. It specifically assesses how tie selection constitutes the evolutionary process of retention and variation in network structure and how geography affects these mechanisms. Finally, a typology of regional network formations is used to discuss opportunities for innovation in and across regions.

2000. In search of synthesis. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

The American scientific community currently is being challenged to provide the basic and applied research that is necessary for the nation to make better decisions related to the environment. Concern with the environment has led to the demand for a more synthetic perspective, one that identifies linkages among the cultural, social, political, economic, physical, biological, chemical, and geological systems that govern our world. Geography has a historic opportunity to position itself at the nexus of the natural sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities, and to lead the search for synthesis. In order to achieve this goal, however, we must leave the isolated intellectual realms into which we have retreated, dampen the fires of criticism that have polarized us, rethink the way graduate education is structured, foster new networks of communication, and develop a disciplinary culture that values both specialized analytical research and broader integrative research.

2002. Knowing food and growing food: Beyond the production-consumption debate in the sociology of agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis

What does the rise of organic food as a social phenomenon mean politically? What political impact does this form of consumption have on society? Is it a small and unimportant "blip," in the overall march of globalized, industrialized food and rationalized consumption systems. Is it even, perhaps, complicit in this process? Or is it a radical break ? The array of answers to these questions forms the "production-consumption debate" currently taking place in the examination of agro-food systems. If agro-food networks are conceptualized as interactive, socio-ecological metabolic circuits linking agricultural nature, social labor, the corporeal and the symbolic, then this paper argues that analytical concern in agro-food studies has focused overwhelmingly on the production 'moment' in these circuits. Despite the lessons of numerous 'food scares', anti-GMO movements and the mad cow disease pandemic, an asymmetry now holds sway in agro-food studies between production and consumption even though in other fields, as Jackson (1999) notes, consumption has been "duly 'acknowledged" (p. 95). As this asymmetry is addressed, a contemporary reformulation of the 'agrarian question' might investigate the potential for new forms of progressive food politics, ranging from 'weak' struggles over the modes of social orderings, such as knowledge systems, to more formal alliances between producers and consumers.

2002. The project ecology of advertising: Tasks, talents and teams. Regional Studies

In economic geographic analysis, the 'firm' usually is assumed, at least implicitly, as a coherent and unitary economic actor. More recently, however, the integrity of the firm as the basic analytical unit has been undercut by organizational practices which are built instead around 'projects'. By taking up this theoretical challenge, this paper ventures an empirical investigation in which the project features as the central unit of economic action. However, rather than assuming a substitution of the firm by temporary projects, the paper seeks to explore interdependencies between projects and firms as well as other more traditional 'permanent forms' of organization. Against the empirical background of the London advertising industry, the paper delves into the interrelation between projects on the one hand and, on the other, the agencies, personal ties, localities and corporate networks which provide essential sources for project-based organizing. By consecutively embedding projects into these different organizational and social layers, the paper unfolds a space of collaborative practices for which the term project ecology will be proposed.

2004. Learning in projects, remembering in networks? Communality, sociality, and connectivity in project ecologies. European Urban and Regional Studies

This paper seeks to contrast two opposing logics of project-based learning. Accumulation and modularization of knowledge denote the key imperatives of a learning logic that is exemplified by the software ecology in Munich. Learning is geared towards moving from 'one-off' to repeatable solutions. This cumulative logic is juxtaposed with a discontinuous learning regime that is driven by the maxims of originality and creativity. 'Learning by switching' here signifies the emblematic knowledge practice that is exemplified by the London advertising ecology. The paper explores these learning modes by subsequently exploring processes of learning and forgetting within and between the core team, the firm, and the epistemic community tied together for the completion of a specific project. In addition, the paper also directs attention to more diffuse learning processes in an awareness space that extends beyond and beneath the actual production ties. Instead of mapping the awareness space along a simplistic scalar nesting of network density and knowledge types (reduced to the notorious global vs local dichotomy), the paper proposes a differentiation that primarily involves different social and communicative logics. Whereas communality signifies lasting and intense ties, sociality signifies intense and yet ephemeral relations and connectivity indicates transient and weak networks.

2006. Trading routes, bypasses, and risky intersections: mapping the travels of 'networks' between economic sociology and economic geography. Progress in Human Geography

In economic geography the notion of the network has come to play a critical role in a range of debates. Yet networks are rarely construed in an explicit fashion. They are, rather, assumed as some sort of more enduring social relations. This paper seeks to foreground these implicit assumptions - and their limitations - by tracing the selective engagement of economic geography with network approaches in economic sociology. The perception of networks in economic geography is mainly informed by the network governance approach that is founded on Mark Granovetter's notion of embeddedness. By embracing the network governance approach, economic geography bypassed the older tradition of the social network approach. Economic geography thus discarded not only the concerns for network position and structure but also more calculative and strategic perceptions of networks prevailing in Ron Burt's work. Beyond these two dominant traditions, economic geography has, more recently, started to tinker with the poststructuralist metaphor of the rhizome of actor-network theory while it took no notice of Harrison White's notions of publics and polymorphous network domains.

2006. Bad company? The ambiguity of personal knowledge networks. Journal of Economic Geography

Recent debates on learning have shifted the analytical focus from formal organizational arrangements to informal personal ties. Personal knowledge networks, though, mostly are perceived as homogenous, cohesive, and local personal ties. Moreover, a functionalist tone seems to prevail in accounts in which personal knowledge networks are seen to compensate the shortcomings of the formal organization. This paper sets out to expand the dominant construal of networks, which is largely molded by the notion of embeddedness. Against the background of in-depth empirical analysis of the project ecologies of the Hamburg advertising and the Munich software business, the paper will first venture into the neglected sphere of thin, ephemeral, and global personal knowledge networks by differentiating between connectivity, sociality, and communality networks. Second, the paper not only elucidates the supportive functions of these ties but also explores the tensions between personal interests, project goals, and the firm's aims that are induced by these personal knowledge networks.

2010. The social dynamics of attracting talent in Halifax. Canadian Geographer-Geographe Canadien

The paper reports a case study of factors attracting and retaining talented and creative workers in Halifax, Nova Scotia. All categories of workers interviewed mentioned quality of place and amenities in discussing their location preferences, but that could not fully explain their choices. For some occupations (like health research), talented people followed jobs; in other sectors (like music), talented workers migrated to a sympathetic locale with the right conditions for creative engagement; creative workers in some occupations (like those in architectural, engineering or planning consulting) were more rooted in place. The social dynamics-that is, positive and collaborative social networks within key sectors and a wider community perceived as welcoming and interesting-make this mid-sized city attractive to talented workers. Local universities and a vibrant music scene generate a mutually reinforcing context that attracted mobile talented and creative workers to the city. Respondents noted Halifax's limited cultural diversity but did not report a perceived lack of tolerance as affecting their choices. In smaller cities, the social dynamics of place and workplace and the quality of life available may play more significant roles than tolerance in attracting and retaining talented workers, challenging a basic assumption of creative cities discourse.

2010. Working it out: Labour geographies of the poor in Soweto, South Africa. Development Southern Africa

Local economic development (LED) research and policy grapple with the informal economy and township transformation. While most current thinking centres on firms, this paper argues that non-firm worlds of work and their spatiality are not adequately understood. Representations of the places where poor people work remain abstract and incomplete. The paper reports on a survey of 320 low-income Sowetan residents and in-depth interviews with 20 workers about their work roles in the urban space economy. The findings, which show poor workers engaging with diverse sectors and locations in complex ways, challenge the dominant spatial narratives about isolated poor residential areas. Poor workers deliberately create their own social capital in work realms. This being the case, a more finely tuned conceptualisation of these workers and their roles in urban space is essential to sharpen LED discussions so that policies can be based more on real rather than imagined spatiality.

1993. A GEOGRAPHY OF INSTITUTIONAL STOCK OWNERSHIP IN THE UNITED-STATES. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

The 1980 U.S. interinstitutional stock ownership patterns are described by firm and place. Using managerial and bank control theories as a basis for description, the network-based analyses show a hierarchical urban system dominated by a few core urban centers, in particular New York, Chicago, and San Francisco. A review of industrial network theory emphasizes the importance of analyses by interfirm and interplace connections. The strength of interplace connections defines six classes of urban centers. Analyses by industrial class show financial, insurance, and real estate firms (FIRE) are the dominant institutional stockholders. Simple gravity models show weak or no distance-decay effects for firm and place-based stock ownership networks. Public pension plans show considerable leakage of funds from their home regions. Maps and tables describe investment patterns of selected individual cities and firms. A 50-percent random sample of Fortune 500 and the population of large FIRE firms provides the data for analyses.

2011. Cooperative research in international studies: Insights from economic geography. Social Science Journal

This article visits two highly integrative concepts deployed in contemporary economic geography - firm network analysis and embeddedness, and introduces the geographical approach to the study of globalization processes in an effort to generate cooperative synergies between the fields of international studies and geography. Geographical theorization with respect to interdisciplinary cooperation has begun to come full circle, from a borrower to a donor, as evidenced by its appearance in work in the fields of business, economics, sociology, and political science. This has further compelled geographers to emphasize analyses focusing on processes of change rather than a perpetuation of static models. However, there is still room for cooperative efforts that more robustly integrate insights pertaining to economic behavior, culture, and politics into spatially-sensitive theorization and research practice. This article draws extensively on the broadening role of East Asia, coupled with an accelerating cross-disciplinary emphasis on globalization, to demonstrate the value of analyses that simultaneously capture the activity of multiple actors operating at multiple scales in and across space. (C) 2010 Western Social Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2006. Why are health care interventions delivered over the Internet? A systematic review of the published literature. Journal of Medical Internet Research

Background: As Internet use grows, health interventions are increasingly being delivered online. Pioneering researchers are using the networking potential of the Internet, and several of them have evaluated these interventions. Objective: The objective was to review the reasons why health interventions have been delivered on the Internet and to reflect on the work of the pioneers in this field in order to inform future research. Methods: We conducted a qualitative systematic review of peer-reviewed evaluations of health interventions delivered to a known client/patient group using networked features of the Internet. Papers were reviewed for the reasons given for using the Internet, and these reasons were categorized. Results: We included studies evaluating 28 interventions plus 9 interventions that were evaluated in pilot studies. The interventions were aimed at a range of health conditions. Reasons for Internet delivery included low cost and resource implications due to the nature of the technology; reducing cost and increasing convenience for users; reduction of health service costs; overcoming isolation of users; the need for timely information; stigma reduction; and increased user and supplier control of the intervention. A small number of studies gave the existence of Internet interventions as the only reason for undertaking an evaluation of this mode of delivery. Conclusions: One must remain alert for the unintended effects of Internet delivery of health interventions due to the potential for reinforcing the problems that the intervention was designed to help. Internet delivery overcomes isolation of time, mobility, and geography, but it may not be a substitute for face-to-face contact. Future evaluations need to incorporate the evaluation of cost, not only to the health service but also to users and their social networks. When researchers report the outcomes of Intemet-delivered health care interventions, it is important that they clearly state why they chose to use the Internet, preferably backing up their decision with theoretical models and exploratory work. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a health care intervention delivered by the Internet needs to include comparison with more traditional modes of delivery to answer the following question: What are the added benefits or disadvantages of Internet use that are particular to this mode of delivery?

2011. The Geography of the Mathematics Research Collaboration Graph. Geographical Analysis

Social networks have become a hot topic for research in the last decade or so. I study one such network in considerable detail: the graph of research collaborations among mathematicians. This graph displays many of the characteristics that various authors have found common to social networks in general. My "geographical" analysis includes the size of this graph, the distribution of the degrees of its vertices, its connectivity, the distances between its vertices, and its clustering coefficient. I also discuss the playful concept of Erdos numbers.

2005. Geographies of imperfection in telecommunication analysis. Telecommunications Policy

Rapid increases in computing power and data storage capacity, along with the continued evolution of commercial geographic information systems (GIS), have significantly widened the production and consumption of spatial data. Considering the varying disciplines (sociology, economics, public policy, city and regional planning, regional science, geography, etc.) investigating digital economies, the Internet, and telecommunications, it is no surprise that spatial data related to such topics is in high demand. Due to the technological complexities of telecommunication systems, however, analysts need to be aware of potential impacts associated with the use of imperfect spatial information when evaluating telecommunication infrastructure, particularly in the context of social, political, economic and environmental issues. More importantly, the implications of imperfect information on telecommunication policy development must be considered. The purpose of this paper is to explore how data imperfection is resident in a range of telecommunication analyses. A framework is presented for identifying and addressing spatial analysis sensitivities in the use of imperfect information. In addition, a case study examining imperfect information associated with digital subscriber line (xDSL) deployment in Columbus, Ohio is provided. Results suggest a significant difference in the proposed vs. actual availability of xDSL services in the study area. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. Mexican Urban Governance: How Old and New Institutions Coexist and Interact. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

The analysis of urban governance in terms of networks, as developed in the UK by scholars including Rhodes and Stoker, can be applied to a context such as Mexico if due weight is given to macro-level processes. In this article, careful attention is paid to the institutional legacies of Mexico's past authoritarian regime and how they are challenged by a new discourse of neoliberalization, decentralization and democratization. Corporatism, social segmentation and organizational fragmentation in the past have resulted in the continuing importance of hierarchical modes of governance alongside networks. Case studies of the public-private partnerships involved in the regeneration of the historic centres of Queretaro and San Luis Potosi show that new forms of governance entail a mix of continuity and change. Regeneration partnerships were initiated and largely funded by the local state, with the state retaining considerable power. Most of the non-state participants were drawn from the old aristocracy and business and professional organizations, whilst the increasingly autonomous groups of street traders and 'ordinary' citizens concerned with the life in the city centre were excluded. Nevertheless, new discourses challenge the institutional legacies of the past, encouraging institutional change.

2010. Geography of science makes a difference: an appeal for public health. Cadernos De Saude Publica

This article introduces a perspective for analyzing the relationship between geographic space and scientific practice and the possible contribution by the geography of science to understanding and developing strategies in favor of public health. Contributions by the field of social studies of science, specifically from the Actor-Network Theory and its concept of translation, and the geography of Milton Santos, form the theoretical framework that allows exploring the spatial dimensions of the production and circulation of scientific knowledge. The article discusses how this approach both enriches and challenges the recent international policies in favor of knowledge translation. The article identifies a possible contribution by the field of Information Science to favor the movement of knowledge, aiming to help minimize the imbalance between what is known in theory and what is applied in practice in health, or the so-called "know-do gap".

2011. New Mobilities and the Formation and Maintenance of the Personal Communities of Social Housing Residents. Urban Policy and Research

With reference to the relationship between 'new mobilities' and contemporary community formation, this article discusses qualitative research findings of case studies of social housing residents' use of communication and transport technologies in the formation and maintenance of their 'personal communities'. The 'new mobilities paradigm' views communication and transport technologies as resources which are unevenly distributed locally and globally. Underpinning the research is concern for contemporary housing renewal policies informed by 'social mix' which view community as geographically bound rather than as dynamic networks in social space. Using qualitative methods and based in Sydney, the purpose of the research was to explore the extent to which public housing residents potentially affected by such policies are able to access mobilities resources in the formation and maintenance of the personal communities, and the character of their social networks. The findings indicate that the capacity for low-income residents to form and maintain social networks is impaired by constrained access to communication and mobility resources. Hence social ties which can be maintained by frequent face-to-face communication are extremely important to this group. As technology has increased the importance of social propinquity over geography in the formation of our personal communities, living within a socially disparate neighbourhood may not provide the opportunity for high levels of face-to-face connectivity.

2011. A coupled multi-agent microsimulation of social interactions and transportation behavior. Transportation Research Part a-Policy and Practice

Choice set formation, location and mode preferences, coordinated scheduling, alternative utility valuations, and shared mobility resources are among the many activity-travel issues hypothesized to be significantly influenced by traveler interdependencies. Empirical evidence lags theory, particularly about the geography of social networks. A simulation tool is presented to let the experimenter construct and test hypothetical interdependencies between geography, socially-linked travelers, and activity-travel choices. The exploratory tool is integrated in the Multi-Agent Transportation Simulation Toolbox (MatSim-T). Initially, any social network can be constructed and embedded in geography. It can remain static, or be adapted to the travel patterns of the agents. The interactions and exchanges between agents influencing socializing and/or travel behavior can be defined in substance and in time/space. The reward for socializing or being socially linked can be varied. Finally, the co-dependence of social factors and travel behavior can be studied. This paper introduces the model and presents verification results which illustrate the coupling of extremely simplified socializing assumptions and travel behavior. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006. Non-economic factors in economic geography and in 'new regionalism': A sympathetic critique. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

In the current debate on local and regional development and after several 'turns', dominant critical models have found some security in institutional, cultural and evolutionary approaches. Interest today centres on success and competitiveness and how they are reproduced in a few paradigmatic regions. A distinctive feature of these regions and places is the embeddedness of certain non-economic factors such as social capital, trust and reciprocity based on familiarity, face-to-face exchange, cooperation, embedded routines, habits and norms, local conventions of communication and interaction, all of which contribute to a region's particular success. Although these approaches may not deny the forces of the capitalist space economy, they do not explicitly acknowledge them or take them on board and so they tend to discuss non-economic factors and institutions as autonomous forces shaping development. This essay provides a critique of these concepts based on their (1) inadequate theorization, (2) depoliticized view of politics and de-economized use of economics and (3) reduction of space to territory. The essay concludes that we need a far more penetrating renewal of radical critique of the current space economy of capitalism. Old concepts such as uneven development, the social and spatial division of labour, the geographical transfer of value, accumulation and imperialism must be combined with cultural and institutional issues, with those non-economic factors mentioned above.

2006. Networks, regional development and democratic control. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

The networking literature has burgeoned in recent years within a complex cross-disciplinary field and particularly in economic geography and regional planning. Networks have been analysed both as organizational expressions of globalization, linked to claims about the rise of the network society, and as territorial and cultural systems of exchange. Concepts of networks and networking have been accepted as positive, and sometimes also as progressive or radical within both social science and policy discourses. In this article we analyse regionally embedded economic networks and the EU's urban and regional policy networks as a new mode of administration, at a variety of spatial scales. Little attention has been paid to the theoretical implications of using the concept of network as a social metaphor or to the operation of actually existing networks, as a result of conceptualizing networks in ways that deny their constitutive inequalities, asymmetries and democratic deficits. This darker side has been pushed into the shadows by the rhetorical emphasis on the benefits claimed for networked organizational forms.

2007. Rethinking local and regional development - Implications for radical political practice in Europe. European Urban and Regional Studies

This article focuses upon the practicalities of what people actually do and can do in the present era of neo-liberal globalization to build more progressive local and regional development strategies in Europe. To do so, we introduce three examples of 'alternative' local and regional development activities in Europe: (a) social economy projects to tackle problems of localized social inequalities and local development; (b) public sector procurement and related intiatives to create healthier diets; and (c) participatory municipal budgets as a means to make radical participatory democracy a practical proposition. We discuss the issues that arise from them in terms of a radical local and regional development strategy and how they help to re-formulate our theoretical agendas and research practice. Unlike many uncritical studies of 'successful' places that then seek mechanistically to transplant the bases of 'success' as 'off the shelf' blueprints to be applied in and to other places we instead see these examples as providing an alternative framework for thinking about local and regional development that adapts more general principles (such as those of equity, accountability and democracy) to the specifics and local and regioanl circumstances.

2004. Spaces and networks of genetic knowledge making: the 'geneticisation' of heart disease. Health & Place

The 'geneticisation' of health, medicine and the body is extending from single-gene to multi-factorial conditions such as heart disease. Adopting 'Actor Network Theory', the paper argues that the making of genetic knowledge occurs in spaces and networks where contested knowledges necessarily produce a geneticisation that is neither certain nor complete. Drawing on empirical research in a coronary care unit in Glasgow, Scotland, the paper sets out the network of consultants, rehabilitation nurses and people with heart disease and others who collectively, through contestation and the marshalling of knowledges by prominent social actors, produce an understanding of the role of genes in heart disease. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2005. The entangled geographies of social exclusion/inclusion for people with learning disabilities. Health & Place

People with learning disabilities (PWLD) are one of the most marginalised groups in Western society. Social policies attempting to redress this situation focus on their 'reinclusion' into mainstream socio-spaces through engagement in 'normal' activities, primarily paid employment and independent living. Drawing on group interviews in Scotland, the paper develops a nuanced account of the lives of PWLD, exploring their experiences of exclusion and seeming 'inclusion', and also the alternative spaces and networks of inclusion developed by many PWLD. The paper argues that the situations and experiences of exclusion/inclusion are complex and 'entangled', shaped by the socio-spatial contexts within which PWLD live. The paper 'reimagines' social inclusion as a transformation of mainstream social spaces to incorporate PWLD, achieved through self-advocacy. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Spaces of Wellbeing for People with Learning Disabilities. Scottish Geographical Journal

There is a growing interest in the geography of health in the concept of 'wellbeing', as it provides a fuller understanding of health, builds in embodied experiences, and accounts for the socio-spatial relations and contexts that shape health. The paper sets out the case for using 'wellbeing' to rethink the poor health outcomes experienced by people with learning disabilities, which conventional tools of healthcare and health promotion have failed to address. Shifting the focus of concern from the individualised objective ill-health of people with learning disabilities to a broader sense of emotional and social wellbeing and happiness, the paper argues that there is potential within learning disability spaces and networks for wellbeing to flourish, through greater self-determination and presence in and attachment to local places. The outcome is people with learning disabilities being able to find stability and build resilience in difficult bodily and social circumstances.

2010. Shifting Proximities: The Maritime Ports Sector in an Era of Global Supply Chains. Regional Studies

Hall P. V. and Jacobs W. Shifting proximities: the maritime ports sector in an era of global supply chains, Regional Studies. Economic geographers argue that spatial and non-spatial dimensions of proximity are central to innovation and collective action. The various dimensions of proximity in relation to maritime ports are examined. Global supply chains represent a shift in organizational and cognitive proximities between seaports and among port users. In the process, extra-local relationships have become even more influential in maritime port development. As organizational proximity between dominant port users has increased through vertical and horizontal integration, territorially based institutional and social proximities, especially as regards stable and shared regulatory systems, are increasingly important as a counterbalance to ensure openness to innovation and upgrading. [image omitted] Hall P. V. et Jacobs W. Des proximites en pleine evolution: les ports maritimes en periode de chaines d'approvisionnement mondialisees, Regional Studies. Les geographes economiques affirment que les dimensions geographiques et non-geographiques de la proximite sont essentielles a l'innovation et aux actions collectives. On cherche a examiner les diverses dimensions de la proximite par rapport aux ports maritimes. Les chaines d'approvisionnement mondialisees representent un deplacement des proximites organisationnelles et cognitives entre les ports maritimes et parmi les usagers des ports. En meme temps, les rapports externes sont devenus de plus en plus determinants quant au developpement des ports maritimes. Au fur et a mesure que la proximite organisationnelle entre les principaux usagers des ports a augmente par moyen de l'integration verticale et horizontale, les proximites institutionnelles et sociales basees sur les territoires, surtout pour ce qui est des systemes de controle stables et partagees, s'averent de plus en plus importants comme contrepoids pour assurer l'ouverture en ce qui concerne l'innovation et l'amelioration. Chaines d'approvisonnement mondialisees Innovation Proximite Ports maritimes Hall P. V. und Jacobs W. Veranderliche Nahe: der Sektor der Meereshafen in einem Zeitalter der globalen Lieferketten, Regional Studies. Seitens der Wirtschaftsgeografen wird argumentiert, dass die raumlichen und nicht-raumlichen Dimensionen der Nahe einen zentralen Aspekt der Innovation und des kollektiven Handelns darstellen. Wir untersuchen die verschiedenen Dimensionen der Nahe im Hinblick auf Meereshafen. Globale Lieferketten fuhren zu einer Verschiebung der organisationellen und kognitiven Nahe zwischen Meereshafen und Hafennutzern. In diesem Prozess sind extralokale Beziehungen bei der Entwicklung von Meereshafen noch wichtiger geworden. Da die organisationelle Nahe zwischen dominanten Hafennutzern durch vertikale und horizontale Integration zugenommen hat, wird eine territorial basierte institutionelle und soziale Nahe - insbesondere hinsichtlich stabiler und gemeinsamer Regulierungssysteme - als Gegengewicht zur Gewahrleistung von Offenheit fur Innovation und Verbesserung zunehmend wichtig. Globale Lieferketten Innovation Nahe Meereshafen Hall P. V. y Jacobs W. Cambio de proximidades: el sector de puertos maritimos en la era de cadenas de suministro global, Regional Studies. Los geografos economicos defienden que las dimensiones espaciales y no espaciales de proximidad son fundamentales para la innovacion y la accion colectiva. Aqui analizamos las diferentes dimensiones de proximidad con relacion a los puertos maritimos. Las cadenas e suministro global representan un cambio en los proximidades organizativas y cognitivas entre los puertos maritimos y sus usuarios. En este proceso, las relaciones extra locales han llegado a ser aun mas influyentes en el desarrollo de puertos maritimos. Como la proximidad organizativa entre los usuarios de puertos dominantes ha aumentado a traves de una integracion vertical y horizontal, las proximidades institucionales y sociales basadas en el territorios, sobre todo en lo que respecta a los sistemas reguladores estables y compartidos, son cada vez mas importantes como contra equilibrio para asegurar la apertura a la innovacion y mejora. Cadenas de suministro global Innovacion Proximidad Puertos maritimos.

2008. Geographies of business education: MBA programmes, reflexive business schools and the cultural circuit of capital. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

MBA programmes and the business schools that teach them have been identified by geographers and social scientists as central actors in the dissemination of economic and management theories into practice through concepts such as the cultural circuit of capital. However, the ways in which the exigencies of economic practice impact upon these actors within the cultural circuit of capital has received less attention. In response, this paper draws on research conducted into the teaching and learning of corporate valuation techniques in leading MBA programmes and their use in corporate finance practice in London to consider how the (re)production of economic theories in practice impacts upon the institutional and pedagogical strategies of leading business schools. I combine work in geography on the spatialities of economic knowledge with debates amongst management theorists surrounding the future of business schools to identify the importance of embodied expertise in the (re)production of financial theory in practice. These skills have a relatively 'sticky' geography, typically being best learnt in practice rather than in MBA classrooms. I argue that business schools are responding by rendering themselves materially and discursively 'mobile' at both the MBA curricula and institutional level, adopting a range of initiatives aimed at (re)positioning themselves closer to economic practice. In so doing, I develop conceptual understandings of the 'circular' nature of the cultural circuit of capital as well as calling for business schools, and the broader business education sector, to be a more central topic of geographical inquiry.

2009. Power in numbers: a call for analytical generosity toward new political strategies. Environment and Planning A

This paper is a methodological and epistemological reflection on the power of numbers to contribute to the debate over the potential and limitations of market politics as a regulatory force in the global economy. Informal regulatory networks, including transnational corporate campaigns, form a new sphere of politics which leap-frogs the state and targets corporations directly concerning their social and environmental impacts. I describe my statistical analysis of corporate campaigns targeting US multinationals to argue in favor of analytical generosity when evaluating these new political forms. I argue that a reflexive and critical quantification can provide new insights into stakeholder power and contemporary political processes.

2008. Ad hoc rural regionalism. Journal of Rural Studies

A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or metropolitan sprawl and the resulting landscape fragmentation, often in combination with extreme pressure on the profitability of small farms or other resource uses. This research asks: what impetus is behind rural regional efforts; and what sort of processes of institutionalization do these groups utilize? The paper builds on theory developed by the new regional geographers over the last twenty years, most notably Anne Gilbert and Anssi Paasi, and applies the theoretical framework to three North American case studies in what can be classified as ad hoc rural initiatives in contested landscapes, initiated by local or grassroots actors to foster a specific conceptualization of region. While specific programming varies for different groups, rural regionalism addressed the balance between and interconnections of landscape and land use change, social networks, economic viability, and impacts of global industry. Central to the case studies are actors' efforts to create a regional identity, including forming institutions, defining regional boundaries, and identifying social/symbolic shapes for the region. The research discusses the importance of viewing regionalization through the lens of agency. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007. The place embeddedness of social care: Restructuring work and welfare in Mackenzie, BC. Health & Place

The concept of social care is valuable in examining how responsibilities for social support are distributed amongst private, public and voluntary interests. We argue that social care is embedded in place, by which we mean the social relations that determine who provides what are closely connected with the physically bounded settings of meaning and interaction in which these activities and relations occur. To illustrate the usefulness of these conceptions, we present a case study of the restructuring of work and welfare arrangements in Mackenzie, British Columbia, a remote and resource-dependent community in the province's northern interior. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2000. Networking. Professional Geographer

This essay outlines the ways that networks structure opportunities for employment and advancement and the ways that networks build framework; of support, particularly for women in geography. I consider the evidence supporting the contention that personal contacts and social networks affect career outcomes. I then note that each person's networks are likely to be biased in favor of others who share common interests and concerns. In particular gender affects network composition in significant ways. Because network composition affects how a network functions, it is worth considering the personal and professional advantages of building diverse networks. In the final section I suggest ways to build such networks.

2009. Changing Places Through Women's Entrepreneurship. Economic Geography

In this article, I focus on entrepreneurship as a gendered geographic process to examine how changes in people and place are linked. Although entrepreneurship is a process that is marked by deep stereotypical gender divisions, it is also one through which people can change the meaning of gender and the way in which gender is lived. In addition, entrepreneurship links people and place in a number of ways, most notably through networks of social relations in place. I discuss four geographic studies of women's entrepreneurship, each undertaken in a different country-Botswana, India, Peru, and the United States. These studies demonstrate that whereas entrepreneurship per se or access to microcredit alone is seldom sufficient to change the position of women or gender relations in a place, women are using entrepreneurship to change their lives and those of others and, in the process, are changing the places where they live. Key to this transformative process are programs of governmental and nongovernmental organizations and women's grassroots actions that are aimed at building women's skills, confidence, and business networks.

2009. Gender and Entrepreneurial Networks. Regional Studies

In a recent critical survey in 2003, Peter Nijkamp argued for the importance of networks and networking for successful entrepreneurship and emphasized the strategic advantage that dense urban areas afford to networks. Nijkamp's arguments are extended herein by investigating the impact of an entrepreneur's identity on network formation, use and opportunity. Focus is made specifically on gender to emphasize the ways networks are embedded in place-based social, economic, cultural, and political structures, which shape entrepreneurs' identities and affect access to resources. The review reveals, first, how little is known about gender and entrepreneurial networks in general and especially about the gendered geography of such networks; and, second, the importance of investigating the impacts of social identity on entrepreneurs' networks if the relationships between entrepreneurship and place are to be understood.

2006. Nodal heterolocalism and transnationalism at the United States-Canadian border. Geographical Review

Since the late 1990s Wilbur Zelinsky's theory of "heterolocalism" has provided human geographers and other social scientists with a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns and ethnic identities of recent immigrants in the United States. Zelinsky's heterolocal model suggests that, to a degree unknown in the past, new migrants in North American cities may choose to settle in widely dispersed places, rather than in more concentrated ethnic enclaves, while maintaining their ethnic identities. This article expands on and critiques prior work on heterolocalism in Oregon by examining the spatial patterns, ethnic and religious identities, and transnational relationships of two recent refugee groups in three urban areas in the Pacific Northwest. Using data from U.S. and Canadian census records, refugee resettlement agency files, survey questionnaires, structured and unstructured interviews, and participant observation with post-Soviet Russians and Ukrainians in the Vancouver, British Columbia, Seattle, Washington, and Portland, Oregon metropolitan areas, I analyze the spatial patterns and related social networks that define the identities and residential and religious spaces of these groups to test the efficacy of relating heterolocalism and transnationalism across an international boundary. Keywords: Canada, heterolocalism, Pacific Northwest, refugees, transnationalism, United States.

2005. Heterolocalism, networks of ethnicity, and refugee communities in the Pacific Northwest: The Portland story. Professional Geographer

Geographic studies of refugee issues have emerged as salient topics of inquiry in the past decade. This spatial analysis of the migration experiences and heterolocal settlement patterns of refugees in an increasingly diverse part of the Pacific Northwest focuses on a place that the Atlantic Monthly recently called the last Caucasian bastion in the United States. Perceived as a region better known for its dense forests, progressive environmental policies, and rural ambience, the Portland metropolitan area and its hinterland in the Willamette Valley now resonate with ethnic and racial diversity. This article analyzes the spatial patterns and related networks of the three largest refugee groups in the region. Findings indicate that an overlapping and interrelated set of political, social, cultural, and economic networks are the most important factors in determining refugee residential patterns.

2010. Networks of connectivity, territorial fragmentation, uneven development: The new politics of city-regionalism. Political Geography

Over the past decade much has been written about the centrality of city-regions to accounts of economic success. But despite a rich and varied literature highlighting the importance of city-centric capitalism, the concept of the city-region remains ambiguous. Defined in economic terms, all too often what is missing from these accounts is how city-regions are constructed politically, and the processes by which they are rendered visible spaces. While recent interventions have done much to advance debates on the former, this paper explores the struggle to define, delimit and designate city-regions through recent endeavours to construct a spatial map of city-regions in England. The aim is to demonstrate how the processes by which city-regions are constructed politically are the mediated outcome of trans-regional economic flows and political claims to territory. The paper concludes by relating these findings to ongoing debates around state, space and scalar geographies, and speculates what they might mean for the future of city-regional debate. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006. On the edge of reason: Planning and urban futures in Africa. Urban Studies

The shift in planning theory from technical-instrumental to relational conceptions of rationality is helpful in relating to urban environments in Africa that are characterised by the intersection of multiple rationalities and also by spatially extensive and shifting networks of economic and social transaction. However, the relevance of contemporary planning theory is limited by its origins within the intellectual traditions and experiences of the West. If we are to engage effectively with the multiple rationalities that are shaping the cities of the world-cities that are increasingly centred in the global South-then we must bring Western intellectual tradition into a critical relationship with the epistemologies, rationalities and value-based traditions of the non-Occidental world. This paper argues that post-colonial literature and theory may provide some of the intellectual resources needed to sustain such an engagement, as post-colonial thought directs attention to the hybrid intellectual formations and practices that emerge in the on-going interaction between colonised and coloniser. By using Johannesburg as the prism through which to look at cities and at planning, this paper provides some thoughts on how to construct an 'other way' of thinking that is situated both within and outside dominant representations.

2007. "How shall I say it ... ?" Relating the nonrelational. Environment and Planning A

As the ideas of the relational and relationality become part of the everyday conceptual make-up of human geography, in this paper I seek to recall the insistent and incessant importance of the nonrelational. In dialogue with nonrepresentational theory, as well as its critics, I suggest that any thought or theory of relationality must have as its acknowledged occasion the incessant proximity of the nonrelational. The occasion for this discussion is a consideration of the relationship between suffering, pain, or passion and the thematising actions of representation, communication, narrativisation, and theorisation. Such affections, it is claimed, present social science with a particular problem, a problem which revolves around an irreducible nonthematisability within these dimensions of corporeal existence. Drawing on the writings of Butler, Derrida, and Levinas I offer an account of how this problem or impasse allows for a rethinking of the ethical within social analysis and of the nature of representation, corporeality, and intersubjectivity.

2009. Settlement Patterns of African Refugee Communities in Southeast Queensland. Australian Geographer

Over 4000 African refugees have resettled in Queensland through the Australian government's Humanitarian Program. Research on the settlement geography of this immigrant group is, however, limited. The present study is set within the context of research and debates concerning the residential concentration and/or dispersion patterns of immigrant settlement in Australia. The paper investigates the settlement and secondary migration geography of eight African refugee communities in Southeast Queensland. Discrepancies are identified between the official data and the actual distribution according to community members' views obtained via focus group surveys and interviews. Preliminary results indicate that there is a relatively high rate of secondary migration in the African communities. The paper also discusses the two key factors underpinning this secondary migration: housing and social networks. These findings have implications for settlement service providers, particularly in the area of housing.

2007. The learning region: The impact of social capital and weak ties on innovation. Regional Studies

The learning region: the impact of social capital and weak ties on innovation, Regional Studies 41, 75-88. Theories that emphasize the role of proximity and tacit knowledge in innovation processes highlight the importance of social interaction and networking for the diffusion of knowledge. A concept that captures the impact of human relations on economic activity is social capital. Using factorial analysis with data from the European Values Study (EVS), the multidimensionality of social capital is demonstrated empirically. The obtained independent dimensions serve as inputs in a knowledge production function estimated for a sample of European regions. One of the major results is that the impact of social capital on regional innovation processes is significant and comparable with the importance of human capital. However, not all dimensions of social capital exhibit the same explanatory power. The dimension 'Associational Activity' represents the strongest driving force for patenting activity. Hence, empirical evidence for the significance of weak ties in innovative processes is given.

2000. Social capital and health promotion: a review. Social Science & Medicine

Interest in social capital and health has emerged at an exciting time. In public health, there is a renewed interest in mechanisms that link social inequalities and health. In epidemiology, there has been a critical interrogation of methods and a call for a more explicit use of theory. In health promotion over the last 20-30 years, social health interventions have been somewhat marginalised in an era dominated by interest in traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Now that social hypotheses are being reborn in health, there is a risk that the sophistication that has developed in social health promotion and the literatures that have informed it could be overlooked. In this paper, we present a brief history of social capital and how it has come into recent prominence through the debate linking income inequality and health. We present the background to this, the earlier literatures on social environmental influences on health and the possible processes thought to underlie this relationship. Social capital has relational, material and political aspects. We suggest that, although the relational properties of social capital are important leg, trust, networks), the political aspects of social capital are perhaps under recognised. The paper also reviews how complex social processes at the community level have come to be operationalised by social theorists and intervention agents in other fields. We suggest that social capital research so far has inadequately captured the underlying constructs, in particular the qualitative difference between the macro/context level and the micro/individual level. While being cautious about the science, we conclude that social capital's power as rhetoric and as a metaphor may be of value. We conclude by suggesting that the coalescence of interests in context-level influences on health now invites a revitalisation of theories and interventions inspired by diverse fields, such as geography and ecological community psychology. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2008. Postcolonial practices for a global virtual group: The case of the International Network for Learning and Teaching geography in higher education (INLT). Journal of Geography in Higher Education

This paper offers a critical review of the role of the International Network for Learning and Teaching geography in higher education (INLT) in the production of geographical knowledge. Through an examination of the Network's membership and activties, it explores some of the ways in which INLT-as a global virtual group-may be inadvertently perpetuating geographies of oppression through, for example, assumption of Anglo-American modes of educational standards and practice; reinforcement of existing unequal/inequitable social relationships; predominance of English language; and a reliance on technologies that favour wealthy nations and institutions. The paper sets out practical suggestions for postcolonial membership and activity structures designed to overcome difficulties with the Network's existing power/knowledge geometries.

1998. A rooted sense of place in cross-cultural perspective. Canadian Geographer-Geographe Canadien

Sense of place was investigated in an interpretive approach to examine how it develops; how it varies cross-culturally among modern and indigenous peoples; and how it develops among various contexts (home and environs, family, community, and culture). Individual and group interviews were conducted using questionnaires on Banks Peninsula, New Zealand (a rural, farm-based setting) with 270 residents from 1987 to 1989, with 80 out-migrants interviewed around New Zealand in 1989. The methodology was based on phenomenology, ethnography, and social surveys. Statistical analyses indicated the significance of residential status and social belonging toward the development of a sense of place. Contextual influences were found to be important from qualitative data, with traditional culture of primary importance to Maori. Both Maori and European-descent respondents with long-term residence expressed a rooted sense of place for Peninsula environs. These respondents were less residentially mobile and were often tied to the land through ancestry and/or family farms. Newcomers to the region were usually treated as outsiders (for decades). The Maori community was partially sustained by a social network that extended beyond the Peninsula. Maori sense of place was based more on their cosmology and culture, which rooted them to their tribal territory spiritually and emotionally. To counter an amoral, modernist hegemony and to move toward community sustainability, postmodernists need to consider the significance of developing a place-based ideology that links people to place through a rooted sense of place.

2006. Asylum-seekers and refugees: A structuration theory analysis of their experiences in the UK. Population Space and Place

Much of the literature on asylum-seekers and refugees tends to be atheoretical. This article uses ideas from Giddens'structuration theory as a conceptual framework to analyse the voices of a group of asylum-seekers and refugees. The empirical database consists of semi-structured interviews with 18 asylum-seekers and refugees living in the UK from a wide range of countries, including Ethiopia, Kenya, Poland, Somalia and the Yemen. The study shows that the experiences of asylum-seekers and refugees are impacted by both structural and individual agency factors. The former, it is argued, consist of public and political reaction towards the increase in the number of asylum applications, while the latter include asylum-seeker and refugee experiences of specific places and people which can create social networks. Structural factors had the greatest impact upon the integration of the participants into the host society. The nature of the experiences of asylum-seekers and refugees can influence the way they feel about their position in the host society. For example, negative experiences of the UK can reduce their sense of security in the society, whereas positive experiences can increase their feelings of comfort. Structuration theory conceptualises how asylum-seekers and refugees utilise coping strategies to raise their comfort level in the host country. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2010. The holiday meal: eating out alone and mobile emotional geographies. Leisure Studies

In this paper I explore the power imbued in 'in situ bonding social capital' when on vacation by investigating midlife single women's experiences of eating out alone on holiday. In contrast to much tourism research which envisions eating out together on holiday as carefree and sociable experiences, I consider the company of family and friends as an asset or as in situ bonding social capital. Drawing upon poststructural feminism, emotional geographies and tourism mobilities I demonstrate, on the one hand, the value of this capital by pointing to how lack of the same makes the women feel lonely and socially excluded and, hence, dislike eating out alone on holiday. I argue that this capital is incorporated and affected by the 'normalised discourse' of the vacation. On the other hand, I also identify times and spaces within which this capital is less powerful. On holiday some of the women enjoy eating out at lunchtime and in cities. I thus also argue that the women's emotional reactions to eating places are mobile and that in situ bonding social capital is a temporal-spatial asset. The findings are based on focus group pre- and post-trip interviews and solicited on-trip diaries. Thirty-two Norwegian single women aged 35-55 years participated in the study.

1996. The geopolitics of the police: Foucault, disciplinary power and the tactics of the Los Angeles police department. Political Geography

This paper uses the insights of Foucault to analyze the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) as an agency of discipline. It takes Foucault's injunction to study the 'how' of power seriously, using insights from ethnographic fieldwork with the Los Angeles Police Department to assess Foucault's general formulations concerning disciplinary power. The fieldwork reveals that the LAPD does indeed engage in a series of technologically and organizationally sophisticated practices to monitor and control the populace. However, it also reveals the need to remember Foucault's more cautionary programmatics in analyzing an agency such as the LAPD; dynamics both internal and external to the police organization limit the reach of its surveillance capacities. The disciplinary network of the LAPD is much more restricted, complex and contradictory than a simplistic Foucauldian reading would suggest.


This article deals with the issue of providing geographic training to prospective teachers from the perspective of a secondary school teacher who also teaches a social studies methods course. Research in educational journals provided a background for describing the lack of geographic training among social studies teachers. While the National Geographic Society's alliance network is addressing this issue among practicing teachers, there is still a need to include some geography training for preservice teachers. Suggestions are offered for including geography within the context of the social studies methods course. A plea is also made for geography professors to include the new National Geography Standards in their courses, especially in introductory courses.

2009. Spatial Strategic Planning in the Stockholm RegionDiscourses on the Space-economy and Growth Factors. European Planning Studies

This article analyses strategic spatial planning for city regions. The analysis uses a strategic development plan for a region as an example and is intended to contribute to discussion about the role of politics and the state in economic structures and processes. The objective was to define the types of discourses in the Stockholm plan. Norman Fairclough's (Analysing Discourse, New York, Routledge, 2003) methodological framework for analysing texts in social research was an important source of the study design. The analysis focused on assumptions in the text and the compatibility of these with different concepts of dynamic development and economic growth in city regions. These concepts were city as clusters, city as interconnection, city as milieu and city as symbol. Outcomes of the analysis showed that the strategic development plan for the Stockholm region stresses large-scale international economic activities and specialized cluster activities, but it marginalizes other activities. In the context of city regions comprising a multiplicity of actors and activities, such a one-sided approach may hinder broad economic development. A more nuanced representation of the urban economy in strategic planning is called for.

2004. 'Spatial' relationships? Towards a reconceptualization of embeddedness. Progress in Human Geography

The concept of embeddedness has gained much prominence in economic geography over the last decade, as much work has been done on the social and organizational foundations of economic activities and regional development. Unlike the original conceptualizations, however, embeddedness is mostly conceived of as a 'spatial' concept related to the local and regional levels of analysis. By revisiting the early literature on embeddedness - in particular the seminal work of Karl Polanyi and Mark Granovetter - and critically engaging with what I will call an 'overterritorialized' concept, a different view on the fundamental categories of embeddedness is proposed. This reconceptualization then is illustrated using the poststructuralist metaphor of a rhizome to interpret the notion of embeddedness and its applicability to different geographical scales.

2011. The end justifies the definition: The manifold outlooks on the digital divide and their practical usefulness for policy-making. Telecommunications Policy

Based on the theory of the diffusion of innovations through social networks, the article discusses the main approaches researchers have taken to conceptualize the digital divide. The result is a common framework that addresses the questions of who (e.g. divide between individuals, countries, etc.), with which kinds of characteristics (e.g. income, geography, age, etc.), connects how (mere access or effective adoption), to what (e.g. phones, Internet, digital TV, etc.). Different constellations in these four variables lead to a combinatorial array of choices to define the digital divide. This vast collection of theoretically justifiable definitions is contrasted with the question of how the digital divide is defined in practice by policy makers. The cases of the United States, South Korea, and Chile are used to show that many diverse actors with dissimilar goals are involved in confronting the digital divide. Each of them takes a different outlook on the challenge. This leads to the question if this heterogeneity is harmful and if countries that count with a coherent national strategy and common outlook on digital development do better than others. It is shown that the effect of a coherent vision is secondary to tailor-made sector-specific efforts. On the contrary, a one-size-fits-all outlook on a multifaceted challenge might rather be harmful. This leads to the conclusion that it is neither theoretically feasible, nor empirically justifiable to aim for one single definition of the digital divide. The digital divide is best defined in terms of a desired impact. Since those are diverse, so are the definitions of the challenge. The best that can be done is to come up with a comprehensive theoretical framework that allows for the systematic classification of different definitions, such as the one presented in this article. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1996. Technology, power, and space - The means and ends of geographies of technology. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

This paper is about the means and ends of geographical inquiries into technology and technoscience. In working through a body of literature commonly grouped together under the collective phrase 'science, technology, and society', and in seeking to work upon empirical research on electricity networks, the author draws attention to the ontological and representational issues that are confronted when thinking through geographies of technology and geographies of technoscientific knowledge. In the first part of the paper the ontological status of nonhumans and the politics of representation are discussed as a consequence of a rejection of technical and social determinisms. In the second part, the author turns to review some of the analytical metaphors that are conjured with in order to address the issues raised in the first part. In the third past of the paper the more overtly spatial metaphors of the literature of science, technology, and society are confronted and the move from a measured and ordered managerialist approach to the spatiality of technologies and technoscience is reviewed. In the fourth section, some lessons for the politics of a reconfigured geographical engagement with technology and technoscience are raised.

2006. Enacting environmental justice in Singapore: performative justice and the green volunteer network. Geoforum

Environmental justice research has of late expanded beyond its' original focus on the distribution of environmental 'bads' to debate injustices at a wide array of sites and scales. Despite this expansion, the applicability of an environmental justice framework to seemingly apolitical and banal expressions of environmental concerns remains open to question. This paper argues that environmental justice struggles can be located in the mundane environmental politics of Singapore, by employing a performative rather than rights-based approach to both justice and politics. It draws on qualitative research into volunteers' practices in one Singaporean environmental organisation, and asserts that through their focus on experiential learning and re-inscribing 'developmental' spaces as spaces of care and justice, volunteers seek to redress the social, political and environmental injustices replete within the spatial politics of Singapore. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. Actor-Network Theory as a Critical Approach to Environmental Justice: A Case against Synthesis with Urban Political Ecology. Antipode

Recent critiques of environmental justice research emphasize its disengagement from theory and its political focus on liberal conceptions of distributional and procedural justice. Marxian urban political ecology has been proposed as an approach that can both contextualize environmental inequalities more productively and provide a basis for a more radical politics of environmental justice. Although this work takes its primary inspiration from historical materialism, it also adapts key concepts from actor-network theory (ANT)-in particular, the agency of nonhumans-while dismissing the rest of ANT as insufficiently critical and explanatory. This paper argues that ANT-specifically, the version articulated by Bruno Latour-provides a basis for an alternative critical approach to environmental justice research and politics. Instead of arguing for a synthesis of ANT and Marxism, I contend that ANT gives us a distinctive conception of the social and opens up new questions about the production and justification of environmental inequalities.

2000. Institutional geographies of the New Age movement. Geoforum

This paper is concerned with the production and reproduction of different institutional geographies of the New Age movement. Instead of taking institutional geographies to be given and fixed co-ordinates in the social field, the paper seeks to understand how they are relational outcomes and effects that require constant upkeep. after characterising the New Age movement, in terms of its central cosmology and visions of transformation, the paper takes an actor-network theory (ANT) approach to the understanding of institutional geographies. Through analysing how New Age knowledges and practices travel through time and space, and utilising ANT's concept of 'centres of translation', institutional geographies are taken to be active space-times that are both enrolled into New Age teachers and practitioners programs of action, and space-times that actively enrol teachers and practitioners. It is argued that the intertwining of different engineered actor-networks in and through these space-times maintains the New Age movement itself and thus examining institutional geographies can tell of the movement's shape or topology. A controversy over the work of David Icke is explored to reveal how institutional geographies are sites for regulation of what counts as New Age knowledge. Finally, this paper seeks, partially at least, to assess in terms of the ANT approach taken, the visions of transformation propounded by the New Age movement. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Young people's embodied social capital and performing disability. Childrens Geographies

This paper teases out how the identities of young people with mind-body-emotional differences are performed and reproduced via their social relationships primarily within school spaces. Drawing upon the concept of embodied social capital (Holt 2008), the paper explores empirically how young people's positionings within a variety of social networks (re) produces differentially valued identity positionings which can become embodied within young people's shifting senses of self.

2001. Audience interpretations of (former) East Germany's representation in the German media. European Urban and Regional Studies

Although there has been growing concern among analysts of German politics and society over the last 10 years about the persistence of a 'cultural','social' or 'psychological' divide between (former) east and west Germany, most current research in this field shies away from a thorough investigation of the complex networks of socio-material, historical and spatial relations that contribute to the construction of social identities. Few studies exist on the impact of media representations and on the differential way in which many of the latter portray east and west Germans, while even less attention has been paid to people's own interpretations and their capacity to negotiate between media representations and other social experiences in the process of identity formation. In this paper 1 begin to address these issues by focusing on the interlinkages between (former) east and west German interviewees' understanding of their 'place' in the unified nation and the interpretations they construct of representations in the televised media. My aim is to show both the significant role which images play in the formation of marginalized v. centred social positions and identities, and the way in which viewers' embodiment in complex networks of social relations helps to reiterate as well as to contradict the meanings that they find constructed in media representations. The point of this paper is not to determine whether binary definitions of east and west German identities are 'true' or 'false', but how effective they are and on what basis they can be contested.

2007. 'Berlin is not a foreign country, stupid!' - Growing up 'global' in Eastern Germany. Environment and Planning A

In this paper we analyse how young East Germans come to be differentially placed in global network space through their socioeconomically and culturally specific engagements with globalised mediascapes and ethnoscapes. We call for greater awareness of the power differentials which shape globalisation, and draw on the theoretical work of Pierre Bourdieu to show how unequal access to social and cultural capital influences and is reflected in the 'glocal' connections through which young people develop and perform their identities. Further, we seek to understand how these differential engagements impact on young people's future trajectories through the development of different competencies. We contend that, precisely how young people are positioned in networks of global local connectivity matters profoundly, both for the performance of their present identities, and for their future life chances.

2011. Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks. Journal of Geography in Higher Education

Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who did not participate (n = 365). Test performance was statistically identical between these groups before and immediately after the study abroad program. On the final exam, the study abroad participants scored significantly higher. Qualitative methods were used to identify increased engagement with the course material and the creation of new social networks as likely explanations.

2011. A tale of two scenes: civic capital and retaining musical talent in Toronto and Halifax. Canadian Geographer-Geographe Canadien

Although Toronto has been the centre of the Canadian music industry for many decades, recent interviews reveal that industrial restructuring may be affecting the choices that musicians make about where to live and work. In an era of contemporary independent music production, some smaller city-regions, such as Halifax, Nova Scotia, are becoming more attractive to musicians. This article explores the ways in which musicians consider the economic and social dynamics of city-regions in making their location choices. Musicians recognize Toronto's advantages in size and economic opportunity, yet those in the music scene described it as an intensely competitive and difficult work environment. By contrast, respondents in Halifax talked about a supportive and collaborative community that welcomed newcomers, encouraged performance, and facilitated creativity. In the contemporary context, where independent musicians are adopting new strategies to pursue their vocation, communities high in civic capital may gain an advantage in attracting and retaining talent.

2011. The Leader Firms and the Evolution of an Industrial District: A Case Study of Hosiery District in Taiwan. European Planning Studies

The transformation of industrial districts has become a hot debate since the increasing globalization of national and regional economies occurred in the 1980s. This paper empirically examines the changing social networks, technological learning and industrial organization in the regional transformation of the hosiery district in Shetou, Taiwan. It shows that primordial social ties render the production networks costless and the networks of learning efficient for price competition in the early stage. However, as new challenges linked to the globalization process approach, the leader small and medium sized enterprises in Taiwanese industrial districts are not necessarily compelled to shift production jobs abroad, but they reposition themselves in local production chains with incurring extra-local resources to cope with the threats from new competitors. On the one hand, these leader firms take strategies of local reaction to rely overwhelmingly on local supply chains to meet the challenge. On the other hand, those owners of workshops which sit in the bottom of the local supply chains can do nothing but to live self-exploitative lives and face the perils of extinction.

2000. The limits of guanxi capitalism: transnational collaboration between Taiwan and the USA. Environment and Planning A

In this research we explore the relationship between high-technology regional development and ethnic networks in the connection between Silicon Valley, California and Hsinchu, Taiwan. We elaborate the argument that regional industrial structure and embedded social networks, rather than the multinational firm, should be the Focus in the study of transnational business. The complementary regional industrial structures allow economic and technological collaboration between these two regions while the social networks help coordinate these transnational (cross-regional) collaborations. However, we seek to distinguish this account from the dominant perceptions of the role of guanxi (interpersonal relationships) in overseas Chinese business networks (OCBN). In contrast with the arguments for OCBN, that guanxi provides resources for Chinese firms to coordinate and control transnational business, we argue that the skill and competence required for technological upgrading are not necessarily guaranteed within the ethnic network. Although ethnic networks facilitate transnational business and technology cross-fertilization, it seems go too far to argue the Silicon Valley-Hsinchu connection is another version of Chinese guanxi capitalism.

2008. Interaction among high-tech talent and its impact on innovation performance: A comparison of taiwanese science parks at different stages of development. European Planning Studies

Numerous studies have studied how knowledge spillovers and various other factors influence industrial clusters in terms of geographical proximity. Related studies have generally confirmed significant positive correlations between firm innovative activities and factors such as spatial proximity and degree of industrial clustering. This study elucidates on an individual level, based on the relationship between proximity dimension and innovative activity, the interactive relationships between the mobility and interaction of high-tech talent and innovation performance. Survey results indicate that the spatial proximity of firms clustering within the Hsinchu and Tainan Science-based Industrial Park increases the interaction among high-tech personnel and the expansion of their professional networks, thus promoting innovation. Gradually organizational and social proximity evolve from physical proximity within high-tech districts via the evolution of industrial networks and interactions among high-tech talent. Additionally survey results demonstrate the value of mobility and informal relationships involving high-tech talent, as well as the effect of these relationships on innovation performance during the various stages of science park development. However, how to avoid lock-in in the future development of high-tech districts remains a critical issue. The results of this investigation provide a useful reference for planning and managing industrial districts.

2005. Role of interaction between technological communities and industrial clustering in innovative activity: The case of Hsinchu District, Taiwan. Urban Studies

Economic development requires knowledge in today's knowledge-based economy. The achievement of economic development in one area depends directly on the efficiency of the attainment, accumulation and application of knowledge and information. These processes rely heavily on the involvement of human resources with technological knowledge and technical skills. Correspondingly, knowledge creation ability and the efficiency of knowledge creation and application determine industrial clustering and economic sustainability. Current surveys of industrial clusters in Taiwan have ascertained that clusters of traditional industries do not necessarily lead to innovation although, empirically, an industrial cluster is a prerequisite for innovative activity. Recent studies have addressed the effects of the spatial proximity among firms and advanced research institutes in the Hsinchu area. According to their results, industrial clustering positively influences innovation by technological companies. Based on available results, this study considers how interaction between technological communities and industrial clustering influence the innovative activities in a sample area. Additionally, this study analyses social networking within the technological community and the relationship to industrial clustering in the Hsinchu area. Results of this study provide a valuable reference for industrial district planning and management.


To grasp the critical role of socio-cultural factors for regional economic development, several concepts have been developed, including that of 'social capital'. This notion usually refers to norms, values, networks, reciprocity or trust which are held in a community and can lead to positive social and economic outcomes. Despite its popularity as a fashionable concept in the literature, the exact meaning of social capital is far from clear. This paper criticises the dominant conceptions of social capital in economic geography and regional studies and aims to place the debate in a different perspective. It argues for an alternative understanding of social capital defined as resources embedded in social networks which can be accessed or are used for actions. The potential to overcome the current weaknesses in the literature is illustrated through discussing social capital of economic clusters.

2012. Do clusters really matter for innovation practices in Information Technology? Questioning the significance of technological knowledge spillovers. Journal of Economic Geography

A widespread assumption in economic geography and the economics of innovation is that firms located in clusters benefit from territorial learning and knowledge spillovers. However, it remains unclear to what extent these benefits actually occur. This article aims to address this issue and examines to what extent research and development workers in the Cambridge Information Technology Cluster benefit from being located in the Cluster. The study shows why many do not believe that their work benefits from being located in the Cluster. The results suggest that academics as well as policy makers need to be more careful with the assumption of technological knowledge spillovers in innovative clusters. The significant advantages of the Cambridge IT Cluster seem to be of a different nature; in particular they concern labour market advantages and benefits from the global 'brand' of Cambridge.

2010. Knowledge flow and inter-firm networks: The influence of network resources, spatial proximity and firm size. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

The objective of this paper is to analyse the characteristics and nature of the networks that firms utilize to access knowledge and facilitate innovation. The paper draws on the notion of network resources, distinguishing two types: social capital-consisting of the social relations and networks held by individuals; and network capital-consisting of the strategic and calculative relations and networks held by firms. The methodological approach consists of a quantitative analysis of data from a survey of firms operating in knowledge-intensive sectors of activity. The key findings include: social capital investment is more prevalent among firms frequently interacting with actors from within their own region; social capital investment is related to the size of firms; firm size plays a role in knowledge network patterns; and network dynamism is an important source of innovation. Overall, firms investing more in the development of their inter-firm and other external knowledge networks enjoy higher levels of innovation. It is suggested that an over-reliance on social capital forms of network resource investment may hinder the capability of firms to manage their knowledge networks. It is concluded that the link between a dynamic inter-firm network environment and innovation provides an alternative thesis to that advocating the advantage of network stability.

2005. Corporate strategy and the management of ethical trade: the case of the UK food and clothing retailers. Environment and Planning A

Ethical trade, involving codes of conduct for worker welfare, has recently emerged as a form of corporate self-regulation for global commodity chains in the context of a neoliberal trading environment. I present a particular critique of ethical trade based on its embeddedness in corporate strategies and management systems. The ethical trading strategies of leading UK food and clothing retailers form the empirical focus of inquiry, and theories found in the literature on economic geography concerning corporate strategy and interfirm organisation are used to gain critical insight into the management systems used by these retailers when they attempt to put ethical trading principles into practice in their global supply chains. Variations are observed between retailers in terms of their commitment to ethical trade, which are shaped by issues of corporate culture, financial management, and corporate restructuring. Varying levels of commitment to ethical trading strategy are argued in turn to influence organisational approaches to social auditing in the supply chain. Three contrasting modes of organisation for ethical monitoring are suggested to be used by retail companies-the arm's-length approach, the coordinated approach, and the developmental approach-each of which holds contrasting implications for suppliers and workers at production sites. I argue that corporate approaches to ethical trade vary markedly and that these variations have the capacity to shape the regulation of tabour conditions at sites of export production.

2006. Learning to trade ethically: Knowledgeable capitalism, retailers and contested commodity chains. Geoforum

This paper explores what happens when corporations engage explicitly in practices of organisational learning not only to become better capitalists by generating ever more innovative ways of maintaining profitability, improving competitiveness and maximising shareholder value, but also to become more responsible corporate citizens in their business practices. In particular, I evaluate the ways in which UK food and clothing retailers are learning to develop their ethical trading programmes in response to political calls for more responsible trading. Thrift's [Thrift, N., 2005. Knowing Capitalism. Sage, London] notion of 'knowledgeable, or soft, capitalism' is adopted to understand the creative and experimental ways in which retailers and their mentors (ethical consultancies, social auditors and multi-stakeholder organisations) are learning to trade ethically. Two specific examples of formal learning spaces experienced by UK food and clothing retailers are examined: (i) training courses on social auditing and (ii) corporate awareness-raising courses on ethical trade. These courses are shown to encompass various participative and affective practices of learning. And while particular limits to the success of these courses are argued to exist, ethical learning practices discussed in this paper are nonetheless suggested to play a role in the making of new, albeit moderate, forms of responsible capitalism. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012. Corporate ethical trading in an economic downturn: recessionary pressures and refracted responsibilities. Journal of Economic Geography

This article investigates the effects of an economic downturn on corporate social responsibility, with a focus on how UK food and clothing retailers responded to recessionary pressures between 2008 and 2009 in their corporate strategies for ethical trade. In contrast to the view that corporate ethical trading might contract in scale during recession, its (uneasy) resilience is charted and explained by embeddedness in strategies of reputational risk management. However, the metaphor of refraction is adopted to capture the changing directions of ethical trading strategy as retailers moved from a period of economic stability to one of crisis.

2008. Global production networks, ethical campaigning, and the embeddedness of responsible governance. Journal of Economic Geography

This article presents a theoretically informed consideration of the role of ethical campaigning in shaping organizational practices of power and authority in global production networks (GPNs). It does so through a focus on responsibility, and the ways in which ethical consumption is challenging the organization of global networks of supply. The arguments draw upon and develop two geographical approaches to understanding transnational trade, namely the GPN framework and the study of commodity knowledge. First, understandings of ethical consumption and circuitous commodity knowledge are mobilized to capture the practices of knowledge translation through which ethics are woven into particular forms of supply network coordination. Second, through a comparative case study of UK and US corporate retailers' ethical trading programmes, notions of embeddedness advanced by the GPN framework are used and further developed to illuminate how the mobilization of ethics into different forms of network coordination involves organizational processes influenced by spaces of retail and consumption. It is argued from this that the influences of retail and consumption should be more fully incorporated into analytical frameworks for understanding GPNs.

2005. African, Russian, and Ukrainian refugee resettlement in Portland, Oregon. Geographical Review

The residential patterns, adaptation experiences, and impacts of immigrants oil North American cities have been well documented in the geographical literature. Ill this article, we build on prior work by testing the theories of Gaim Kibreab, who identified three factors that shape the experiences of recent refugees: attitudes of the receiving society; current policy environments; and employment opportunities in local communities. We analyze some of the ways in which these factors operate as interrelated systems for two comparative groups of foreign-born migrants ill Portland, Oregon: sub-Saharan Africans; and Russians and Ukrainians. Using a mixed-methods approach, we triangulate data from a blend of indepth interviews, participant observation in the community and at refugee and immigrant social service agencies, census and other statistical records, and cartographic analyses to report on the findings of our work. Data Suggest that the residential, economic, and social spaces of new refugees are constructed as a complex multiplicity of networks and relationships that link time and place.

2005. Product, process and place - An examination of food marketing and labelling schemes in Europe and North America. European Urban and Regional Studies

Considerable academic interest now revolves around the recomposition of specific (or 'alternative') food chains based on notions of quality, territory and social embeddedness.A key to such recomposition is the marketing of 'difference' through a range of accreditation and labelling schemes. Using examples from Europe and North America, this paper examines how 'difference' is constructed by producers and other actors in the food supply chain by combining the attributes of 'product, process and place' (PPP) in a range of marketing and labelling schemes. Results indicate that it is possible to identify 'critical' and 'territorial development' rationales that influence the ways in which the three Ps are combined. An examination of the rationales and practices sustaining such labelling schemes provides insights into some of the opportunities and threats shaping the emergence of new geographies of food production and consumption in Europe and North America.

2011. Mapping Global Consciousness: Portuguese Imperialism and the Forging of Modern Global Sensibilities. Globalizations

This article concerns the Portuguese forging of globalization, globality, and forms of global consciousness in the early modern period. In the now voluminous Anglophone literature on globalization, depiction of the Portuguese contribution to such matters is generally muted, if not ignored altogether, in favour of accounts of Columbus's famous voyage and the Spanish conquest of the Americas as the constitutive moments of early modern globalization. The article seeks to rectify the serious neglect of the Portuguese case. It does so by examining how the creation of trans-oceanic networks by the Portuguese made possible new forms of global consciousness. The central arguments forwarded by the article are: that the Portuguese experience is quite as important as the Spanish one in understanding early modern globalization; that early modern globalization was neither unidirectional or inevitable, but rather was shaped in important ways by local and contingent factors operative inside Portugal and within the often tentative expansive endeavours carried out by rival sectors within Portuguese society; that the Portuguese expansion was both made possible by, and further fostered, particular navigational, cartographical, and shipping techniques, which themselves embodied and allowed novel forms of global consciousness; that such forms of consciousness were not only the preserve of elites, but were disseminated throughout all social classes; and that it was through the twin endeavours of the Portuguese and Spanish that a radically new and distinctively 'modern' sense of the globe and global space was forged. The article thus seeks to contribute to the emerging literature on the history of globalization, connecting material factors with a cultural-sociological account of the development of new modes of perception and global consciousness.


We demonstrate a spiky globalization pattern in the cross-border spread of venture capital: rather than being uniformly distributed, cross-border venture capital flows are unevenly distributed, in that certain regions of the U.S. display particularly intense linkages with certain foreign nations. We posit that such spiky globalization of venture capital is driven by the spiky globalization pattern of prior human networks between locations, and we provide empirical results supportive of our hypothesis. Specifically, we reason that immigrant entrepreneurs inherently tend to collocate with each other in their host nation, thus advantaging certain regions in the competition to act as sources and destinations of cross-border venture capital. This study sheds new light on geographical patterns in international venture capital and entrepreneurship. Copyright (C) 2010 Strategic Management Society.

2002. Toward a multicultural ecology. Organization & Environment

The debate between realists and constructivists has polarized environmental scholarship in recent years. Situating this debate within the longstanding modernist tradition of categorically distinguishing "nature" from "culture," and the natural sciences from the social sciences and humanities, this article suggests that we need to find a non-dualistic space for rethinking cultural-ecological relations. Such a space has been articulated by actor-network theory (ANT), but this theory leaves significant gaps in its understanding of agency and of macro forces. To fill in these gaps, the author draws on perspectives that theorize perception and agency as embodied, animate, and ecologically embedded and that theorize macro forces as discursively shaped and causally multidirectional and multiscalar The author proposes the concept of multicultural ecology as a way of articulating the indivisibility of nature and culture and the multiplicity of cultural-ecological practices, and suggests a normative dimension by which such practices can be compared and evaluated.

2002. Commercial cultures: transcending the cultural and the economic. Progress in Human Geography

In recent years there have been repeated calls for a convergence between 'the cultural' and 'the economic'. This paper provides a specific take on these issues through an exploration of the contested geographies of contemporary commercial culture. Traditionally, 'culture' has been associated with meaning and creativity, with works of the imagination and aesthetic practices that are far removed from the pursuit of economic profit. By contrast, 'commerce' has conventionally been regarded with disdain by critically minded social scientists, signalling a vulgar and materialistic world, devoid of morality, where human agency is subordinated to the logic of capital. This paper aims to challenge such dualistic thinking by exploring the commodification of cultural difference and by demonstrating that the rational calculus of the market is inescapably embedded in a range of cultural practices. The argument moves from an analysis of linear commodity chains to an exploration of more complex circuits and networks, illustrated with examples from contemporary commodity culture, looking specifically at the food and fashion sectors. Rather than demonstrating complexity for its own sake, the objective is to identify new forms of understanding and new possibilities for intervention in what can sometimes seem like an all-encompassing 'consumer culture' where every act of resistance is immediately recuperated in successive rounds of commodification.

2006. Mobilising the,commodity chain concept in the politics of food and farming. Journal of Rural Studies

Focusing on the concept of 'commodity chains' within the food industry, this paper analyses the term's widespread and variable usage in both academic and policy-orientated work. Despite recent criticisms, the concept has retained its popular appeal alongside competing metaphors such as networks, circuits and assemblages. Examining the concept in more detail demonstrates a range of diverse and inconsistent definitions such that 'commodity chains' are in danger of becoming, in Andrew Sayer's terminology, a chaotic conception. The paper pursues Sayer's suggestion of making such conceptions the object of academic study where the proliferation of diverse uses may throw light on the political interests of those who mobilise the term in different ways. The argument is illustrated with case studies from the UK Government's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the Countryside Agency (a statutory body) and Sustain (a campaigning group). The analysis draws on secondary sources and on interviews with representatives of these agencies. The paper concludes that the different mobilisations of the concept by these agencies provide valuable insights into the politics of food and farming in contemporary Britain. Specifically, we argue that the concept objectifies social relations, fore-grounding certain (technical and economic) features and back-grounding other (social and environmental) issues. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006. Scholarly networks on resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the human dimensions of global environmental change. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions

This paper presents the results of a bibliometric analysis of the knowledge domains resilience, vulnerability and adaptation within the research activities on human dimensions of global environmental change. We analyzed how 2286 publications between 1967 and 2005 are related in terms of co-authorship relations, and citation relations. The number of publications in the three knowledge domains increased rapidly between 1995 and 2005. However, the resilience knowledge domain is only weakly connected with the other two domains in terms of co-authorships and citations. The resilience knowledge domain has a background in ecology and mathematics with a focus on theoretical models, while the vulnerability and adaptation knowledge domains have a background in geography and natural hazards research with a focus on case studies and climate change research. There is an increasing number of cross citations and papers classified in multiple knowledge domains. This seems to indicate an increasing integration of the different knowledge domains. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2000. Democratisation without representation? The power and political strategies of a rural elite in north India. Political Geography

This paper examines how an agrarian elite in Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), India, seek access to the local police force. I argue that rich farmers belonging to the intermediate Jat caste have been quite successful in perpetuating their economic and social advantage through placing relatives in the police force and nurturing political networks that link them to the police and politicians. The analysis complements macro-structural political economic accounts of India's flawed democratisation by offering a 'thick description' (Geertz, C. (1983). Local knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretative Anthropology. New York: Basic Books) of local state/society relations, including attention to spatial and symbolic dimensions of political networks. The paper provides a basis for re-evaluating popular accounts of the relationship between rural people and the local state in India and highlights the broader relevance of this research for political geography. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. An unsustainable state: Contrasting food practices and state policies in the Czech Republic. Geoforum

This paper brings together consideration of food policies and practices and of post-socialist transition to raise neglected questions about means of nurturing more sustainable food systems in the developed world. The last three decades have been marked by the growing salience of food as a political and scholarly concern. While market-based alternative food systems have been heralded for their potential to promote environmental sustainability, the benefits of non-market practices such as household food self-provisioning and barter have been assumed rather than being the focus of research. In the western context, both types of food consumption have positive connotations. Although food self-provisioning in European post-socialist societies is a more wide-spread practice than in western societies, it has been on the periphery of research. The existing literature has conceptualised them as 'coping strategies' or as a legacy of irregular supply of goods in the state socialist era. Drawing on empirical research in the Czech Republic, we are proposing a novel approach to the phenomenon of household food production in post-socialist societies as a practice compliant with principles of sustainability. First, we highlight the large extent and social inclusivity of food self-provisioning in Czech society to demonstrate how post-socialist societies are a repository of a rich set of sustainability-promoting consumption practices in relation to food systems. Second, we show that international and domestic policy actors in these societies have ignored these alternative, socially inclusive and environmentally effective practices in favour of far less effective market-based sustainability oriented food policy initiatives. The paper promotes a more integrated view of non-market and market approaches in the pursuit of more sustainable food systems. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007. Identity, place, and the political mobilization of urban minorities: comparative perspectives on Irish Catholics in Buffalo and Toronto 1880-1910. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

In this paper the political fortunes and identities of Irish Catholics in US and Canadian cities are explored through a comparative study of Buffalo and Toronto. Local spaces of political administration in the urban arena, such as wards, were significant in affecting the generation of sociopolitical networks of power which in turn had implications for the sense of political identity and involvement felt by Irish Catholics within these two places. The importance of such spaces, however, was also contingent on the interaction between these cities' Irish Catholic populations and wider geographies of social, economic, and ethnoreligious relations over time as well as on the topographies and traditions of political power that extended beyond the municipal scale in both societies.

2004. Green-space preservation and allocation for sustainable greening of compact cities. Cities

Including greenery in human settlements is a tradition deeply rooted in antiquity, with diverse expressions. Realization of the green city ideal has changed with prevailing social-economic-political regimes and landscape styles. Variations in land use and development mode have generated green spaces of different geometry, distribution and composition. The compact city incurs inherent physical and institutional obstacles, restricting the quantity and quality of amenity vegetation. Recent research findings in arboriculture, urban forestry, urban ecology, urban planning and urban geography suggest alternative strategies for both existing and new green sites. A multidisciplinary interpretation distils relevant principles and practices to facilitate greening in packed neighborhoods and overcome major constraints. Measures are proposed to guard green spaces from intrusion, intensification and infilling to preserve both sites and conditions for plants, wildlife and ecological functions. New developments and redevelopments, with suitable encouragement and incentives, can earmark enough new green areas with appropriate location and design. Natural enclaves, especially woodlands, with high biodiversity and complex biomass should be incorporated into the future built environment. Partnership among government, developers and citizens should nurture the community's determination and capability to augment greening. A coordinating body to mobilize initiatives and efforts could gel disparate stakeholders and bring concerted actions. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. The Spatial Determinants Of Wage Inequality: Evidence From Recent Latina Immigrants In Southern California. Feminist Economics

Recent Latina immigrants to the United States earn lower hourly wages than any other broad demographic group. This paper investigates the role space and scale play in shaping the employment opportunities and wages this group receives in Southern California relative to others there. Results suggest that, although individual factors such as education, experience, and ability to speak English are important, spatial forces also influence wages. Access to jobs, particularly low-skilled jobs and those held by Latinos, as well as ethnic neighborhood networks, explain a large share of the variation in hourly wages. The paper provides evidence that labor-market scales differ across groups within US metropolitan areas, with recent Latina immigrants being more geographically constrained and hence more dependent on local opportunities and resources than other workers, with the exception of black women.

2005. Neighbourhood social capital and neighbourhood effects. Environment and Planning A

Recent research has provided very strong circumstantial evidence of the existence of neighbourhood effects in voting patterns at recent UK general elections. The usual reason adduced to account for these spatial variations is the neighbourhood effect. This hypothesises that people are influenced in their decisionmaking and behavioural patterns by their neighbours, with interpersonal conversation being the main means of transmitting such influence. Although there is an increasing body of evidence showing the impact of such conversations-that people who talk together, vote together-relatively little of this has grounded the geography of such conversations in the individuals' local neighbourhoods. Those who interact locally should show more evidence of 'neighbourhood-effect-like' patterns than those who do not. To inquire whether this is indeed so, this paper extends recent work on voting patterns in the United Kingdom by investigating the behaviour of individuals with different levels of participation in their local milieux-what we define below as neighbourhood social capital.

2008. Beyond embeddedness: economic practices and the invisible dimensions of transnational business activity. Progress in Human Geography

Embeddedness remains a central concept in much economic geographical thought for understanding how social factors influence economic activity. Recent commentators have argued for a reconceptualization that entails a relational and processual redefinition of the concept. This paper argues, however, that there remain deep-rooted epistemological problems with embeddedness that are not overcome by this emerging reconceptualization. It argues that the conceptual lexicon of embeddedness conflates economic action and outcomes, insufficiently captures power and agency and produces a limited understanding of the spatialized development of economic activity. It further argues that the language of embeddedness conceals dimensions to transnational business activity that require increasing theoretical attention in order to explain economic success or failure in the context of contemporary globalization. In contrast to those seeking to reconceptualize embeddedness, the paper thus argues for a relational and associational approach centred on tracing the practices that produce economic outcomes in the contemporary global space economy. This alternative approach draws on recent contributions to actor-network theory as well as relational and topological theorizations of the nature of power and knowledge in relation to economic activity. The arguments are grounded with reference to a series of examples drawn from research into the nature of contemporary transnational firms.

2009. THEORIZING GLOBAL BUSINESS SPACES. Geografiska Annaler Series B-Human Geography

Over the last decade, geographers have paid a great deal of attention to transnational firms (TNCs) and global production networks (GPNs) in the global economy, to the emergence of a mobile transnational business class and also to the development of global or globalizing cities. All three literatures have made important contributions to understanding the spatiality of global economic activity, but each adopts a fairly discreet theoretical and empirical focus. This article aims to outline a number of theoretical dimensions for thinking about how these key strands to the globalization debate can be brought together through the concept of global business spaces. It will propose a framework for understanding the spatialities of global economic activity that seeks to capture the complex interaction of material, social, organizational and virtual spaces that form the context through which it is constituted. With reference to business travel as a key form of economic practice which plays a central role in (re)producing these spaces, it assesses how these emerging spaces of global economic activity present problems for the conceptual categories commonly used by both urban and economic geographers. In so doing, it proposes a series of ways in which a different research agenda can produce new insight into the complex forms of social practice at the centre of global economic activity.

2011. Theorizing practice in economic geography: Foundations, challenges, and possibilities. Progress in Human Geography

Over the last decade or so there has been an identifiable shift in the interests of many economic geographers towards a concern with practices: stabilized, routinized, or improvised social actions that constitute and reproduce economic space, and through and within which socioeconomic actors and communities embed knowledge, organize production activities, and interpret and derive meaning from the world. Although this shift has gained significant momentum its general theoretical significance remains somewhat unclear and the concept is vulnerable to criticisms that it is incoherent, too 'micro-scale' in emphasis, unable to provide valid links between everyday practices and higher-order phenomena (eg, institutions, class structures), and that, in some cases, it lacks a sound political economy. This paper argues that while it undoubtedly has limitations, the practice-oriented shift represents an ongoing development of a longstanding and heterodox field of social scientific interest from both within and beyond the subdiscipline. We first highlight the diverse strands of economic geography scholarship that have an explicit interest in practices and then propose an epistemological and methodological framework for a practice-oriented economic geography. The framework is based on the polemical argument that insight from both critical realist and actor-network perspectives can provide the basis to better demarcate practices in relation to their social and spatiotemporal dimensions. It goes on to outline a reformulated retroductive methodology to assess the impacts and theoretical significance of particular economic-geographical practices. The paper concludes that practice offers a potentially powerful, yet complementary, epistemological tool that can create conceptual space for the study of a wide range of socioeconomic and geographical phenomena.

2009. Proximity and power within investment relationships: The case of the UK private equity industry. Geoforum

The role of power in economic activity has been researched across the social sciences but there has been little engagement with the spatialities of power relations. This paper thus draws on a recent reinvigorated interest in power within economic geography to develop an approach for understanding how the spatiality of power relations in economic practices are constituted through different forms of proximity. It argues that proximity needs to be conceptualised as multi-dimensional including physical, cultural, virtual and organizational proximity between firms and actors. It further contends that the development of different forms of proximity shape the agency of empowered actors in industry clusters and regional economies. This general proposition is explored by presenting research into a case study: the UK-based private equity industry. The research focuses on the nature, role and development of different forms of proximity between private equity firms and the investee firms that are the subject of investments. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Blog links as pipelines to buzz elsewhere: the case of New York theater blogs. Environment and Planning B-Planning & Design

The concept of buzz is both new and heavily contested. One of the strongest debates about buzz is the possibility of 'virtual buzz' or buzz that takes place online. At the heart of this debate is the importance of real-time, face-to-face contact. To investigate virtual buzz we present a study of a network of weblogs, or blogs, which share a topical focus on the New York City theater scene. Using social network analysis we find that these blogs exhibit a dense network of interlinkages between each other, with no dominant blog controlling the discourse. We believe this to be indicative of a buzz-like environment. We conclude by discussing the advantages that the study of blogs has for the field of economic geography.

1999. Towards a regional renaissance? Reconfiguring and rescaling England's economic governance. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Recent years have witnessed a tremendous academic and political appeal to the regional scale as the key with which to rear economic and social revitalization. Learning from exemplars such as Baden Wurttemberg, certain proponents of a purported 'new regionalism' advocate that the economic and democratic deficit in less-favoured regions may be revitalized by fostering a series of interacting social, economic and institutional networks. This paper provides a discussion of some of the more sophisticated approaches heralding a regional renaissance. These are then deployed through a case study of the restructuring and rescaling of England's economic governance in the late 1990s via the establishment of Regional Development Agencies (RDAs). Focusing on the experience of the North-West region, their analysis reveals that, whilst useful as a form of contextualizing regional transformation and governance, the new regionalist approaches are unable to provide a rigorous framework through which to consider England's own peculiar regional 'resurgence'. In turn, the authors call for a serious consideration of the state as a critical animateur in both structuring and scaling economic and civic life. The paper concludes that in future research, a lack of sensitivity to situated path-dependent regional economic and political geographies may serve to reproduce the 'fantasies' inherent in some earlier (post-Fordist) 'transition models'.

2006. Is mixed-income development an antidote to urban poverty? Housing Policy Debate

I critically assess the potential for mixed-income development as a means of helping lift families in U.S. inner cities out of poverty. I identify four main propositions for the promise of mixed-income development, provide a conceptual. framework that delineates the pathways through which mixed-income development can be hypothesized to improve the quality of life for the urban poor, and review the evidence from existing research on the relevance of these propositions. Because of the scale and possible elimination of the HOPE VI (Housing Opportunities for People Everywhere) program, I pay particular attention to what we have learned from it. The most compelling propositions are those that do not rely on social interaction to promote a higher quality of life for low-income residents and instead predict benefits through greater informal social control and higher-quality goods and services. I consider the limitations of this strategy and policy implications for future mixed-income development.

2009. Evidence, politics and power in public policy for the environment. Environmental Science & Policy

Despite a recent emphasis on 'evidence based policy' accompanied by an abundance of 'green' policy instruments, experience from the European Union and OECD countries shows that decisions which truly aim to balance environmental considerations with social and economic ones remain thin on the ground. Moreover, many policies seem to fall short of, or directly contradict what the available 'evidence' suggests is required. This is a synthesis paper bringing together literature from the fields of political science, geography, sociology and science and technology studies to outline some of the obscurities relating to the use of scientific evidence in environmental decision-making. In this paper, we suggest that an exploration of three key inter-related issues is necessary to develop a richer understanding of why evidence and policy interact as they do. These are the nature of evidence itself; the normative, moral or ethical 'politics' of policy-making; and the operation of power in the policy process. Our primary goal is to bring various literatures together to better conceptualise the evidence-policy relationship. In so doing, we outline specific challenges for knowledge producers who set research priorities, and design and direct research projects. We also highlight significant implications for policy decision-making processes (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kagan, J. (2001). Biological constraint, cultural variety, and psychological structures. Unity of Knowledge: The Convergence of Natural and Human Science. A. R. Damasio, A. Harrington, J. Kaganet al. 935: 177-190.

Although biological processes bias humans to develop particular cognitive, affective, and behavioral forms, the cultural context of growth shapes these forms in particular ways. Psychologists have been indifferent to the nature of the mental structures that mediate the varied psychological functions that are the usual target of inquiry. This paper argues that schemata for perceptual events, motor programs, and semantic networks are distinct, although interdependent, forms that rest on different neurophysiologies. The biological constraints are weakest on the semantic networks that are influenced by the history, economy, religion, geography, and social structure of the society. These factors influence how cultures classify names for emotions, categories of self-membersbip, and popular metaphors for human nature. One class of schemata is derived from changes in body tone. Temperamental variation in the susceptibility to changes in body tone has relevance for understanding personality and a vulnerability to anxiety disorders.

2004. Interrogating the geographies of the familiar: Domesticating nature and constructing the autonomy of the modern home. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

This article Studies the western bourgeois home, and argues that its social construction as a familiar, autonomous, safe, private haven is predicated not only upon the exclusion of undesired social elements (anomie, homelessness, social conflict, etc.) but also upon the exclusion of undesired natural elements (cold, dirt, pollution, sewage, etc.). Using the domestication of water in the western world as a vehicle, the article analyses the historical-geographical process through which nature became scripted as 'the other' to the bourgeois home, and explains the contribution of this separation to the conceptual construction of the home as a distinct and autonomous 'space envelope', supposedly untouched by socio-natural processes. This analysis identifies an inherent contradiction: despite the intense efforts at 'othering' and excluding nature from the premises of the home, the function and familiarity of this space is increasingly dependent upon the production of nature. Although the complex set of socio-natural networks, pipes and cables that carry clean, produced, commodified nature inside and pump bad, metabolized nature outside the bourgeois home remain visually excluded, it is this same excluded socio-nature that constitutes the material basis upon which the familiarity of the home is constructed. Thus, in a simultaneous act of need and denial, the bourgeois home remains the host of the elements that it tries to exclude. This contradiction surfaces at moments of crisis (such as power cuts, burst mains and water shortage) when familiar objects acquire uncanny properties. At such moments, the continuity of the social and material processes that produce the domestic space is unexpectedly foregrounded, bringing the dweller face to face with his/her alienation, within his/her most familiar environment.

2011. Neoliberalism, urbanism and the education economy: producing Hyderabad as a 'global city'. Discourse-Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education

This paper examines the emergence of Hyderabad as a hub of the global information technology economy, and in particular, the role of higher education in Hyderabad's transformation as the labor market for the new economy. The extensive network of professional education institutions that service the global economy illustrates the ways in which neoliberal globalization is produced through educational restructuring and new modes of urban development. Neoliberal globalization, however, is a variegated process wherein local social hierarchies articulate with state policies and global capital. This study shows how caste and class relations in the education sector in Andhra Pradesh are instrumental to forming Hyderabad's connection to the global economy. The contradictions of these regional realignments of education, geography and economy are manifest in the uneven development of the region and the rise of new socio-political struggles for the right to the city.

2011. Between close and distanced links: Firm internationalization in a subsea cluster in Western Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography

Karlsen, A. & Nordhus, M. 2011. Between close and distanced links: Firm internationalization in a subsea cluster in Western Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography Vol. 65, 202-211. ISSN 0029-1951. The cluster concept has attracted attention from scholars and become increasingly popular in regional politics, as exemplified by The Norwegian Centres of Expertise programme. External linkages of cluster firms have become a concern inspired by the notions 'local buzz' and 'global pipelines'. Viable clusters are dependent on the quality of both internal industrial environment and external linkages. The article focuses on internationalization of SMEs from a cluster perspective and discusses how cluster firms take advantage of different dimensions of proximity in their internationalization endeavours. By applying the industrial network approach, firms' strategies and positions at different stages of internationalization are integrated in the analysis. The cases are four SMEs located in a 'subsea cluster' close to Bergen, Norway. Data were collected through interviews with top managers and observations during cluster-related meetings. The cases differ with regard to size and international experiences. Firms that are highly internationalized rely on cognitive or organizational proximity when they internationalize further. Such firms provide opportunities for other cluster firms. In contrast, less internationalized firms rely on social and institutional types of proximity. As they collaborate with larger and more experienced cluster firms they can skip some of the resource-demanding steps in the internationalizing process.

2010. Metronatural (TM): Inventing and reworking urban nature in Seattle. Progress in Planning

Seattle has long been considered a city in harmony with nature, a metropolis inseparable from and infused with the dramatic and picturesque Pacific Northwest landscape. Today, the city is frequently cited as a leader in sustainable urban development and this is due in large part to its unique relationship with its natural surroundings. However, the historical record of Seattle reveals this harmonious relationship between humans and nature to be a social construction. The founders of Seattle adopted an urban development approach similar to other North American cities and implemented large-scale engineering projects to rationalise the landscape while solidifying the municipal government as the ultimate arbiter of human/nature relations. The unintended economic, environmental, and social consequences of this so-called 'Promethean' approach to urban nature would be debunked in the 1950s, catalyzing a wide array of approaches by the municipality and residents to restore, protect, and live with nature in more benign ways. In this article. I examine the politics of nature in Seattle to understand how changing perceptions of the urban landscape are related to different forms of expertise, governance, and citizenship. I focus specifically on activities to reorient urban water flows because they reveal the multiple tensions between humans and nature. The article adds to contemporary scholarship in landscape architecture, human geography, and environmental history on the dilemma of urban nature while highlighting the central role of technical experts, practices, and networks as well as issues of governance, citizenship, and management. Seattle's reputation as a green metropolis serves as an entry point to interpret the various relationships between humans, technology, and nature while also suggesting potential routes to realise more sustainable urban futures. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. "Clamber not you up to the casements": On ghetto views and viewing. Jewish History

On 29 March 1516 the Venetian Senate ordered all Jews residing in the city to move behind the walls of the ghetto. The mandate stipulated that Jews would be watched by Christian guards twenty-four hours a day and restricted by a nighttime curfew. In such a surveilled space, Venice's ghetto windows played an integral role in the complex and interactive networks constituting the city and its constituency. The singular status of ghetto architecture-especially the injunctions regarding its fenestration-provides an opportunity to explore the processes of ghettoization that partitioned a population and monitored the activities of Jews and Christians alike. Windows produced spatial occasions for looking and being looked at that reinforced social difference and created profound cultural fissures. This article studies the windows of the Venetian ghetto and the city's ongoing claims to obstruct them in the early modern period. To study the window is to study the demarcation between public good and private plurality, between the citizen and the subordinated Other.

2009. Transportation geography: local challenges, global contexts. Progress in Human Geography

2004. What kind of quantitative methods for what kind of geography? Area

This paper asks why we teach what we teach to geography undergraduates in quantitative methods courses. We re-consider the origins of quantitative geography and note how partial and historically contingent the traditional syllabus is. From this basis, we suggest that other approaches should be considered in order to provide a broader training in quantitative methods. We then propose an example syllabus that attempts to integrate a range of quantitative methodologies within a common, applied context that is also connected to relevant social, economic and political issues. We conclude that students with a better understanding of methods in physical and social science could be very valuable to the betterment of society, but to achieve this may require a change to our quantitative methods teaching.

2011. Geography and Social Networks in Nascent Distal Exchange. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics-Zeitschrift Fur Die Gesamte Staatswissenschaft

We design an experiment to explore how geography shapes exchange between spatially distant markets and hypothesize that geographical isolation of traveling intermediaries from stationary sources of production creates social isolation that hinders trade. We characterize our economies with a system of equations derived from Adam Smith: exchange drives specialization, which in turn fuels more exchange, the coupling of which increases welfare. Measures of sociality and the extent of social network exploitation significantly contribute to improved efficiency. We further find that those economies which are the wealthiest are also the most equitable. (JEL: A14, C92, D51, O12, O43)

2009. Commercializing conservation in South Africa. Environment and Planning A

The field of development studies has produced a number of institutional ethnographies in recent years that evaluate the internal workings of development agencies such as the World Bank or grassroots social organizations. Although within the social sciences research on conservation Often emphasizes the power of international conservation institutions, there have been few comparable studies assessing the internal workings of these organizations. In addition, less is known about the specific activities of national and provincial conservation agencies operating in the Global South. Ethnographies of these institutions are also needed in order to examine how conservation is variously understood and executed by organizations within different contexts. This paper presents an institutional ethnography of the Mpumalanga Parks Board, which is the chief conservation agency operating in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Following the 1994 democratic elections, the Mpumalanga Parks Board pursued a neoliberal commercialized conservation mandate that reflected the position of natural resource management in relation to other national priorities. This paper traces out the construction of the commercialization discourse in order to understand the internal and external factors that produced it while assessing its implications for nature preservation. Although the commercialization drive emulated a general trend towards neoliberal decentralization in the Global South, I argue that its particular manifestations were deeply embedded in South Africa's particular spatial economy and history of racial segregation. In tracing out the commercialization discourse from within the conservation agency itself, this paper assists in an understanding of how neoliberalism shapes natural resource management and can become hegemonic at the expense of other possibilities.

2011. Spatialising livelihoods: resource access and livelihood spaces in South Africa. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

The livelihood concept remains consistently utilised within a number of research fields, including development studies, political ecology and conservation. Although there are differences in theory and application, these fields draw upon livelihood frameworks to understand how political and economic structures impact decisionmaking and present opportunities for social actors. Several themes have emerged from livelihoods research, including the importance of institutional frameworks and examinations of the conflicts surrounding resource access. While these have been valuable contributions, there has been less attention directed to the reciprocal relationships between space and livelihood. This article draws upon insights from human geography to show how the production and reproduction of livelihoods are interlinked with the processes producing and reproducing space. In order to accomplish this, the article details research completed in South Africa that examines the diversified resources individuals and households combine to generate livelihoods. It is argued that historical and contemporary geographies shape particular livelihood trajectories and social networks for rural residents, thereby making an explicitly spatial analysis necessary for understanding the processes driving social and environmental change. This article asserts that spatialising livelihoods is critical for understanding multiple issues central to livelihood studies, including the significance of diversification, intra-community differentiation, the structure and agency of livelihoods, and the effects of decisionmaking upon social and environmental systems.

2001. Men in the valley: gay male life on the suburban-rural fringe. Journal of Rural Studies

This study examines the geography of the population of gay men located in the Connecticut River Valley area of Massachusetts where, by the 1990s, a significant minority lived on the metropolitan edge and in rural towns. Previous research has focused on the rich social life of urban gay men or on the isolation of those in rural areas. In contrast, in this study, interview data indicated that many gay men have created a way of life that was gay, non-urban and home centered, with gay men integrated into the larger community. Interviewees described their fives in the region as being positively affected by a level of tolerance. if not complete acceptance, more often associated with large urban centers. Gay men's attitudes toward the relatively large and public lesbian population in the region were complicated. The legacy of lesbian separatism from the 1970s and early 1980s caused some division, and there had been some resentment on the part of gay men in being the less visible and powerful part of the gay and lesbian population. However, in the Valley lesbians had done much of the hard work of increasing acceptance of lesbian and gay people. and recently gay men and lesbians have collaborated on significant projects, Overall, a gay male culture has formed at relatively low densities indicating both the diversity of rural areas and the de-linking of gay social networks from urban cores and the presence of self-conscious diversity in rural areas. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd All rights reserved.

2004. The nature of things: Dead labor, nonhuman actors, and the persistence of marxism. Antipode

This article is about the question of social agency in the animation of things, and about how this problematic has been conceptualized in Marxist and Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approaches to human-nature-technology relations. Notwithstanding many obvious differences, we note that each tradition was founded on a radical shift to a relational ontology, a world of relations and processes and not things-in-themselves, and that each has developed, partly as a consequence of this move, analytically useful ways of investigating and talking about the work that things do, or appear to do, in the world. By relating the ANT category of non-human actors to the Marxist concept of dead labor, and by revisiting Marx's own dialectics of technology as embodied in his figure of the "living machine" in Capital, we explore the different implications of these approaches for our understandings of the nature, materiality, and the efficacy of social agents. We argue that ANT's reconfiguration of agency as a collective social and technical process-a process wherein the "nonhuman" can have very real social effects-can be deepened and given some political efficacy only if we take seriously the ontological problems of causality, accountability, and the directedness of social relations (and things) which ANT, and its wider, still evolving ethos among the social sciences and cultural studies, would have us forestall.

2010. High-skilled Return Migration and Knowledge-based Development in Poland. European Planning Studies

It is by now well known that return migration of the highly skilled can have a significant impact on knowledge-based development in the regions to which they return. Whereas previous research has mainly focused on developing and newly industrializing countries, this paper looks at high-skilled return migration in an East European transformation economy, namely Poland. In our paper, we propose an analytical framework which integrates migration theory and regional development perspectives. Based on narrative interviews with high-skilled return migrants in Warsaw and Poznan, we show that high-skilled return migrants have an impact on economic development by acting as both investors and innovators, i.e. that they transfer and successfully integrate financial means as well as different types of knowledge into these local economies. Furthermore, the Polish example illustrates that social relations and institutional context are crucial in understanding how high-skilled return migrants contribute to knowledge-based development.

2001. The role of neighborhood social networks in scattered-site public housing residents' search for jobs. Housing Policy Debate

In theory, housing poor families in the suburbs among those who are not poor can provide better housing options and help families connect with economic and social opportunities. Social networks are vital links to larger social systems and the neighborhood networks of low-income people may thus influence their access to opportunity. Does living in small clusters of public housing in a nonpoor area instead of in a dispersed housing pattern influence the types of social ties poor people use when they look for jobs? Dispersed residents have neighborhood social networks that contain greater diversity, so therefore they have greater access to diverse sources of information. Dispersed residents, however, use their neighbors less frequently when they look for a job than clustered residents do. Implications for theory, policy, and practice are discussed.

2002. Job search networks and strategies in scattered-site public housing. Housing Studies

How does poverty dispersal influence the job search tactics and networks of poor women? Using the results of interviews with 253 women living in dispersed and small clusters of public housing, this paper examines how job networks and search tactics may vary. The premise is that the mechanisms involved in connecting poor residents of more affluent areas with opportunity may consist of both social connections and new strategies for accessing opportunity. The paper finds that dispersed residents have job networks containing more diverse information. Second, dispersed residents more often used formal methods to find their most recent job. Third, dispersed residents seek better jobs, net of demographic controls, search method, and search outcome. The paper discusses the implications of these findings for the design of housing mobility and mixed-income housing programmes, the current policy emphasis at the US Department of Housing and Urban Development.

2007. Provincializing America - Imperialism, capitalism, and counterhegemony in the twenty-first century. Current Anthropology

The global eminence of the United States is diminishing relative to non-Western economic, political, and cultural formations. Despite its unprecedented military superiority, its compromised recent attempts to assert dominance through armed occupation and economic pressure underscore the growing importance of non-Western cultures and political economics. Amid the proliferation and permutation of neoliberalism abroad-including alternative forms of capitalist development and political and religious self-determination-American efforts to extend its hegemony in the Gramscian sense are opposed by national and transnational self-assertion, states of insurgency, and capitalist competition. Dynamics of resistance and resurgence in various world areas rival and recast American political, economic, and cultural influence. Understanding these emergent processes, which portend the provincialization of America, will be pivotal for sociocultural anthropology in the twenty-first century. Comprehending new developments will require fresh combinations of an anthropological perspective with comparative political economy, international relations, the ethnography of the state, geographies of cultural resistance, and networks of transnational, national, and subnational influence.

2003. The sea change of the 1980s: Urban geography as if people and places matter - Introduction. Urban Geography

The literature in urban geography grew rapidly in the 1980s, with a general shift of academic interest toward cities and urbanization that was prompted by a global economy that was increasingly articulated through networks of cities, and by an awareness that the world's population was rapidly becoming increasingly urbanized. The literature also grew more diverse as researchers took on the economic, social, cultural, and political changes that were occurring as a result of new spatial divisions of labor and the "new economy." Within this expanded literature, and within the social science literature generally, the theoretical roles of space and place were strongly reasserted.

2009. The developing carbon financial service industry: expertise, adaptation and complementarity in London and New York. Journal of Economic Geography

This article looks at the role of market complementarities in developing new carbon markets. I argue that markets are composed of social as well as economic networks. The reliance of these networks on social connectivity and proximity makes the development of new markets particularly suited to established financial centers like London and New York and reinforces the importance of these centers. London and New York provide not only resources and financial infrastructure, but also institutional proximity that develops routines and practices between complementary firms. I investigate three levels of complementarity between ( existent and new) markets and within the new carbon markets: the complementarity of expertise and information, the complementarity of institutions and services and the complementarity of market systems. Case studies constructed from expert interviews in London and New York are used to support the argument. This article concludes by commenting on the dialectic nature of financial agglomeration and market embeddedness.

2004. How Moscow is becoming a capitalist mega-city. International Social Science Journal

The article focuses on the trends that are transforming Moscow into a new world city, manifested in its new role in global communication networks, economic restructuring, and in particular the rapid development of service economy and especially of banking and other business services. Like other world cities, the transformation of Moscow from a Soviet to a world city accelerates social polarisation and increases contrasts between the historical centre and most other parts of the urban space. The authors consider the contemporary strategies of urban management and the relationship between the interests of the state, municipal authorities, private capital, and the majority of Moscovites. Special attention is paid to an analysis of the location of new activities and to the patterns of their spatial combinations. They are explained by historical factors and the heritage of socialist urban planning in the capital.

2008. Splintered networks: The colonial and contemporary waters of Jakarta. Geoforum

This paper queries the relevance of the 'splintering urbanism' thesis to postcolonial cities of the South, and responds to calls for the production of a decentered theory of urbanization through a case study of Jakarta. Drawing on archival and interview data, the paper demonstrates that Jakarta has, since its inception, been characterized by a high degree of differentiation of access to water supply, and of fragmentation of water supply networks. We document the origins of this fragmentation in the colonial era, and trace the legacy of the colonial constructions within the postcolonial city. Moreover, we demonstrate that the introduction of private sector management (in 1988) has not significantly disrupted, and certainly not caused, this pattern. In short, we provide evidence to support our claim that Jakarta's water supply system is 'splintered' rather than 'splintering', and demonstrate that this phenomenon was not caused by the rise (or fall) of the 'modern infrastructural ideal'. In order to explain this sustained fragmentation of infrastructure and access, the paper develops a conceptual framework of postcolonial governmentality that emphasizes the interrelationship between materiality, govern mentality, identity, and urbanization, in particular through demonstrating how contested and evolving process of social differentiation are linked to the differentiation of water supply infrastructures and of urban spaces. Although we are wary of any simplistic comparisons between the colonial past and present, we argue that the optic of postcolonial governmentality provides a powerful lens for dissecting the power relations that continue to structure access to water supply and urban space in cities in the South. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2004. War, livelihoods and vulnerability in Sri Lanka. Development and Change

As the number of de-stabilized regions of warfare or post-war conditions worldwide continues to grow, this article investigates how civilians survive in the context of a civil war. It analyses livelihood strategies of farmers in the war-torn areas of Sri Lanka, using an analytical framework based on a revised form of DFID's sustainable rural livelihoods approach, placing particular attention on the institutional reproduction of household capital assets in the war economy. The author delineates a three pillar model of household livelihood strategies focusing on how households (1) cope with the increased level of risk and uncertainty; (2) adjust their economic and social household assets for economic survival; and (3) use their social and political assets as livelihood strategies. Empirical evidence comes from four case study villages in the east of Sri Lanka. Although the four case Studies were very close together geographically, their livelihood outcomes differed considerably depending on the very specific local political geography. The role of social and political assets is essential: while social assets (extended family networks) were important to absorb migrants, political assets (alliances with power holders) were instrumental in enabling individuals, households or economic actors to stabilize or even expand their livelihood options and opportunities. The author concludes that civilians in conflict situations are not all victims (some may also be culprits in the political economy of warfare), and that war can be both a threat and an opportunity, often Lit the same time.


This article employs an actor network approach to the empirical analysis of knowledge networking in a case-study region in order to investigate the structure and properties of regional innovation networks in a detailed and nuanced way. Knowledge networks in terms of innovation-related cooperative interlinkages between firms and research establishments can be regarded as a relational component of regional innovation systems. The basic assumption is that connectivity in a regional knowledge network can positively contribute to a region's innovation capacity. The use of a social network analysis approach might enhance our understanding of knowledge networks in a regional context. This article presents the findings of a detailed network analysis of innovation-related cooperative interlinkages between public research establishments and private sector firms in a metropolitan region in Germany.

2008. Neural networks and the linguistics of speech. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews

Traditional ideas of dialect represent an essentially aesthetic view, in which evidence from language variation is perceived according to social conventions about language and geography. Objective perception (aesthetics in the philosophical sense) of the same speech evidence can lead to quite different generalisations about language in use. The linguistics of speech (i.e., what people actually say and write to and for each other) must be distinguished from 'the linguistics of linguistic structure' that characterises many modern academic ideas about language. Taken together, the basic elements of speech correspond to what has been called a 'complex system' in sciences ranging from physics to ecology to economics. Computational modeling of neural networks appears to be a good match for analysis of language data, and can offer clues about neural function. This essay will show, using results from experiments with an implementation of a self-organising map algorithm, that application of the model from the linguistics of speech to computer neural network analysis of geographical language data can explain anomalies in traditional ideas of dialects. A clear understanding of the aesthetics of perception, combined with developments from neuroscience, can lead us to new objective generalisations about language in use, and potentially about other topics subject to aesthetic judgments.

2008. A hierarchy of urban communities: Observations on the nested character of place. City & Community

Revisiting Hunter's (1974, 1979) classic but rarely applied notion of a "hierarchy of communities," this article investigates the nested meanings and uses of place in the urban realm. Qualitative research conducted in two Los Angeles neighborhoods in the late 1990s revealed the existence of four layers of community, here called microsettings, street blocks, walking distance neighborhoods, and enclaves. Wide all these geographies have been examined previously by urban scholars in a variety of contexts, they have never been linked and discussed together as parts of a hierarchy of communities. The main section of the article explores the four layers by taking into account residents' sentiments and practical uses of their environment, neighborly interaction and relationships, and locals' participation in collective events and rituals. For each zone of community, I discuss two salient characteristics and briefly compare the two research neighborhoods. The conclusion reflects on the interchange change of the identified layers and Suggests further uses of the new conceptual model.

2006. 'Imagineering' Asian emerging markets: Financial knowledge networks in the fund management industry. Geoforum

This paper examines knowledge production networks in the fund management industry. Focusing on Asian emerging markets (EMs), I explore how fund managers, brokers and research analysts utilise a combination of texts, analytical structures, codified procedures, and social networks to generate interpretations and perspectives on Asian EMs. Utilising a process-based approach, I investigate how 'EMs' as an investment category is imagined and practiced by those in the fund management industry through knowledge networks and how such networks are produced and maintained. Discussions are drawn from interviews conducted with 22 EMs specialists in Singapore and London. I argue that Asian EMs have distinct characteristics that are acted upon and reproduced by finance workers in particular ways and that the acquisition and transfer of tacit knowledge takes on increased significance when codified knowledge structures are lacking. Actors in Singapore and London are also embedded in different knowledge networks, which offer different strategic advantages but, when taken together.. form a complex and multi-layered knowledge production network of 'imagineering' Asian EMs from both within and outside of Asia. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. Travelling and hunting in a changing Arctic: assessing Inuit vulnerability to sea ice change in Igloolik, Nunavut. Climatic Change

The observations of community members and instrumental records indicate changes in sea ice around the Inuit community of Igloolik, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut. This paper characterizes local vulnerability to these changes, identifying who is vulnerable, to what stresses, and why, focusing on local and regional use of sea ice for the harvesting of renewable resources and travel. This analysis is coupled with instrumental and sea ice data to evaluate changing temperature/wind/sea ice trends over time, to complement local observations. We demonstrate the relationships between changing sea ice conditions/dynamics and harvesting activities (i.e. dangers and accessibility), with specific emphasis on ringed seal and walrus seasonal hunting, to illustrate current sea ice exposures that hunters are facing. Community members are adapting to such changes, as they have done for generations. However, current adaptive capacity is both enabled, and constrained, by social, cultural, and economic factors that manifest within the modern northern Hamlet. Enabling factors include the ability of hunters to manage or share the risks associated with sea ice travel, as well as through their flexibility in resource use, as facilitated by sophisticated local knowledge and land/navigational skills. Constraining factors include the erosion of land-based knowledge and skills, altered sharing networks, as well as financial and temporal limitations on travel/harvesting. The differential ability of community members to balance enabling and constraining factors, in relation to current exposures, comprises their level of vulnerability to sea ice change.

2007. "Spaces of hope"? Fatalism, trade unionism, and the uneven geography of capital in white goods manufacturing. Economic Geography

By engaging the "politics of scale," the discourse of labor geography challenges the fatalism and consequent passivity that pervades much of the labor movement when it is confronted by corporate restructuring. An optimistic view of agency is central to this theoretical intervention. On the basis of empirical research on workers' responses to a transnational corporation's restructuring of a large refrigerator factory in rural Australia, this article highlights contradictory reactions to restructuring, thereby questioning the conception of agency that is at the heart of the labor geography project. Our data suggest a need to refine a theory that tends toward voluntarism in stressing workers' autonomy by developing a more complex, contradictory, and embedded conception. The batter reveals the unpredictable, dynamic, and contested character of agency in which the strategic response of unionism is a critical variable. The results repeal the power of a new discourse on scale in transforming fatalism. Although this initiative in Australia is now in the first phase of evolving a new institutional expression of this discourse, the data reveal how the union's policy decision to rescale and network globally within the corporation has empowered those who are determined to act, thereby undermining the passivity and fatalism of the majority. This transformation of social consciousness is a crucial trigger in the shift toward globally net-worked forms of unionism. To date, the labor geography literature has not adequately addressed the relationship between discourse, consciousness, and action. The article concludes that this new direction may have a wider significance in the global dynamic between corporations and civil society and may point to a more systematic, long-term change in the geographic scale of unionism.

2010. Knowledge Transfers, Spillovers and Actors: The Role of Context and Social Capital. European Planning Studies

Regional economic analysis relies heavily on the concept of knowledge spillovers to explain economic development. But this concept is too limited since it does not explain the actual transfer of knowledge. That requires looking into social networks and social capital in order to explain the flow of non-codified knowledge. This paper contributes to the literature by conceptualizing knowledge transfer and connecting it to the social network literature and the spatial dimension of social networks. The paper argues that knowledge flows, the spatial context of social networks and social capital are strongly linked.

2010. Spatialization Patterns of Translocal Knowledge Networks: Conceptual Understandings and Empirical Evidences of Erlangen and Frankfurt/Oder. European Planning Studies

In this paper, we outline a perspective on the spatial levels of the organization of high-tech innovations. By contrasting two innovation networks in very different socio-economic regional set-upsone prospering like in Erlangen, one stagnating like in Frankfurt/Oderthe article presents empirical results of different spatial knowledge formations. We will apply a relational notion of space on the way firm-based strategies are able to acquire external knowledge. The main question is: how do companies in high-tech innovation contexts deal with difficulties of acquiring and organizing external knowledge? Empirically driven results reflect on the possibilities and restrictions of translocal knowledge-transfer with respect to distinct regional context conditions. The point of departure of this article is Faulconbridge's attempt to conceptualize translocal knowledge networks ostretching beyond a local fixo (Faulconbridge, J. (2006) Stretching tacit knowledge beyond a local fix? Global spaces of learning in advertising professional service firms, Journal of Economic Geography, 6, pp. 517-540). Taking into account that innovation-oriented networks extend beyond the firm, the city's administrative ground, person-based social interaction abilities, we will argue for new conceptual understanding of the notion of space as introduced by Coe and Bunnell ((2003) oSpatializingo knowledge communities: Towards a conceptualization of transnational innovation networks, Global Networks, 3(4), pp. 437-456). Knowledge workers and their communities are considered to represent the desired and much needed contextual oinnovation climateo in urban-regional settings. At the same time, these olong-distance-connectionso are of great importance for gaining access to different knowledge forms and expertise. So this paper starts with the assumption, that olearning at a distanceo can be as importantand sometimes even more importantas local face-to-face contact when it comes to the question, how to generate new ideas and innovation in the field of high-tech-production. Two contrasting cases within the high-tech sector (Erlangen and Frankfurt/Oder) allow for drawing subordinate conclusions to new forms of gaining external knowledge.

2006. Professionalization paths and the constitution of ,,markets" in creative industries. Geographische Zeitschrift

The article addresses a major problem in understanding the market dynamics of so-called,creative industries": How can geography explain the constitution of the young, newly emerged markets of creative industries? How can economic and cultural geography evolve a conceptual contribution to explaining the creation of meaning, legitimacy and expertise for ultimately intangible products in these young markets? This contribution takes into account recent international research in the field of economic and cultural geography, especially Gernot Grabhers (2006),network governance" approach, in order to understand markets, networks and hierarchies. However, this article goes a step further; using the concepts of positioning - publics - professionalization - and performances, it argues that markets can be seen in terms of the positioning practices of entrepreneurial agents and their strategies to position themselves and their products within newly organizing social spaces. Markets can be furthermore be seen as publics, as legitimized peer-networks for the evaluation of professional ,,creative" products and services, and as performances with their own distinctive logic. This contribution discusses and contextualises the theoretical backgrounds of these four concepts, based on numerous empirical studies in the field of creative industries, and it develops proposals of ways in which geography can usefully contribute to an understanding of market dynamics.

1999. X-morphising: review essay of Bruno Latour's Aramis, or the Love of Technology. Environment and Planning A

An extended review is presented of Bruno Latour's book Aramis, or the Love of Technology (Harvard University Press, 1996). Attention is paid to the textual style and strategies in the book, and also to how it fits in with, and exemplifies, many of the more abstract claims central to Latour's actor-network theory. In particular, consideration is given to the provocative arguments in the book about the status of nonhuman beings in social-scientific research, and to the specific manoeuvre whereby Aramis, this transportation project which never quite made it from being an idea to being a completed object, is accorded agency- and even a voice-in the text. The 'x-morphising' which underpins Aramis in this respect is examined, and is subsequently criticised for a flattening out of agency which permits humans and nonhumans to be regarded as 'social' equivalents. Although attracted to Latour's radical emancipation of nonhuman things from a social-scientific netherworld, we nonetheless conclude by worrying about the flat and undifferentiated 'spatial imaginary' at the heart of what he is attempting to do for actors of all kinds in Aramis.

2012. Regions Matter: How Localized Social Capital Affects Innovation and External Knowledge Acquisition. Organization Science

To introduce new products, firms often use knowledge from other organizations. Drawing on social capital theory and the relational view of the firm, we argue that geographically localized social capital affects a firm's ability to innovate through various external channels. Combining data on social capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high level of social capital leads to a higher propensity to innovate. We find also that being located in an area characterized by a high degree of localized social capital is complementary to firms' investments in internal research and development (R&D) and that such a location positively moderates the effectiveness of externally acquired R&D on the propensity to innovate.

2006. Spatial variation of the DPP's expansion between Taiwan's presidential elections. Issues & Studies

This study examines the aggregate change of the Democratic Progressive Party's (DPP) expansion between Taiwan's presidential elections from a spatial perspective. We find that the expansion of the DPP exhibited spatial clustering from 1996 to 2000. Its growth was clustered in southern Taiwan in this period, creating a considerable stronghold in the 2000 presidential election. From 2000 to 2004, however, the hot spots of DPP expansion shifted to central Taiwan and exhibited relatively dispersed patterns. To explain the spatial variation of the DPP's expansion, we incorporate independent variables of income, education, and ethnicity into regression models. The result of non-spatial regression analyses reveals that demographic characteristics played a role in the DPP's expansion. After inserting a spatial lag term into spatial regression models, however, we find that the impacts of some demographic variables have been overridden by the neighborhood effect. This implies that in addition to social cleavages, some campaign mobilization efforts or the socialization of one's network in the context of a broadly defined neighborhood could also have prompted the regional variation of the DPP's expansion. Further research is required to speck the mechanisms that formed the neighborhood effect.

2000. An International Perspective on Developing Skills through Geography Programmes for Employability and Life: narratives from New Zealand and the United States. Journal of Geography in Higher Education

If there is a universal question that most academic geographers have been asked by students, it is "What can I do with geography?". We argue in this paper that an important dimension of quality improvement in geography education is closing the gap between the perceived social usefulness of the subject (suggested by evidence to be relatively lo,rt) and the realities of what a subject offers as preparation for workplace roles (rated on evidence as relatively high). A potentially central part of the International Network in Learning and Teaching (INLT) Geography in Higher Education, therefore, is communicating information about skills for employment and life that are obtainable from geography-inspired instructional programmes. But behind the seemingly straightforward task of communicating a message is in fact a much more fundamental issue-getting to grips with socio-economic changes that are rewriting the nature and place of geographic learning and teaching. I We suggest that positive outcomes from efforts to improve the quality of learning and teaching of geography will depend in part on strengthening and stabilising geography's image, particularly in the eyes of school and university students, We conclude that initiatives, already underway in several countries to popularise the 'skills profile' of a geography education, offer a framework for reimaging the subject.

Leander, K. M., N. C. Phillips, et al. (2010). The Changing Social Spaces of Learning: Mapping New Mobilities. Review of Research in Education, Vol 34, 2010: What Counts as Evidence in Educational Settings? Rethinking Equity, Diversity, and Reform in the 21st Century. A. Luke, J. Green and G. J. Kelly. 34: 329-394.


Few previous studies of socio-spatial isolation have explored both its spatial and temporal dimensions. This study proposes and implemented four visual methods for analysing socio-spatial isolation using graphic representation of people's social networks and activity patterns in space and time: 3D space-time paths, time windows, 3D activity density surfaces, and ring-based visualisation of social networks. These visualisations utilise both activity-travel data and social network information. The data used were collected through a specially designed activity-travel diary survey with a sample of Koreans in the Columbus metropolitan area in Ohio (USA). The results show that these visualisations can considerably enhance our understanding of the relationships between people's activities in space-time and their social interactions. Combining social network analysis with activity pattern analysis can lead to a better understanding of socio-spatial isolation.

2006. The ordinary economy: tangled up in values and geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Economic geographies involve the struggle to consume, exchange and produce value through the social construction of material circuits of value capable of being sustained across space and time. They are performed and practised through a constant tension between certain material imperatives of societal reproduction, the potentially infinite, day-to-day variability of economic practice, social relations and conceptions of value, and the regulatory and calculable frame of 'the economy'. Thus economic geographies are subject to more-or less-politically reflexive modes of evaluation and regulation involving multiple, simultaneously-practised forms and relations of value. They are, therefore, part and parcel of everyday social life, always hybrid and always in a state of becoming. Three vignettes illustrate economic geographies as complex social practices with a constant tendency to incoherence. They demonstrate, thereby, the ordinariness of economies.

2002. Mapping the study of the Baltic Sea area: From nationcentric to multinational history. Journal of Baltic Studies

In this article alternative ways of using the Baltic Sea area, North East Europe and Northern Europe among historians are examined. The Baltic Sea area and Northern Europe have been depicted as historical regions, but what does that mean? The older tradition has concentrated on looking for unifying structures, while the latest discussion has underlined the combining role of the sea or comprehended the area as a contact zone. In this article, it is argued that geography is not a passive setting but a social construct. On that basis, three different usages of historical regions are developed: one based on the metaphor of network, another looking for a space of mixed identities and yet a third concentrating on the study of spatial imagination.

2008. The spatialities of contentious politics. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

The question of how space matters to the mobilisation, practices and trajectories of contentious politics has frequently been represented as a politics of scale. Others have focused on place and networks as key spatialities of contentious politics. Yet there are multiple spatialities - scale, place, networks, positionality and mobility - that are implicated in and shape contentious politics. No one of these should be privileged: in practice, participants in contentious politics frequently draw on several at once. It is thus important to consider all of them and the complex ways in which they are co-implicated with one another, with unexpected consequences for contentious politics. This co-implication in practice, and its impact on social movements, is illustrated with the Immigrant Workers' Freedom Ride in the United States.

2011. From beginnings and endings to boundaries and edges: rethinking circulation and exchange through electronic waste. Area

This paper discusses research on electronic waste in Canada and Bangladesh. We engage with ongoing debates in geography and the broader social sciences on the need to move beyond linearity in the analysis of commodity/value chains and global production networks. Our analysis suggests that the problem of linearity may be an artefact of theoretical and methodological presuppositions, which explains its longevity as an issue in methodological approaches and empirical research. Recent theoretical insights from actor network theory, combined with our own research on electronic waste, provide a potential solution to the problem of linearity. Our research points to the need for a focus on 'actions', not just 'things', in tracing economic activity. This signals a shift away from beginnings and endings in production network approaches to analyses that are concerned with boundaries and edges.

2006. I'm not a doctor but I play one on TV: ER and the place of contemporary health care in fixing crisis. Health & Place

This paper is an examination of the popular TV drama E.R. What is notable for health geographers about E.R. is how the show offers a representation of health care and the role of place in creating ways to provide care. Indeed, the place of health care-the emergency room-is the point of reference for the show's weekly dramas and centers the activity on the screen. We posit that the show's success stems from how crisis has become a central component of discourses about health care and that E.R. offers one highly seductive interpretation of how to deal with crisis in health care and care delivery. E.R. provides a representation of crisis by constructing three scales of intervention as the best sites to respond to and fix crisis: bodies, medical networks, and the urban social relations of the city. Order is designed around these scales which serve to map out where medical interventions can be made within the discursive regime of crisis. What E.R. provides is a powerful, if limited, '' realistic '' portrayal about the role of health care today-a role that is increasingly considered to be shaped by the need to intervene in crisis. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Of corridors and chains: translocal developmental impacts of academic mobility between China and Germany. International Development Planning Review

This paper examines the impact of transnational geographical mobility among Chinese and German scholars using the concepts of 'development corridors' and 'development chains'. A temporal-spatial analysis of two case studies (1) a multi-generation actor-based network of social scientists and (2) the vibrant connections between the Department of Geography at the Sun Yat-Sun University of Guangzhou and various German institutes illustrates how seemingly individual, isolated and temporary episodes of academic mobility can, through interacting with factors ranging from unforeseen events to framework conditions, lead to chains of events that produce, reshape, strengthen, weaken or even erase corridors of knowledge production and exchange. Both cases demonstrate the need to view geographical mobility and its relationship to development beyond national and transnational frameworks, and the need to pay attention to translocal and highly contextualised processes that shape and are being shaped by the multiple elements of the mobility-development nexus.

2010. Scale-free human migration and the geography of social networks. Physica a-Statistical Mechanics and Its Applications

The "gravitational law of social interaction", by which the probability of a social link decreases inversely with the square of the geographic distance, has been recently documented. The source of this spatial property of social networks, however, is yet unknown. The formation of social links is related to human dynamics both on the day-today, typically small scale, level of mobility, and on larger scale migration (or reallocation) movements. In this study we analyze human migration patterns by investigating the migration of 46.8 million individuals across the US during 1995-2000. We find that the probability of migration decreases as a power law of the distance, with exponent -1. We show that this finding offers an explanation for the gravitational law of social interaction. Possible explanations and implications of the scale-free migration pattern are discussed. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


The Long Tail concept refers to the Internet-based economy that has enabled company success through a focus on highly specialized services and products that are not in high volume demand, but maybe in high-value demand. The concept of the post-tourist, for example, is a Long Tail phenomenon. Long Tail marketing approaches are proving success due to advances in communication technology and social networking that have given more people access to a broader range of goods and services and information. The Long Tail is not without its challenges, including increased global competition, and it has not abandoned geographic considerations. Geography, in fact, can help to differentiate niche products and must still be overcome to consummate the tourist experience.

1997. Spatial financial flows and the growth of the modern city. International Social Science Journal

This article provides an introduction to geographical research on money and finance. Three areas of research are singled out for attention. The first consists of geographies of monetary exchange and of credit and debt which emphasizes that the history of money and of credit and debt is also geography. The second area consists of research into international financial centres, and especially the identification of social networks which play a key role in coordinating and ordering the international financial system. The third and final area of research addressed in the article studies processes of financial exclusion, and seeks to identify territories 'abandoned' by the financial system. By illustrating that the history of money and finance is also a geography, that financial institutions currently operate from well defined urban systems, and that the net result of the operations of financial institutions is to exclude many of the peoples and places of the world, we attempt to show that institutions of money and finance are at the centre of modern economic geography.

1998. A cultural economy perspective on service sector migration in the global city: The case of Hong Kong. International Migration

This article argues that in order to fully understand the geography of labour migration to global cities, it is necessary to consider economic forces in conjunction wit-h mediating socio-cultural influences. Support for this argument is based on an examination of the pattern of migration to Hong Kong, a city which plays a significant role in the world economy. Reported here are the results of an analysis of recently released 1996 by-census data, and the authors' interviews with foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong. These findings have shown that highly skilled immigrant workers were drawn largely from developed countries, the main sources of inward investment in this city, while less skilled immigrants were drawn from less developed neighbouring labour markets. While the geographical pattern of immigration followed broadly that predicted from Hong Kong's position in the world economy, the results have revealed that cultural influences such as language and social networks are also important in shaping the economic roles of migrant workers.

2001. Banking on social capital in the era of globalization: Chinese ethnobanks in Los Angeles. Environment and Planning A

Global migration is transforming not just urban populations, but the nature and economic roles of ethnic banks-that is, banking institutions owned and operated by minorities. Academic research on ethnic banks has until now focused on the circumstances of African-American-owned banks. This paper explores the rise of a new set of ethnic banks-the Chinese American banks of Los Angeles County. These older and newer ethnic banking communities occupy very different roles in the banking market. African-American-owned banks arose largely because mainstream banks' inadequate services in minority communities left unoccupied market 'niches'. Despite similar origins, the newer generation of Chinese American banks, by contrast, has prospered for two additional reasons. The first is economic globalization. These ethnobanks' resources have grown tremendously both because of migration and cross-border money flows, and also because they have maintained networks extending across national borders. The second is these banks' ability to tap into their communities' extensive social capital-that is, the networks of information, norms, and disciplinary mechanisms that crisscross the Chinese American community. This social capital permits ethnobanks to mobilize resources and direct development in a way that nonethnic banks cannot imitate. We conclude by considering whether the Chinese ethnobanks are a transient phenomenon, and whether other minority banks can adopt their model.

2005. Geographic routing in social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

We live in a "small world," where two arbitrary people are likely connected by a short chain of intermediate friends. With scant information about a target individual, people can successively forward a message along such a chain. Experimental studies have verified this property in real social networks, and theoretical models have been advanced to explain it. However, existing theoretical models have not been shown to capture behavior in real-world social networks. Here, we introduce a richer model relating geography and social-network friendship, in which the probability of befriending a particular person is inversely proportional to the number of closer people. In a large social network, we show that one-third of the friendships are independent of geography and the remainder exhibit the proposed relationship. Further, we prove analytically that short chains can be discovered in every network exhibiting the relationship.

2010. Becoming Pilgrims in the Holy Land: On Filipina Domestic Workers' Struggles and Pilgrimages for a Cause in Israel. Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology

Filipino Christian care and domestic workers' migration to Israel is a deeply transformative process of embodied subjectification, imbuing their religious practice with imaginative meanings rather than merely economic. Filipino pilgrimages to holy sites in Israel sacralise the humdrum and sometimes demeaning realities of their work, enabling them to transcend through performance the 'migrant' label assigned to them by contemporary migration regimes in the international division of labour. Becoming pilgrims (and tourists) in the Holy Land, migrants discover alternative life narratives, which position them on a journey within a sacred geography at the centre of Christian devotion, suffusing their movements along transnational networks and migration routes. By interpreting Holy Land pilgrimages as dynamic and at times awkward encounters with the sacred, inflected by Filipinos' legal, social and economic status in Israel, I show the creative fusion of pilgrimage, tourism and migration achieved by migrants in their transnational journeys.

2010. Informality and Collective Organising: identities, alliances and transnational activism in Africa. Third World Quarterly

This paper is a conceptual exploration of the dimensions of the contemporary politics of informal economies, from the vantage point of collective organising by 'informal workers'. It inquires into the formation of the political subjectivities and collective identities of informal actors. The importance of the relations between their organisations and other organised actors is illustrated with a discussion of emerging alliances with trade unions. The transnational scales of collective organising by 'informal workers' are addressed. The paper suggests an analytical approach that takes account of the diversity of organised actors, of a variety of governing powers and of the various spatial scales of social struggle involved in the politics of informal livelihoods today. The reflections are informed by the considerable social and economic differentiation contained in informal economies and emphasise the importance of the great diversity of actors, positions, agendas and identities for understanding the complex and contingent politics of informality. Empirical illustrations are drawn from the African continent, but the discussions in the paper address wider trends and theoretical debates of relevance for other developing regions.

2008. 'Where are the buses'? Role of geography fieldwork in a socially fragmented world. Asia-Pacific Education Researcher

In a world that is increasingly fragmented and polarised, fieldwork becomes far more important than ever before in understanding social and cultural differences. This paper considers the role of fieldwork in geography for students from small countries like the city-state of Singapore as well as the understanding of political and economic differences that exist in the region. Socialised into a highly planned urban environment in which public goods and services are taken for granted such as urban transport networks that are crucial in the functioning of cities, final year university students majoring in geography from the National Institute of Education found themselves highly challenged in locating similar urban provisions in their fieldwork site in neighbouring Malaysia. 'Where are the buses?' wag the first question posed by a group once they had reached the island of Pulau Langkawi, off the northwestern coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The assumption underlying the question was that other worlds would not be too different from that which the students are familiar - the well-organised and well-planned city-state of Singapore. Post-structuralists suggest that education is a process through which subjects are formed while formal education in most countries can be considered to be a 'state project' since it is based on national school curricula. Foucault's concept of governmentality concerns how states determine the types of knowledge and practices that are to be communicated to students and hence, create the support for the state's developmental agenda and its rationalisation. This paper argues that fieldwork is crucial in the development of critical thinking and students' understanding of the geographies of an increasingly fragmented world.

2000. Trajectories of industrial districts: Impact of strategic intervention in medical districts. Economic Geography

Actors employ strategic intervention to alter the trajectory of an industrial district because they are dissatisfied with an existing or expected tr;trajectory. In this study we examine two medical industrial districts. In the Philadelphia biotechnology district, strategic intervention altered its trajectory; and in the Minneapolis biomedical technology district, the trajectory of the district has altered but no strategic intervention emerged to redirect the trajectory. The structure and, functioning of social networks within each district had an impact on the strategic interventions. Philadelphia housed a larger array of powerful firms and institutions than Minneapolis, but no pharmaceutical giant dominated the spawning of spin-offs in Philadelphia comparable to the dominance of Medtronic in Minneapolis. Diverse medical facilities in Philadelphia diffuse technological information and contacts about starting firms, whereas the University of Minnesota Medical School and its research institutes create a centralized source of information and contacts. The venture-capital sector of Philadelphia draws on diverse pools of capital, with no dominant vested interest to defend sectors of biotechnology: however, in Minneapolis, a few financial actors and large firms direct that allocation of capital. Philadelphia contains numerous public-private partnerships; Minneapolis does rot have that diversity. As increased FDA regulation and pressure from managed care firms create conditions that favor large firms, the Philadelphia region continues to support small firms, whereas the Minneapolis region is withdrawing support. Philadelphia's wide-ranging social networks provide a more supportive framework for small firms than exists in Minneapolis, where the social networks have greater centralization and redundancy.

2007. Guest editors' introduction - Human-animal studies in Australia: Current directions. Society & Animals

In 2004, Natalie Lloyd and Jane Mulcock initiated the Australian Animals & Society Study Group, a network of social science, humanities and arts scholars that quickly grew to include more than 100 participants. In July 2005, about 50 participants attended the group's 4-day inaugural conference at the University of Western Australia, Perth. Papers in this issue emerged from the conference. They exemplify the Australian academy's work in the fields of History, Population Health, Sociology, Geography, and English and address strong themes: human-equine relationships; management of native and introduced animals; and relationships with other domestic, nonhuman animals-from cats and dogs to cattle. Human-Animal Studies is an expanding field in Australia. However, many scholars, due to funding and teaching concerns, focus their primary research in different domains. All authors in this issue-excepting one-are new scholars in their respective fields. The papers represent the diversity and innovation of recent Australian research on human-animal interactions. The authors look at both past and present, then anticipate future challenges in building an effective network to expand this field of study in Australia.

2003. Organization, evolution and performance in neighborhood-based systems. Geography and Strategy

Because clustering of organizational activities in space induces - and at the same time emerges from patterns of imperfect connectivity among interacting agents, the study of geography and strategy necessarily hinges on assumptions about how agents are linked. Spatial structure matters for the evolutionary dynamics of organizations because social systems are prime examples of connected systems, i.e. systems whose collective properties emerge from interaction among a large number of component micro-elements. Starting from this proposition, in this paper we explore the value of the claim that a wide range of interesting organizational phenomena can be represented as the outcome of processes that occur in overlapping local neighborhoods embedded in more general network structures. We document how patterns of spatial organization are sensitive to assumptions about the range of local interaction and about expectation formation mechanisms that induce temporal interdependence in agents' choice. Within the lattice world that we define we discover a concave relation between the sensitivity of individual agents to new information (cognitive inertia) and system-level performance. These results provide experimental evidence in favor of the general claim that the evolutionary dynamics of social systems are directly affected by patterns of spatial organization induced by network-based activities.

2005. Visions of community and mobility: the community networking movement in the USA. Social & Cultural Geography

Different visions of community and mobility may influence the ability of community computer network organizations to promote social change. Community networks successfully generate instrumental mobility, the literal movement of information across space, but have difficulty creating successful online spaces that promote communicative mobility, the metaphorical movement of people towards common understandings of a shared situation. Interviews with community networking activists explore the ways that community networks generate instrumental mobility online as well as barriers that community networks face in creating online spaces for communicative mobility. Ironically, given their technological focus, community networks have little difficulty generating communicative mobility in face-to-face situations. Differentiating between instrumental and communicative mobility allows this research to move beyond a simple discussion of the geography of the conduits of communication to consider the geography of communication itself. It therefore contributes a more detailed understanding of the role of electronic communication in social and political change.

2010. Integration of Sustainability Issues in Strategic Transportation Planning: A Multi-criteria Model for the Assessment of Transport Infrastructure Plans. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering

Last decades have witnessed significant advances in transportation planning methodologies, facilitated by the development of computational algorithms, technologies, spatial modeling tools-such as geographical information systems (GIS) and decision support systems (DSS). However, at strategic planning levels, a commonly accepted assessment model integrating the sustainability paradigm is still lacking. This work presents a novel contribution to this research line, with the proposal of a multi-criteria assessment model embedded in a GIS. The criteria have been designed covering the three dimensions of sustainability: economic, social, and environmental. This assessment model constitutes an interdisciplinary approach tightly linking network analysis, spatial geography, regional economic, and environmental issues in a GIS-based computer framework. The validity of the methodology is tested with its application in a case study: the extension of the high speed rail (HSR) network included in the Spanish Transport and Infrastructure Plan 2005-2020 (PEIT).

2009. Centrality and Creativity: Does Richard Florida's Creative Class Offer New Insights into Urban Hierarchy? Economic Geography

To provide new insights into urban hierarchy, this article brings together one of economic geography's oldest and most well-established notions with one of its newest and most disputed notions: Christaller's centrality and Florida's creative class. Using a novel original database, the article compares the distribution of the general population and the creative class across 444 city regions in 8 European countries. It finds that the two groups are both distributed according to the rank-size rule, but exhibit different distinct phases with different slopes. The article argues that the two distributions are different because market thresholds for creative services and jobs are lower than thresholds for less specialized services and jobs. The article hence concludes that centrality exerts a strong influence upon urban hierarchies of creativity and that the study of creative urban city hierarchies yields new insights into the problem of centrality.

2003. Telling small stories: spaces of knowledge and the practice of geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

This article examines how the practice of learning geography, and the arenas in which knowledge-making takes place, can be usefully positioned within changing histories of the discipline. It contends that networks of action - understood through the intersection of social sites, subjects and sources - present a conceptual framework and narrative focus for the re-consideration of specific episodes from geography's past. The interventions made here are informed and illustrated by a 'small story' about the doing of geography. Based on different personal accounts, the story revives a series of events, encounters, dialogues and images dating back to the winter of 1951 at Glenmore Lodge, Scotland. This educational institution in the Cairngorm mountains offered children from urban areas the opportunity to learn field studies and the skills of 'outdoor citizenship'. Initially, the focus falls on Margaret Jack, a 14-year-old field-course participant. Her learning experiences are traced through personal letters, a diary and a field journal dating from that time, and her recent recollections of this event. Margaret's account dovetails with the story of her field studies instructor, Robin Murray. Robin's role is traced through his learning experiences as a geography undergraduate at Aberdeen University, and the recent recollections of Catriona Murray, his wife.

2008. Outliving generations. Cultural Studies

This essay aims to contextualize the debate of urban spaces experiencing cultural, social, political and economic changes in the East African region. With different population groups utilizing these spaces they become contested sites in the continued production of cultural knowledge, regional mutuality, and representation. In order to substantiate this argument, urban centres as nodal points for global networks promoting cosmopolitan lifestyles are seen to attract a growing number of youth musicians. In the fluid urban atmosphere, these youth musicians purposely beam their compositions beyond local geographies to avoid being muted or muffled since musical identity creates for them a subculture and creative space within which they thrive. Central to this drive given the historical musical past is the Kiswahili language. Contemporary modified Kiswahili sung music from Dar-es Salaam or Bongo Flava, distinctly articulates ensembles of class and power, while being embraced across all ethnic, religious, gender, socio-economic, age and political divides in the East African region. It is argued that shifting, any musical brand within the region, demands selected acclaimed musicians acquiring broadened felicity in music. Consequently, differences exist, in these translocational movements that reflect individual artists' styles, but which find space and meaning in borrowing and modification. By focussing on the emergence of youth musicians as agent involved in the construction of glocalized spaces the discussion situates the collective ability of youth as artists in taking advantage of opportunities in urban settings and appropriating spaces by the creation of a transversal urban cultural identity. The overriding quest for self-identity through labels and language by youth artists provides continual analysis into their metaphorically, African 'brewed' music as a partial solution in the deconstruction of obsessive-ness with Western domination and idols in music thus mapping out a future for regional musical artists.

2008. Social splinters and cross-cultural leanings: A cartographic method for examining environmental ethics. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics

This paper combines the interests of geography, anthropology, and philosophy in order to examine the factors that affect environmental ethics. In particular, this paper examines some of the geographical variables that impact tribal attitudes toward bison in the contemporary world. These factors influence the position of bison within the environmental and agricultural landscape. An emphasis is placed upon networks, places, and movement in order to show how these variables redefine what is acceptable and ethical with regard to relations with nonhuman animals. In alternating fashion, the tribal networks discussed include diasporic movements, food chains, and individual life paths. In some cases, these networks distinguish tribal communities from non-tribal society while also distinguishing tribes from one another. In other instances, these networks bring tribal and non-tribal communities into greater agreement. This cartographic ethic differs substantially from modern scientific proscriptions, which characterize ethics in universal terms.

2009. The residual humanism of hybridity: retaining a sense of the earth. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

The concept of hybridity has become an influential theoretical tool for examining and reconsidering relations between society and nature. Although benefits have accrued from this school of thought, this paper contends the deployment of hybridity within the geographic discipline falls short of its reconstitutional claims. These shortcomings are a consequence of the original sources used to develop the language and logic of hybridity. Although the concept of hybridity has a long history in the biological sciences, the utilisation of hybridity in the geographic discipline has predominantly relied upon evolving theories developed in science and technology studies. This paper indicates how Haraway's cyborg and Latour's Middle Kingdom limit the scope of hybridity by portraying humanity as central to hybridity. The pervasive centrality of humans within the literature on hybridity (1) limits the ability of geographers to embrace poststructuralism in its entirety and (2) diminishes the discipline's claim to credibly represent the (natural) landscape. This paper argues for a thicker hybridity by borrowing from emergent theories in the biological sciences, wherein hybridity is conceived as a common occurrence that frequently takes place outside the direct purview of society. Rather than reifying nature, thick hybridity forces society to embrace environmental uncertainty more than it has heretofore.

2010. Down the Alleyway: Courtyard Tenements and Women's Networks in Early Twentieth-Century Beijing. Journal of Urban History

This article examines the formation and operation of lower class women's social network in the ghettoized courtyard neighborhood in early twentieth-century Beijing. Drawing evidence from criminal case files, the author argues that courtyard tenements provided a gendered urban space within which women formed, extended, and maintained a flexible and dynamic web of durable relationships. Motivated largely by individual circumstances and objectives, this neighborhood network remained personalized, individualized, and "ego-centered." The network neither came into existence for any type of political movements nor did it entail wider female solidarity, but the physical geography of the courtyard tenements and the development of these neighborhood networks offered lower class women some immediate protections and buffers when they were under emotional, domestic, or economic crisis. This article argues that these interpersonal relationships forged within a complex urban space were an important resource to enable women to rise out of the intense state control and economic turmoil in the tumultuous decades of reform and revolution.

2009. Evolution in Economic Geography: Institutions, Political Economy, and Adaptation. Economic Geography

Economic geography has, over the past decade or so, drawn upon ideas from evolutionary economics in trying to understand processes of regional growth and change. Recently, some researchers have sought to delimit and develop an "evolutionary economic geography" (EEG), aiming to create a more systematic theoretical framework for research. This article provides a sympathetic critique and elaboration of this emergent EEG but takes issue with some aspects of its characterization in recent programmatic statements. While acknowledging that EEG is an evolving and pluralist project, we are concerned that the reliance on certain theoretical frameworks that are imported from evolutionary economics and complexity science threatens to isolate it from other approaches in economic geography, limiting the opportunities for cross-fertilization. In response, the article seeks to develop a social and pluralist conception of institutions and social agency in EEG, drawing upon the writings of leading institutional economists, and to link evolutionary concepts to political economy approaches, arguing that the evolution of the economic landscape must be related to processes of capital accumulation and uneven development. As such, we favor the use of evolutionary and institutional concepts within a geographical political economy approach, rather than the construction of some kind of theoretically separate EEG-evolution in economic geography, not an evolutionary economic geography.

1997. Globalizing Parisian thought-waves: recent advances in the study of social regulation, politics, discourse and space. Progress in Human Geography

In recent years, the French regulation approach has heavily infiltrated the research agendas of the social sciences. This has been particularly conspicuous in economic geography, urban and regional analysis and political economy. Within these subdisciplines, some new research inquiries have departed from the original 'first generation' concern with economic crisis to analyse a range of issues such as the state form, and local and regional governance. This article reviews several of the more promising analyses which have consciously sought to fill some 'missing links' in the ongoing regulationist research project, and which have considerably enhanced our undertaking of the contemporary regulatory milieu. These post-Parisian themes have focused on the process of regulation and its discursive and political constitution; the geography of regulation and spatial scale; and the role of the state in and through the regulatory process. The article concludes with some implications for applying this emergent regulationist agenda to empirically informed research.

1999. Entrepreneurial spaces, hegemony, and state strategy: the political shaping of privatism in lowland Scotland. Environment and Planning A

Throughout the mid-1990s, considerable misgivings have emerged about the value of regulation theory for concrete research. Whilst acknowledging much of this critique, I seek to operationalize some recent interpretations of the 'geography of regulation' and regulation-theoretic state theory towards an analysis of the governance of economic development in Lowland Scotland. I argue that, when suitably contextualized, these approaches help to foreground some complex issues of scale, particularly the interactions between national, regional, and local levels, as well as to highlight the integral politics which surround the governance of urban and regional spaces. In substantive terms, this paper focuses on the decision to replace the Scottish Development Agency with the Scottish Enterprise Network. The latter was heralded by the Conservative government as a new private-sector-led hegemon within Lowland Scotland's emerging form of 'entrepreneurial' governance. However, the discussion below demonstrates two key factors. First, that the formation of such 'local enterprise' was a highly politicized endeavour; one which needs to be understood within the context of the broader dynamics of a (then) centralizing British state. And, second, a key net effect of the new structure is that the informal networks and partnerships which characterized the mode of governance in the 1980s under the hegemony of the Scottish Development Agency have been jeopardized in and through the 'turf wars' which have accompanied the post-1991 institutional milieu. This political shaping of privatism within one of the United Kingdom's more institutionally endowed and relatively autonomous spaces thereby provides some lessons for a New Labour government committed towards reconfiguring the contours of regional economic development in the regions and nations of the United Kingdom.

2000. The learning region in an age of austerity: capitalizing on knowledge, entrepreneurialism, and reflexive capitalism. Geoforum

A recent round of academic analyses (e.g., Castells, M., 1996. The Rise of the Network Society. Blackwell, Oxford) are emphasizing the effective production and translation of knowledge as a critical factor in establishing a sustainable post-Fordist regime. A notable inference of these accounts is that such productions and translations appear to be gravitating towards certain regions. In an emerging regional political economy, illustrious regions in Western Europe and the United States are being hailed as exemplars in terms of convening economic reflexivity, capitalizing on knowledge, and socializing risk. In turn, those less illustrious regions are being summoned to activate interactive learning, reflexive knowledge networks, innovation, and social capital. The author reviews and critically assesses this new regionalist thought in economic geography. He then draws on this to analyze Lowland Scotland's ongoing policy endeavor to establish a new form of 'reflexive capitalism'. In undertaking this he make two claims. First, much of the new regionalist thinking has paid insufficient attention to the intricate social relations between the recent regional renaissance and the restructuring of the state. Second, many of the policy innovations associated with the new regionalism should be seen as running parallel alongside a deeper political effort to 'manage' the erosion of the Keynesian welfarist institutional settlement. In a concluding section drawing on the work of Ulrich Beck, he argues that these emerging social geographies of reflexive capitalism require to be highlighted to the extent that they constitute an important sociopolitical backdrop with which to locate the more specific imprint of risk in economic development. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Networks and geography in the economics of knowledge flows. Quality & Quantity

This paper reviews the literature dealing with the economic geography of knowledge flows by summarising the most relevant problems and open questions that, according to the authors' view, have been dealt in the past and should be dealt in the future by network analysis in order to model, understand and measure the structure and dynamics of knowledge flows. The interaction between "networks" and "geography" elements within a theoretical, methodological and empirical perspective is discussed throughout the paper by making reference to previous works by the authors and to the established literature. Thus, these references, far from being complete and exhaustive, are instrumental to the achievement of the paper's goal: to demonstrate that "networks" and "geography" are the necessary ingredients for every study of the innovative process at any level of analysis, from individual agent to institution/organization, from the regional to the national and international level.

2011. Treating Patents as Relational Data: Knowledge Transfers and Spillovers across Italian Provinces. Industry and Innovation

The paper applies a relational perspective to patent data in order to investigate the characteristics of innovation flows within and across 103 Italian NUTS3 regions (province). In this way it is possible to use the CRENoS database on regional patentingbuilt on EPO data spanning from 1978 to 2003to investigate the scientific and technological orelationso among oinvention-creatingo and oinvention-adoptingo territories. In particular, patents are used as relational data connecting inventors and applicants along a dual interpretation of a oknowledge productiono and a oknowledge utilizationo function. In addition a gravity model is used to identify frictions and attractions of the Italian innovation system. Analytical tools, such as social network analysis, spatial econometrics and negative binomial estimation procedures, are used to map and measure the structure and the evolution of a series of innovation sub-systems, both at territorial level (i.e. province) and at the industry level (i.e. five specific industries, chosen according to the Pavitt's taxonomy, Footwear, Textiles, Machinery, Personal Computers and Chemicals).

2006. Of scalar hierarchies and welfare redesign: child care in three Canadian cities. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Scalar theory has recently come under attack for its emphasis on hierarchy. Yet the notion of scalar hierarchies cannot be abandoned if we want to understand actually-existing social relations and the governance structures in which they are enmeshed. The conception of hierarchy employed by political economists is also more complex than that suggested by the 'Russian dolls' metaphor. A multiplicity of diversely structured, overlapping interscalar hierarchies operate in and across diverse policy fields. While these arrangements clearly influence what happens at the local scale, sufficient room often exists for local actors to modify the effects. The complexity of scalar hierarchies is illustrated through an analysis of the governance of child care provision in Canada. Child care arrangements are becoming integral to social reproduction in post-industrial economies, where women form an increasingly important part of the labour force. This paper focuses on child care in three of Canada's largest cities, each of which is subject to a distinct provincial regime through which federal contributions are filtered. Yet, as we shall see, these cities are more than 'puppets on a string'.

2004. Internet, scale and the global grassroots: Geographies of the Indymedia network of independent media centres. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie

This paper addresses the role of the Internet in global collective action through an analysis of the scale practices of the Indymedia network. Indymedia is a worldwide network of interlinked websites run by volunteers organised in local Independent Media Centres (IMCs). These websites, a global site at www. indymedia. org and over one hundred local sites, are meant to empower activists groups by providing them with a media platform. The case study focuses on the role of the Internet in four facets of collective action: grievances and alternatives, organisation, mobilisation and identities. The analysis deals more specifically with scales, examining scaling practices in the light of three scale metaphors ( scale as level, scale as size, scale as relation). While scales are also framed as bounded areas ( territorial communities to be served) and as levels when targeting specific government agencies, the prevailing scale frame is that of a network of scales in which the local and the global mutually constitute each other.


In the late 1980s more than 1 million Brazilians left Brazil without returning. Today all estimated 2 million Brazilians live abroad, 1.2 million of them in the United States. In this article I show that Brazilians migrate for a variety of reasons, including the geographical imagination. Why are so many Brazilians leaving for the United States? What are their geographical imaginations, and how are they described in their migration process? Using primary and secondary data and multiple methods, I address these questions by providing insights into Brazilian migrants' place perceptions, experiences, and reasons for migrating, focusing oil the geographical imagination. Those migrants who end up returning to Brazil are more likely to cite financial and curiosity reasons for having migrated. A web of transnational religious and social networks Sustains those immigrants who remain in the United States. Reasons for migrating are not economic alone; rather, they are based oil interrelated and complex factors that range from adventure to curiosity, the cultural influence of the United States, family members, education, and escape.

2005. Human geography without scale. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

The concept of scale in human geography has been profoundly transformed over the past 20 years. And yet, despite the insights that both empirical and theoretical research on scale have generated, there is today no consensus on what is meant by the term or how it should be operationalized. In this paper we critique the dominant - hierarchical - conception of scale, arguing it presents a number of problems that cannot be overcome simply by adding on to or integrating with network theorizing. We thereby propose to eliminate scale as a concept in human geography. In its place we offer a different ontology, one that so flattens scale as to render the concept unnecessary. We conclude by addressing some of the political implications of a human geography without scale.

2011. Innovation in Symbolic Industries: The Geography and Organization of Knowledge Sourcing. European Planning Studies

This paper deals with geographical and organizational patterns of knowledge flows in the media industry of southern Sweden, an industry that is characterized by a strong "symbolic" knowledge base. The aim is to address the question of the local versus the non-local as the prime arena for knowledge exchange, and to examine the organizational patterns of knowledge sourcing with specific attention paid to the nature of the knowledge sourced. Symbolic industries draw heavily on creative production and a cultural awareness that is strongly embedded in the local context; thus knowledge flows and networks are expected to be most of all locally configured, and firms to rely on less formalized knowledge sources rather than scientific knowledge or principles. Based on structured and semi-structured interviews with firm representatives, these assumptions are empirically assessed through social network analysis and descriptive statistics. Our findings show that firms rely above all on knowledge that is generated in project work through learning-by-doing and by interaction with other firms in localized networks.

2007. Complexity thinking and evolutionary economic geography. Journal of Economic Geography

Thus far, most of the work towards the construction of an evolutionary economic geography has drawn upon a particular version of evolutionary economics, namely the Nelson-Winter framework, which blends Darwinian concepts and metaphors (especially variety, selection, novelty and inheritance) and elements of a behavioural theory of the firm. Much less attention has been directed to an alternative conception based on complexity theory, yet in recent years complexity theory has increasingly been concerned with the general attributes of evolutionary natural and social systems. In this article we explore the idea of the economic landscape as a complex adaptive system. We identify several key notions of what is being called the new 'complexity economics', and examine whether and in what ways these can be used to help inform an evolutionary perspective for understanding the uneven development and adaptive transformation of the economic landscape.

2009. Proximity and Innovation through an 'Accessibility to Knowledge' Lens. Regional Studies

The aim of this paper is to improve understanding of the spatial diffusion process of knowledge in terms of accessibility, and also to elaborate a new measurement and evaluation tools adapted to a concrete estimation of these phenomena. This approach offers ways of giving an operational content to the concept of proximity. The 'potential functions' used to measure geographical accessibility is enriched with the integration of the characteristics of knowledge diffusion, namely sources of externalities/knowledge, ways of transmission, and absorptive capacity. The paper especially focuses on the relational and strategic dimensions of proximity by using some developments from social networks analysis. Such an approach leads to new empirical models for estimating the determinants of accessibility to knowledge.

2009. Seeing the local in the global: Political ecologies, world-systems, and the question of scale. Geoforum

Scale, as concept, has featured prominently in political ecology and remains, even if implicitly, a Crucial point of analytical reference. Recent studies, drawing from both human geography and ecology, have sought to demonstrate how scales. rather than pre-existing ontologically, are both socially and environmentally produced. Given the different scales through which social and environmental processes occur, the study of society-environment relations can be improved by analysing varying scalar configurations of interaction. This recent and promising methodological corrective would greatly benefit from a dialogue with world-systems approaches, which integrate diverse scale-producing processes and to some extent overlap in scope with political ecology. World-systems perspectives, by focusing on the long-term systemic character of people-environment relations, effectively connect micro- to macro-scale social and ecological processes and explain long-term internal dynamics and interrelations of systems at different scales. Conversely, world-systems approaches could learn much from political ecologists' consideration of nonhuman processes into understandings of scale and society-environment relations, which has a long tradition in geography, as well as from the more context-sensitive analytical framework brought to those understandings. Case Studies are discussed to demonstrate not only how these two perspectives could be integrated, but also how explanations of environmental change can be thereby improved. Combining the two approaches provides the basis for a more ecologically oriented world-systems paradigm and, in political ecology, for greater sensitivity to socially large-scale systemic processes and, given the originally anti-capitalist underpinnings of both paradigms, for more political coherence. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2003. Actor-network theory and the adoption of mobile communications. Geography

This article examines the process by which mobile communication technologies are adopted within different countries and seeks to explain the phenomenon using concepts drawn from actor-network, theory (ANT). Patterns of mobile technology adoption are clearly affected by geographical factors, both human and physical. Government policy, current physical infrastructure, technology availability and ease of use, economic models and culture all affect the spread of mobile phones, for example. ANT provides a framework of ideas for describing the process of technology adoption and developing stories which explain technology take-up. ANT suggests that technology is as much a product of social construction as of technical innovation. Technology adoption results from the build up of fluid networks of heterogeneous associations between actors (both human and non-human). ANT does not differentiate between the social and the technical and attacks the division between large-scale and small-scale phenomena. Actor networks which support mobile communication adoption are established as the interests of different actors are aligned. This requires the creation of inscriptions which attach particular meanings and benefits to the technology, and enrolment of actors into the actor network. As mobile communications become an essential part of the life of human actors, irreversibility is established where the technology is embedded in the physical and social landscape, and it is impossible to undo the standard technical infrastructure or go back to a society in which that technology is not used. This article considers the descriptive use of ANT in describing the process of mobile communication adoption. It concludes by suggesting possible ways of using ANT prescriptively to encourage the embedding of mobile communications within geographies.

2008. Location matters: Where we have been and where we might go in agglomeration research. Journal of Management

Agglomeration research investigates the geographic concentration of economic activity. The authors explicate the various explanations for this phenomenon while focusing on a particular class of agglomerations-the spatial concentrations of related firms. The authors review theoretical explanations and empirical evidence around the performance implications of clustering in proximity to related firms. Moreover they motivate future research by identifying challenges facing researchers in this area and discuss eight distinct groups of research questions with the potential to contribute to the continuing growth of this important research area.

2011. Urban Policy Mobilities and Global Circuits of Knowledge: Toward a Research Agenda. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

This article proposes an agenda for research into the spatial, social, and relational character of globally circulating urban policies, policy models, and policy knowledge. It draws on geographical political economy literatures that analyze particular social processes in terms of wider sociospatial contexts, in part by maintaining a focus on the dialectics of fixity and flow. The article combines this perspective with poststructuralist arguments about the analytical benefits of close studies of the embodied practices, representations, and expertise through which policy knowledge is mobilized. I suggest that the notion of mobilities offers a useful rubric under which to operationalize this approach to the olocal globalnesso of urban policy transfer. The utility of this research approach is illustrated by the example of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a city that is frequently referenced by policymakers elsewhere as they look for ohoto policy ideas. The case also indicates that there is much research yet to be done on the character and implications of interurban policy transfer. Specifically, I argue that, while maintaining a focus on wider forces, studies of urban policy mobilities must take seriously the role that apparently banal activities of individual policy transfer agents play in the travels of policy models and must also engage in fine-grained qualitative studies of how policies are carried from place to place, learned in specific settings, and changed as they move. The final section offers theoretical and methodological questions and considerations that can frame future research into how, why, and with what consequences urban policies are mobilized globally.

2005. Analytical differences in the economics of geography: the case of the multinational firm. Environment and Planning A

In this paper we argue that the various discussions of the regional location behaviour of the multinational firm by the different fields of analysis which deal with these issues are all rather at a tangent to each other. Only economic geography and regional economics discuss firm-location behaviour at the subnational regional level, whereas international trade theory and traditional international business analysis focus only on firm locations at the level of a country. Where subnational regional locations have recently been discussed in international business analysis, this has been done I primarily by incorporating the Porter 'clusters' literature. However, by adopting a transactions-costs approach, we show that such a 'clusters' concept is unable to distinguish between whether a multinational enterprise should or should not locate in a particular region. In addition, we use this approach to point to directions of research fruitful for reconciling these various different traditions of location analysis.

2005. The 'Global' in the city economy: Multicultural economic development in Birmingham. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

This article draws on critiques of 'global cities' to conceptualize Birmingham, the UK's second largest metropole, as a 'global' city by highlighting forms of economic globalization that draw on the city's residents, their histories and their social and cultural networks. The article illustrates some of the diversity and significance of minority ethnic economic activity within Birmingham and the potential this holds for its future economic development, focusing on examples from three transnational networks (Chinese business networks, ethnic food manufacturing and the Bhangra music industry). The article signals a rather different understanding of 'global' as it relates to economic advantage, transnationalism and ethnic diversity within cities in general, and Birmingham in particular. We suggest that this different understanding of the global has important policy implications, not simply in terms of economic representations of the city, but also in terms of developing the possibilities of such transnational networks and engaging with the constraints facing them. We argue that encouraging a more relational way of thinking about cities like Birmingham has the potential for advancing social wellbeing by influencing socio-economic policy and practice. We use the example of Birmingham, therefore, to engage broader debates about alternative paths of 'global' economic, social and cultural investment for UK (and other) cities.

2009. Translocal assemblages: Space, power and social movements. Geoforum

In this paper, I deploy an analytic of 'translocal assemblage' as a means for conceptualising space and power in social movements. I offer a relational topology that is open to how actors within movements construct different spatial imaginaries and practices in their work. In using the prefix 'translocal', I am signifying three orientations. First, translocal assemblages are composites of place-based social movements which exchange ideas, knowledge, practices, materials and resources across sites. Second, assemblage is an attempt to emphasise that translocal social movements are more than just the connections between sites. Sites in translocal assemblages have more depth than the notion of 'node' or 'point' suggests - as connoted by network - in terms of their histories, the labour required to produce them, and their inevitable capacity to exceed the connections between other groups or places in the movement. Third, they are not simply a spatial category, output, or resultant formation, but signify doing, performance and events. I examine the potential of assemblage to offer an alternative account to that of the 'network', the predominant and often de facto concept used in discussions of the spatiality of social movements. I draw on examples from one particular translocal assemblage based in and beyond Mumbai which campaigns on housing within informal settlements: Slum/Shack Dwellers International. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


An important part of the discourse connecting social theory and historical geography is the generation of social power and how it is projected over distances. In view of this, society can be conceived as a set of networks which overlap and stretch across space. Early Chinese immigrants in Pennsylvania were influenced by networks ranging from the global economic system to friendships with colleagues working in the same cities. Despite encountering poverty, hostility and institutional bias in the United States, Chinese immigrants were able to persist in part because their social and cultural networks complemented global and Euro-American economic networks. By efficiently exchanging a great deal of information, these Chinese networks also shielded immigrants from the hostility of Euro-Americans and the penalties of the American government. (C) 1995 Academic Press Limited

2000. Power and policy networks in urban governance: Local government and property-led regeneration in Dublin. Urban Studies

Using Dublin as a case study, this paper examines how the locus of power in urban governance is reshaped through the emergence of networked governing practices, Specifically, the paper takes the intersection of central government property-led regeneration initiatives with local government planning regulation in Dublin as a forum in which to explore the multiscaled policy networks constituting urban governance and the role of local government, particularly local government planners, within them. The paper employs a Latourian notion of the social production of power in interactions to analyse the power-hows through the networked practices of urban governance and to suggest strategies for the empowerment of local government within them.

1997. The geography of survival: Household strategies in urban settings. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie

The rise of poverty in Western societies can be explained by three socioeconomic processes: the dualisation and polarisation of the labour market, the dismantling of the welfare state, and the increase of new types of households like single parents and singles. These processes are interrelated and they lead towards different mechanisms of social exclusion. This article stresses that not everyone excluded from the labour market, welfare provisions, or social networks has to be regarded as excluded from society. By developing survival strategies in different economic systems (market, reciprocity, associative redistribution) poor households try to escape from social marginalisation. The whole of their survival strategies is analysed in five different settings in and around Brussels. It is argued that these areas offer very different opportunities for social integration and community development, essentially related to the heterogeneity of the environment and the social cohesion of the population concerned.

2011. Geography of social ontologies: Testing a variant of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis in the context of Wikipedia. Computer Speech and Language

In this article, we test a variant of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis in the area of complex network theory. This is done by analyzing social ontologies as a new resource for automatic language classification. Our method is to solely explore structural features of social ontologies in order to predict family resemblances of languages used by the corresponding communities to build these ontologies. This approach is based on a reformulation of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis in terms of distributed cognition. Starting from a corpus of 160 Wikipedia-based social ontologies, we test our variant of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis by several experiments, and find out that we outperform the corresponding baselines. All in all, the article develops an approach to classify linguistic networks of tens of thousands of vertices by exploring a small range of mathematically well-established topological indices. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. People, Places, and Adolescent Substance Use: Integrating Activity Space and Social Network Data for Analyzing Health Behavior. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

This research investigates the influence of place and social network characteristics on substance use among a sample of 215 urban, primarily African American, adolescents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We utilize survey data that capture the places that adolescents perceive to be risky and safe, as well as their home location. The survey also captures the egocentric social network characteristics that are associated with each type of place for each adolescent. Place-characterization data included indicators of a variety of physical features we theorize might enhance or mitigate the likelihood of substance use, such as the locations of alcohol outlets, recreation centers, and violent crime. We employ multivariate Tobit regression to investigate the relationships of place and social characteristics with substance use behavior. Substance use was greater for males and older adolescents but was associated with few physical features of adolescents' homes or perceived safe places. Substance use was enhanced by several characteristics of adolescents' perceived risky places, such as commercial activity in distressed neighborhoods. In addition, the presence of substance users at an adolescent's perceived risky place was associated with an increase in substance use. Substantial differences concerning gender and age were also observed. Girls and older adolescents tend to be more sensitive to social and place characteristics as compared to boys. This study highlights the importance of capturing activity space characteristics, perceptions of places, and social network data for investigating substance use, as well as for studies of other health and crime behaviors.

2009. Unsettling connections: transnational networks, development and African home associations. Global Networks-a Journal of Transnational Affairs

With the transnational turn in the social sciences attention has now turned to 'global civil society', 'transnational civil society', 'transnational networks' and, most recently, 'migrant' or 'diasporic civil society'. Claims are being made about the developmental potential of these new configurations of civil society, and the global connections forged by migrant and diaspora associational life have been reified into things called 'networks' for the purpose of enrolling them into development policy. In this article, we challenge the network model through an analysis of transnational Cameroonian and Tanzanian home associations. The idea of a network suggests an overly robust and ordered set of linkages for what are in effect often loose and transient connections. African home associations draw attention to the historically-embedded and mundane ways in which forms of associational life can be 'transnational' outside the formalized structures and Eurocentric development hierarchies created by international NGOs and other development institutions. Although they form largely invisible connections operating outside these hierarchies, African home associations unsettle assumptions about the geography of civil society and its relationship with development. Close attention to the histories and geographies of African home associations reveals that power and agency more often lie with migrants and elites within Africa than with the transnational diaspora.

2004. Driving places - Marc Auge, non-places, and the geographies of England's M1 motorway. Theory Culture & Society

In this article I provide a critical account of the 'placing' of England's M1 motor-way. I start by critiquing Marc Auge's anthropological writings on 'non-places' which have provided a common point of reference for academics discussing spaces of travel, consumption and exchange in the contemporary world. I argue that Auge's ethnology of supermodernity results in a rather partial account of these sites, that he overstates the novelty of contemporary experiences of these spaces, and that he fails to acknowledge the heterogeneity and materiality of the social networks bound up with the production of non-places/places. I suggest that, rather than focusing on the presences and absences associated with the polarities of place and non-place, academics should examine the multiple, partial, dynamic and relational 'placings' which arise through the diverse performances and movements associated with travel, consumption and exchange. I then trace the topologies of England's M1 motorway, examining some of the different ways in which the motorway has been assembled, performed and placed over the past 45 years.

2009. Place-Specific Computing: A Place-centric Perspective for Digital Designs. International Journal of Design

An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design based on the proliferation of wireless infrastructures, developments in digital media, and a 'spatial turn' in computing. In this article, place-specific computing is suggested as a genre of interaction design that addresses the shaping of interactions among people, place-specific resources and global socio-technical networks, mediated by digital technology, and influenced by the structuring conditions of place. The theoretical grounding for place-specific computing is located in the meeting between conceptions of place in human geography and recent research in interaction design focusing on embodied interaction. Central themes in this grounding revolve around place and its relation to embodiment and practice, as well as the social, cultural and material aspects conditioning the enactment of place. Selected examples of place-specific computing are presented from a series of pilot studies, conducted in close collaboration with design students in Malmo, Berlin, Cape Town and Rome, that generated 36 design concepts in the genre. Reflecting on these examples, issues in the design of place-specific computing are discussed, as well as questions for further research concerning how digitally mediated interactions can be understood as elements of practiced place.

2003. The challenges of research on the global network of cities. Urban Geography

The significant rise in global commodity trade, foreign direct investment, and global financial exchange during the 1980s was a key impetus to the contemporaneous sharp jump in attention of urban geographers and other social scientists to conceptualizing and empirically examining the global network of cities. Scholars accepted an assumption that the new international division of labor recast global relations, and this has not been questioned subsequently. Research during the 1980s focused on global corporations, corporate services, financial institutions, telecommunications, and transportation as actors or modes of linking global cities. This broad coverage framed subsequent research to the present, but the theory of the global network of cities did not advance much beyond the initial formulations. After 1990 some embellishments were made to the theory, and these were widely accepted. Although other theoretical proposals were made, none gained wide acceptance; nevertheless, scholars made some progress in clarifying the behavior of business actors. Researchers accumulated rich empirical evidence about the global network of cities, including extensive evidence on network relations. If scholars are to make greater progress in understanding the global network of cities, the theory needs deepening. A reexamination of the assumption that the new international division of labor has recast global relations might encourage greater emphasis on the principles of the intermediary behavior of the actors most responsible for global network relations.

2004. Gender struggle, scale, and the production of place in the Appalachian coalfields. Environment and Planning A

Recent changes in the coal mining industry of Appalachian Kentucky have entailed a widespread economic restructuring with profound effects on the character of the social relations that constitute place. As the traditionally male-dominated mining industry has seen a reduction in employment, there has been a parallel rise in service sector employment, in which women dominate many jobs. Drawing on in-depth interviews with fourteen women living in one coalfield community, we discuss how this economic restructuring has produced a series of struggles between men and women over appropriate gender roles relating to waged work and household work. We also show how these gender struggles-which we suggest are most evident in the microsites of the body and the household-influence the character of networks of social relations at the scale of the locality and, therefore, have an important impact on the production of place and scale. This case study contributes to ongoing discussions of the social production of place and the politics that surround this process. It draws on a feminist theoretical framework to argue that understandings of the production of place cannot disregard the role social relations shaped at the microscale play in shaping place and that our understandings of the politics of place and scale must include the gendered struggles of everyday life.

2011. Does Social Capital Reinforce Technological Inputs in the Creation of Knowledge? Evidence from the Spanish Regions. Regional Studies

MIGUELEZ E., MORENO R. and ARTIS M. Does social capital reinforce technological inputs in the creation of knowledge? Evidence from the Spanish regions, Regional Studies. This paper seeks to verify the hypothesis that trust and cooperation between individuals, and between them and public institutions, can encourage technological innovation and the adoption of knowledge. Additionally, the paper tests the extent to which the interaction of social capital with human capital and research and development expenditures improve their effect on a region's ability to innovate. The empirical evidence is taken from the Spanish regions and employs a knowledge production function and longitudinal count data models. The results suggest that social capital correlates positively with innovation. Further, the analysis reveals a powerful interaction between human and social capital in the production of knowledge, whilst the complementarity with research and development efforts would seem less clear.

2004. Interrogating the civic epistemology of American democracy: Stability and instability in the 2000 US presidential election. Social Studies of Science

Transitions of power are fragile, anxious moments for political systems. This paper explores how electoral machinery - the material and social technologies of casting, counting, and contesting votes - dynamically stabilizes democratic transitions. The paper analyzes the controversy surrounding the 2000 US Presidential election. For 36 days political stability in the USA hung on uncertainty over a seemingly simple matter of fact: which candidate won the most votes in the state of Florida. Interrogating the civic epistemology of US elections - the processes by which elections produce, validate, and put knowledge to use - the paper contends that electoral machinery functions to contain common uncertainties, contingencies, and conflicts that might otherwise destabilize democratic political order. The paper develops a model of electoral machinery as a loosely integrated network of sites including polling places, election administration, the courts, the media, and the American public. This network constructs credible knowledge in a distributed fashion and helps form an intermediate layer in US politics, integrating geography, state, and civil society. This network model of electoral machinery implicates both democratic theory and practical electoral reform.

2004. 'Cultivating health': therapeutic landscapes and older people in northern England. Social Science & Medicine

While gardening is seen, essentially, as a leisure activity it has also been suggested that the cultivation of a garden plot offers a simple way of harnessing the healing power of nature (The therapeutic garden, Bantam Press, London, 2000). One implication of this is that gardens and gardening activity may offer a key site of comfort and a vital opportunity for an individual's emotional, physical and spiritual renewal. Understanding the extent to which this supposition may be grounded in evidence underpins this paper. In particular, we examine how communal gardening activity on allotments might contribute to the maintenance of health and well being amongst older people. Drawing on recently completed research in northern England, we examine firstly the importance of the wider landscape and the domestic garden in the lives of older people. We then turn our attention to gardening activity on allotments. Based on the findings of our study, we illustrate the sense of achievement, satisfaction and aesthetic pleasure that older people can gain from their gardening activity. However, while older people continue to enjoy the pursuit of gardening, the physical shortcomings attached to the aging process means they may increasingly require support to do so. Communal gardening on allotment sites, we maintain, creates inclusionary spaces in which older people benefit from gardening activity in a mutually supportive environment that combats social isolation and contributes to the development of their social networks. By enhancing the quality of life and emotional well being of older people, we maintain that communal gardening sites offer one practical way in which it may be possible to develop a 'therapeutic landscape'. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012. How milk does the world good: vernacular sustainability and alternative food systems in post-socialist Europe. Agriculture and Human Values

Scholarly debates on sustainable consumption have generally overlooked alternative agro-food networks in the economies outside of Western Europe and North America. Building on practice-based theories, this article focuses on informal raw milk markets in post-socialist Lithuania to examine how such alternative systems emerge and operate in the changing political, social, and economic contexts. It makes two contributions to the scholarship on sustainable consumption. In considering semi-subsistence practices and poverty-driven consumption, this article argues for a richer, more critical, and inclusive theory of sustainability that takes into consideration vernacular forms of exchange and approaches poor consumers as subjects of global history. Second, it revisits practice theories and infrastructures of consumption approaches to consider ruptures, discontinuities, and historical change in infrastructures as a way to account for inequalities and experiences of marginalization.


The "geography of survival" describes the spaces and spatial relations that structure not only how people may live, but especially whether they may live. For very poor people, such as the homeless, the geography of survival is knitted together into a network of public and private spaces and social services. In this article we focus on three trends that are simultaneously restructuring this geography of survival-the rise of automated surveillance (CCTV), innovations in trespass law, and the criminalization of sharing food in public-to assess their impact on homeless people's geography of survival in particular, and their right to the city more generally.

2011. Marseille's Not for Burning: Comparative Networks of Integration and Exclusion in Two French Cities. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Many scholarly studies focus on the historical processes that lead to rioting and war, but few examine the forces that produce peace. This article is a broad, comparative examination of three variables that were important in the relative lack of ethnic conflict in Marseille, France, during an intense period of national rioting and tension in 2005. The three processes highlighted in the research are (1) Marseille's particular form of transnational, highly networked, ethnicity-based capitalism; (2) the specific geography, public infrastructure, and social organization of the city; and (3) the communitarian (difference-oriented) cultural approach of local officials. The case for Marseille's unique position is made through a comparative investigation of the economic and cultural development of Paris. Although both cities are globally integrated, they have developed in quite different ways in these three areas. I argue that these differences are important in explaining the dissimilar outcomes for the two cities during the October and November riots of 2005. Although the particular constellation of these three historical processes might not continue through time, it is worthwhile to consider why and how certain historical moments and places can become shelters of tolerance in violent times.

2008. Not so automatic: the contingent role of Auckland's local government in the region's information and communications technologies infrastructural development. Social & Cultural Geography

Focusing on Auckland, New Zealand, this paper reveals how the politics of privatisation and liberalisation have created a complex and tense environment in which local government, in order to facilitate information and communications technologies' (ICTs) infrastructural development, has had to bridge the gap between inadequate legislation and the failure of market-driven competition. Despite the increasing focus of geography on ICTs' contribution to today's fragmented urban environments, the framing effects of infrastructure and how these networks are socially constructed has received little attention. Through a series of semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis this paper intersects this discussion using a governmentality framework to reveal the complexities and constraints on state and non-state actors. These circumstances are creating numerous conditions of possibility from which multiple timespaces may emerge. This paper provides some empirically grounded data on the highly contingent terms under which these timespaces are shaped revealing that there is very little that is automatic in the automatic production of space occurring in Auckland.

2002. Placing social capital. Progress in Human Geography

This paper reviews the contribution that the concept of social capital might make to geography, and the contribution geography might make to the analysis of social capital. We begin by summarizing the conceptual origins and dimensions of social capital, in the process of which we distinguish it from several other social properties (human and cultural capital; social networks). We then summarize key criticisms of the concept, especially those levelled at the work of Robert Putnam. The core of the paper is a discussion of the issue of whether there might be a geography of social capital. We consider links between geographical debates and the concept of social capital, and we assess the difficulties of deriving spatially disaggregated measures of social capital. We illustrate this discussion with reference to literature on three sets of issues: the question of 'institutional tissue' and its effects on regional development; the understanding of health inequalities; and the analysis of comparative government performance. In conclusion, we argue that the popularity of the concept reflects a combination of academic and political developments, notably the search for ostensibly 'costless' policies of redistribution on the part of centrist governments. We therefore conclude with a discussion of the practical applications of the concept in different contexts.

2007. Did distance matter before the Internet? Interpersonal contact and support in the 1970s. Social Networks

Well before the coming of the Internet, strong ties with friends and relatives stretched beyond the neighborhood: the traditional domain of community. Phones, cars and planes allowed people to have contact over substantial distances. But the mere fact that ties stretched over long distances does not tell us the extent to which distance mattered for contact and support in pre-Internet days. Although, scholars have mused about this question, they have not provided empirical evidence. This paper applies multi-level analysis to assess the extent contact and support declines with distance. It shows a marked drop in the frequency of face-to-face contact at about 5 miles. The frequency of contact continues to decrease steadily further away, with substantial declines happening at about 50 and 100 miles. Distance affects telephone contact somewhat differently, with a marked drop only happening at about 100 miles. Distance also has a significant impact on providing tangible support. As our data were gathered in 1978 in the Toronto area of East York, they allow comparisons with how relationships have changed in light of new forms of communication, such as the Internet and mobile phones. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2007. A selection from the RESER Congress in Granada - Growth, employment and location of services: New trends in a global world. Service Industries Journal

RESER is an interdisciplinary European network of social scientists linked by a common interest in service industries, occupations and geographies. The annual RESER research conference has become the annual platform and meeting place for European researchers and policy makers working on service providers. It offers an opportunity for the exchange of ideas concerning the cutting edge of service research and is open to all researchers interested in the topic. The RESER 2005(1) conference was focused on the theme 'Growth, Employment and Location of Services: New Trends in a Global World'. The conference dealt with three main issues: i) service competitiveness, ii) outsourcing, off shoring and delocalisation: implications for services and iii), challenges for public services in a global world.

2008. Introduction. Service Industries Journal

The European research network on services and space (RESER) is a network of over 20 research groups and individuals active in services research and policy formulation located in 13 European countries. The network was established in 1988 on the understanding that service occupations and industries were under-researched, especially in relation to their importance in the employment structures of developed market economies. At that time in 1988, very few researchers were involved in the conceptualisation (theoretical and empirical) of the role played by business service activities in regional or local growth. Members of the network have their roots in a variety of disciplines - economics, business studies, geography, sociology, psychology, political sciences and planning. Most are based in universities, but some work for private firms, as researchers or consultants. Over the last few years, service research has been transformed. It is no longer considered as a novel research undertaken by academics who were considered to be somewhat misguided in no longer accepting the dominance of manufacturing industry. Services approaches have become mainstream in the social science literature whilst at the same time many service specialists no longer identify with the term 'services'.

2008. Principles and Practices of Knowledge Creation: On the Organization of "Buzz" and "Pipelines" in Life Science Communities. Economic Geography

This article links up with the debate in economic geography on "local buzz" and "global pipelines" as two distinct forms of interactive knowledge creation among firms and related actors and argues for a rethinking of the way social scientists should approach interactive knowledge creation. It highlights the importance of combining the insights from studies of clusters and innovation systems with an activity-oriented approach in which more attention is paid to the specific characteristics of the innovation processes and the conditions underpinning their organization. To illustrate the applicability and added value of such an alternative approach, the notion of embeddedness is linked with some basic ideas adopted from the literature on knowledge communities. The framework is then applied to a study of innovation activities conducted by firms and academic research groups working with biotechnology-related applications in the Swedish part of the Medicon Valley life science region. The findings reveal that local buzz is largely absent in these types of activities. Most interactive knowledge creation, which appears to be spontaneous and unregulated, is, on closer examination, found safely embedded in globally configured professional knowledge communities and attainable only by those who qualify.

2010. The West of Scotland Regional Dredging Committee of the BAAS: Firth of Clyde dredging activities and participants' circumstances impinging thereon (1834-1856). Archives of Natural History

Insights gained into the activities of the West of Scotland Regional Dredging Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS): a committee comprising the Reverend Dr Charles Popham Miles (Chairman), Dr Robert Kaye Greville, Professor John Hutton Balfour and Thomas Campbell Eyton, are presented. Based particularly on previously unreported correspondence between Miles and Balfour, and between Greville and Balfour that is housed in the archives of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, the backgrounds of these persons (like their shared religious leanings) are illuminated and their practical experiences of dredging in the Firth of Clyde, notably in Lamlash Bay (Isle of Arran), brought into focus. Economic aspects relating to the costs of dredging, the finances of participants and the adequacy of the initial BAAS grant are highlighted and other social aspects commented upon. There is no known surviving contemporary account of the interactions between this network of BAAS dredging committee members, so this correspondence seemingly remains, to date, the only information that is available as primary sources.

2004. The exaggerated death of geography. Geography

Globalisation and digitalisation have been presented as inescapable forces which signal the 'death of geography'. this article takes issue with this fashionable narrative. The counter argument that 'geography matters' is pursued in three ways:first, by questioning the 'distance-destroying' capacity of information and communication technologies, where social depth is conflated with spatial reach; second, by arguing that physical proximity may be essential for some forms of knowledge exchange; and third, by charting the growth of territorial innovation systems.

2008. Global networks of the motion picture industry in los angeles/hollywood using the example of their connections to the German market. European Planning Studies

The motion picture industry is one pillar of the so-called "cultural industries" which are highly concentrated in large urban agglomerations. Personal connections to the various informal networks found in these locations play an important role in facilitating information flows and reproduces these clusters' competitive advantage. However, the clusters and their markets do not exist in a vacuum: creative content, capital and creative talent are also traded and connected in global networks, bridging the physical gaps between these creative clusters. Against this background, this paper addresses the issue of how network relations beyond cluster boundaries and across large spatial, social and cultural distances are coordinated in a branch of the cultural industry such as motion picture production.

2010. Analysing Regional Development and Policy: A Structural-Realist Approach. Regional Studies

MOULAERT F. and MEHMOOD A. Analysing regional development and policy: a structural-realist approach, Regional Studies. This paper gives an overview of theories and models that can be used to analyse regional development as well as to design policies and strategies for the future of regions and localities. It evaluates the analytical and policy relevance of these models, and as it moves towards analytical synthesis, it makes some recommendations for a structural-realist approach to spatial development analysis. It offers a methodological framework for contemporary spatial development analysis by combining regulationist, cultural political economy and network theoretical approaches, and taking full cognisance of the structural-institutional, scalar, and cultural dimensions of development processes and strategies.

2010. Knowledge networks of 'buzz' in London's advertising industry: a social network analysis approach. Area

There has been a plethora of literature in the last few years attempting to conceptualise how the (international) firm operates in the notion of what has been termed 'buzz'. In this paper, we aim to highlight how the use of social network analysis (SNA) can provide a nuanced view of 'buzz', through a focus on London's advertising industry. In this case study, we use the data on interlocking board members of the advertising companies in London, and visualise their network maps through sociograms. This method of analysis, under-utilised in the economic geography literature, highlights the intensity of connections between companies and particular individuals. It shows the paths of knowledge flow within the industry, and can highlight the key 'gatekeepers' within what is already known to be a highly networked and socialised industry. This is a specific conceptualisation of interaction and provides a quantitative conception of what has hitherto been largely evaluated through qualitative means.

2010. Social networks and undocumented Mozambican migration to South Africa. Geoforum

This paper analyses the social networks which facilitate and sustain undocumented migration from Mozambique to South Africa. A key contention is that the migrant social networks are not limited to a spatially bounded area; transcend geography, location and territory; can be considered as spatial conveyors of social capital; and operate transnationally at three different locations: in the sending communities, on borders and in the destination areas. In the sending communities, interpersonal relationships are based on bonds of kinship, and friendship through which the migrants get moral and material support for the movement. At the borders migrants establish connections with border agents, guides, and conveyors who support them in entering South Africa and provide transportation to their preferred destinations. At the destination areas the newcomers have also counted on the bonds of kinship and friendship among former immigrants, who assist them on their arrival with accommodation and food as well as in the process of getting jobs and documentation. In South Africa undocumented migrants were subjected to high levels of xenophobia, exploitation and deportation, structural, sociopolitical forces against which social networks are largely ineffective. However, through the social networks the undocumented Mozambican labour migration to South Africa has become a self-sustained circular process that is difficult to control. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Diaspora strategies, skilled migrants and human capital enhancement in Jamaica. Global Networks-a Journal of Transnational Affairs

In an attempt to boost its stock of human capital and access to global flows of investment, knowledge and innovation, the Jamaican state has begun to turn to skilled members of its diaspora as a vital and untapped economic resource. State strategies to accumulate human capital within the diaspora, however, raise questions about the culture of labour markets and their effects on human capital enhancement and the transfer of knowledge. Drawing on the labour market experiences of skilled members of the Jamaican diaspora currently living on the island, I explore the possibilities and limits that skilled diaspora network strategies offer for capturing, transforming and embedding knowledge, innovation and investment capital in Jamaica.


Declarations of societal shift, economic transition, and the dawning of a new era have now become commonplace in social science, particularly in the analysis of economic forms. In this paper, three influential accounts of economic change are examined and are found to be overwhelmingly concerned with identifying new orders, paradigms, or modes of accumulation. First, regulation theory is described. Although this perspective is valuable in its focus upon institutional ensembles and interrelations, it lapses all too easily into structuralism; that is, these institutional ensembles can be explained by their structural 'coupling' to the mode of production and the mode of regulation. Second, flexible specialization is considered. Here again the explanation of new industrial forms is distinguished from their description by the use of 'ideal types'. These types define the contours of the new era. Last, networks are also identified as the dominant organizational form of the post-Fordist era. The argument proposed here is that networks are not new and are insufficiently distinct from other forms of organization, yet they do help to focus attention on network analysis. Drawing upon the work of actor-network theorists, such as Gallon, Latour, and Law, I argue that networks must be analyzed from within; that is, we should seek to follow network builders as they weave together heterogeneous materials. Thus, explanation emerges only once description has been pursued to the 'bitter end'. It is from within the processes of economic change that our own accounts must be constructed, and this militates against theatrical declarations of new orders, eras, etc. We must explain by using the descriptions of network construction and not by recourse to some underlying historical logic.

1997. Towards a geography of heterogeneous associations. Progress in Human Geography

Dualisms have been a recurring feature of sociospatial analysis. Micro/macro, local/global, subject/object, particular/universal - one or more of these dualistic frameworks can be discerned in many geographical texts. Dissolving the dualisms, somehow finding a way through the gaps which open up between them, requires the development of an approach which allows the various scales of social life to be treated symmetrically so that we never have to shift to a different register when studying large-scale or 'big' (usually termed structural) phenomena. It is proposed in this article that a geography of associations, which traces how actions are embedded in materials and then extended through time and space, provides one means of overcoming the dualisms. Drawing upon actor-network theory it is argued that interactions are both 'localized' and 'globalized' using nonhuman entities and these permit certain actor-networks to act at a distance on others. Patterns of centrality and marginality thus emerge as particular power geometries are drawn. Tracing these power geometries by following the associations can only be undertaken in a nondualistic fashion.

2006. Building trust in economic space. Progress in Human Geography

While there is widespread recognition of the importance and role of trust in facilitating regional development, technology transfer, and agglomeration economies, the concept remains rather undertheorized within economic geography and regional science. This paper reviews and assesses the literature on the role and constitution of trust for economic and industrial development and presents a conceptual ization of the trust building process that accounts for the influences of agency, institutions, materials, and interpersonal expression. In doing so, geographic concerns about the role of space and context are linked to economic and sociological conceptualizations of trust and to scholarship from actor-network theory (ANT) and social psychology regarding the influence of power, non-human intermediaries, and performance on social outcomes and network configurations. The result is a heuristic framework for analyzing trust-building processes as temporally and spatially situated social phenomena shaped by contextspecific subjective, intersubjective, and structural factors. The conceptualization's broader significance lies not in detailing the many factors that influence trust but in its contextualization of the micro-social processes that can strengthen business relationships. In doing so, the framework can facilitate a move beyond solely instrumental conceptualizations of trust and toward a relational understanding of how the means for establishing and sustaining trust influence the development and potential of such 'ends' as clusters and production networks.

2006. The sociospatial dynamics of creativity and production in Tanzanian industry: urban furniture manufacturers in a liberalizing economy. Environment and Planning A

The author examines the design, production, and marketing activities of furniture makers in Mwanza, Tanzania and assesses the degree to which innovative and creative competencies and capabilities are emerging within this industry. A conceptual framework from evolutionary economics is applied, and emphasis is placed on situating the social and spatial characteristics of production, innovation, and knowledge creation within the selection environment or context created by Tanzania's economic liberalization process. Specifically, the cognitive, innovative, and organizational competencies and capabilities of furniture makers are detailed and their emergence is explained in relation to the markets, institutions, and spatial structures concomitant with neoliberal reform. The findings demonstrate how liberalization has, in effect, selected for less creative, smaller scale, and largely informal manufacturers while discouraging the development of more innovative, larger scale, and/or formal firms. In a broad sense, the results of the study raise questions about whether or not structural adjustment policies are contributing to the development of viable, globally oriented, and indigenously owned manufacturing firms in African cities like Mwanza.

2011. The socio-spatial dynamics of development: geographical insights beyond the 2009 World Development Report. Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society

The 2009 World Development Report: Reshaping Economic Geography has drawn significant attention to the influence of 'first-order' (for example transportation costs, market contexts) geographies on development processes. Despite the recognition, numerous geographers have criticized the Report for its failure to engage with ideas from outside economics, particularly those associated with 'second-order' (for example social, political) factors that influence economic development. This paper details three of these missing geographies and demonstrates how urban-regional development is influenced by socio-spatial factors, context-specific mobilities, power asymmetries and the quality of a region's ties to transnational production networks. Beyond highlighting these factors, the paper argues for improved policies through the integration of economists and geographers' perspectives on the role of density, distance and division in development.

2005. Gender, social networks, and contraceptive use in Kenya. Sex Roles

The social network approach has recently come to aid our understanding of the ongoing fertility transition in developing countries. This study adds to the growing literature in situating the role of geography and interaction with significant others-community and family members-in understanding Kenya's puzzling fertility transition. Findings indicate that, contrary to previous findings that kin networks are conservative and against innovative fertility behavior, the respondent families, especially in the more prosperous Central Province, are supportive of fertility innovation. Community wide networks are not as influential in directing fertility behavior as own family members are. Family members are the ones who bear the burden of raising children and, as such, are the ones on the forefront of encouraging behavior adjustment. Not all of the social networks significantly influenced use of contraception; however, interacting with healthcare and family-planning networks and friends and being advised to use contraception had a positive impact on using contraception in both regions.

2000. Birds of a feather: using a rotational box plot to assess ascertainment bias. International Journal of Epidemiology

Background. Comparability of study participants with non-participants is customarily assessed by contrasting the distributions of sociodemographic characteristics. Such comparisons do not necessarily provide insight into whether or not participants of a given subgroup are similar to non-participants of the same subgroup. A geographical information system (GIS) may provide such insight by visually displaying the spatial distributions of participants and non-participants. In a previously reported study of heterosexuals at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), traditional methods suggested distributional differences in the demographic characteristics of participants and non-participants. Methods. Based on residential address co-ordinates for each subgroup member, we used the subgroup's centroid as the origin and constructed a 360 degrees series of overlapping box plots of the distance of subgroups members to the origin, thereby producing closed polygons for each of the box plot demarcators. Results. These rotational box plots revealed similar geographical distributions for most participant and non-participant subgroups, with the exception of African-American men and women. Conclusions. Observed differences resulted in part from the study design, and provided some insight into sampling problems encountered in social network studies. Based on Tobler's supposition that 'nearby things tend to be alike', the rotational box plot is a useful additional tool for investigating sample bias.

2009. Location, collocation and R&D alliances in the European ICT industry. Research Policy

This paper argues that spatial proximity plays a role in determining the propensity of firms to engage in R&D alliances. Drawing from economic geography, network theory and innovation theory, we discuss how prior collocation can affect the propensity to engage in R&D alliances, arguing that alliances can act both as a substitute and as a complement to collocation. Using a novel dataset matching alliances and patent data for the European ICT industry, we show that alliances are complementary to prior collocation (at both national and sub-national regional level) of firm's R&D labs. In such an intra-industry, oligopolistic scenario, firms strategically use R&D alliances as a means to limit knowledge flows and protect competences, rather than to promote knowledge flows. Furthermore, while a common institutional context is important to promote collaboration, because of the high level of R&D internationalisation as well as the complex social networks within an oligopolistic industry, national institutional contexts are less relevant. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2002. Genealogical identities. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

Ideas of belonging, cultural identity, and social relations based on ancestral connection, blood, and primordial kinship, have a contradictory presence in cultural theory and public culture. The search for alternatives to Fixed, essentialist, and exclusive ways of imagining culture and belonging has been central to recent cultural theory and cultural geography. This has involved much attention to cultural routes, mobility, and hybridity and a critique of cultural roots, fixity, and purity in response to increasing transnational flows, the experience of displaced people, racism. and ethnic fundamentalism. Yet discourses of indigeneity and new migration patterns, as well as cultural globalisation more widely, have also prompted the growth in genealogy amongst 'settler' groups in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States who search for European, and often specifically Irish, roots. In this paper I explore the relationships between ideas of nation, ancestry, and diaspora. I focus on what happens when questions of nationality, ethnicity, and identity meet in the practice of ancestral research in Ireland, and begin to track the spatially differentiated cultural politics of genealogy. As the language of genealogy travels with Irish roots tourists and through electronic networks, the implications of genealogical practices and identifications can mutate so that what may be a politically regressive turn to ethnic purity and racial discourse in one context can, in another, productively unsettle older exclusive versions of belonging. For both individual and collective identities, genealogical projects can have unsettling results.

2011. Metageographic Communities: A Geographic Model of Demassified Societies. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

A metageographic community (MGC) is a construct that identifies patterns of an increasingly demassified society and accounts for flexible spatial dynamics facilitated by personal media. It acknowledges the meaning individuals ascribe to local places, to the breadth of their social networks over distance, and it incorporates communications media as essential to dynamic community building and persistence. In addition to providing a theoretical foundation for this construct, I have created a model by which to evaluate the coherence of demassified communities at four levels of association. A preliminary application of this model to two oinvisibleo ethnic groups in the United States has revealed that the coherence of even very small groups might depend on more than traditional characteristics of religious adherence, language retention, propinquitous clustering, or local landscapes. These communities have developed distanciated networks built on the frequency and types of long-distance interactions as well as the complexity of domestic and transnational networking; that is, they incorporate and depend on multiple locations. An MGC does not dissipate with distance, nor is it restricted or defined by limitations of place or boundary, although each place adds its own richness. By developing MGCs, even small, dispersed groups, such as older ethnic groups, transnational migrants, refugeesor other spatially ofuzzyo networkscan build a persistent and effective community across otherwise heterogeneous social or political space. As a dynamic, demassified entity, MGCs can have tremendous political, cultural, and economic influence not limited by physical or political boundaries.

2005. The changing place of cultural production: The location of social networks in the digital media industry. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

This article examines the role of place and placemaking within cultural industries in the digital era. The data for this article are drawn from a data set of attendance at more than nine hundred social networking events over a six-year period in New York City's Internet, or "new media," industry. These data confirm that place became more, not less, important to cultural production over this period. Networking, or the processes of the formation of social network ties, is concentrated in activities within narrow geographic clusters. This study suggests that the networking events within the industry-cocktail parties, seminars, ceremonies, and the like-mediate access to crucial resources within the industry.

2009. Place, networks, space: theorising the geographies of social movements. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

This essay examines how geography affects the different types of networks underlying social movements. The principal argument of the paper is that networks forged in particular places and at great distances play distinctive yet complementary functions in broad-based social movements. Not only does the articulation of these different types of networks result in complementary roles, but it also introduces key relational dynamics affecting the stability of the entire social movement. The purpose of the paper is therefore threefold: to provide a conceptual framework for interpreting the complex geographies of contemporary social movement networks, to stress the contributions of place-based relations in social movements and to assess how activist places connect to form 'social movement space'.

2011. Cities and the unevenness of social movement space: the case of France's immigrant rights movement. Environment and Planning A

This paper analyzes the formation of a 'social movement space' through the case of France's immigrant rights movement. Rather than this movement developing on the head of a pin, the French immigrant rights movement displays a rich and varied geography that changed over time. The movement emerged through a series of urban struggles and Paris early on became a center of these mobilizations. The complex and empowering networks developed in Paris were later deployed in a new campaign to contest restrictive national legislation passed in 1993. As this movement shifted from the urban to the national scale, networks connected the Paris hub to local struggles across the country. This network configuration, with Paris playing a centralizing role, introduced powerful geographical cleavages between center and periphery. Thus, this movement is not only conceived as a form of contentious collective action but as a distinctive spatial entity in its own right ('social movement space'). As a spatial entity, the paper examines the processes that intersected to provide it with its own unique features, the capacities to sustain its political momentum, and the internal cleavages that would later result in its slow demise.

2003. The geographies of online job search: preliminary findings from Worcester, MA. Environment and Planning A

For those who have online access, the Internet significantly reduces the cost and time of transferring information over distance. This paper explores the potential of the Internet to improve people's employment opportunities by increasing their access to job information beyond that provided via their grounded social networks. Information circulating through grounded social networks is biased socially and geographically toward the life experiences of network members. The tendency for those members to have similar life experiences dampens the variability in the information exchanged in such networks. What is the potential for the Internet to expand people's access to information about jobs and employers' information about workers? We report on a pilot study undertaken in Worcester, Massachusetts, that examined employers' use of Internet recruiting for employees. The results of this qualitative study indicate that these employers use the Internet strategically to enhance the volume of applications when the labor market is tight and to segment the applicant pool when the market loosens and the number of resumes is overwhelming. As a result, we conclude that many grounded social relations that have been integral to the hiring process are resilient to the Internet; pre-Internet geographies shape Internet geographies, and grounded social relations continue to define access to information about job opportunities even online.

2011. The Embeddedness of the Agro-Food System in the Spanish Interindustrial Structure. International Regional Science Review

The agro-food system (AFS) is an integrating component of the networks behind interindustrial systems. This implies that the structure of AFSs affects and is affected by the characteristics and evolution of the more complex networks in which they are embedded. This article uses national and regional input-output data to analyze the network structure of the Spanish interindustry system for the period 1980-2000. Network theory (NT) and social network analysis (SNA) have been applied to examine the structural position and evolution of the AFS in the whole interindustrial system. Following a systemic view, it is stated that the Spanish interindustry network follows a hierarchical topology, in which a core and a periphery can be identified. The AFS is a cohesive module occupying a peripheral position in the interindustrial structure. Those findings are very relevant from a policy perspective, as it is essential to have a deep knowledge of the structure of a system before acting on it. According to the dynamics of the analyzed national and regional AFSs, actions would imply coordination with policies focused on core sectors, mainly business services, trade and hotels and restaurants, and on sectors belonging to other production systems.

2003. New geographies of comic book production in North America: The new artisan, distancing, and the periodic social economy. Economic Geography

Current interpretations of North American cultural production stress the spatial concentration of these activities in metropolitan centers. There are, however, multiple geographies of cultural production, with other cultural activities deconcentrated and, in some cases, dispersed to distant locations. This situation poses an enigma, since these activities normally form part of a social economy in which networks of personal communication remain important. This paradox is explored using the case of the comic book industry, which has shifted from an in-house Fordist-like mode of organization to widespread distancing employing neoartisanal workers who are sometimes located close to the publishing houses, but in other instances are at considerable distances and hence require electronic communication and overnight courier services. Comic book artists often work in isolation but participate from time to time in social activities that are necessary to their creative work. Their work is seen as one of a number of cultural activities that form a periodic social economy with a distinctive time geography.

2005. Scaling alternative economic practices? Some lessons from alternative currencies. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

This paper engages with recent geographical debates on alternative economic practices, arguing that insufficient attention has been paid to the scale at which they operate. Through an analysis of recent attempts to 'fix' economic activity at a scale felt to be normatively desirable through alternative currencies, the paper argues that when attempting to build non-capitalist practices, scale matters. The paper discusses processes of financial structuration that limit and channel these spaces through an analysis of localized alternative networks in the UK (Local Exchange Trading Schemes - LETS) and the geographically wider barter networks in Argentina.


J. Novotny, V. Nosek: Nomothetic geography revisited: statistical distributions, their underlying principles, and inequality measures. - Geografie-Sbornik e, GS, 114, 4, pp. 282-297 (2009). - The paper focuses on some issues related to regularities in the statistical distributions of various social and environmental phenomena. Firstly, an older concern with statistical distributions of complex systems is revisited in order to exemplify surprisingly similar findings obtained across different disciplines. This interest has also been reflected in geography with a lot of activity given to the documentation and classification of the regularities but less to their explanations. As such, in the second part, some basic examples of general (statistical rather than context-specific) underlying principles for considered types of distributions are mentioned. The third part addresses related question of the measurement of inequality, which is the most commonly studied quantitative aspect of a statistical distribution. The performance of selected parametric measures of inequality is tested with respect to data coming from differently skewed distributions.

2000. How the swans came to Lake Michigan: The social organization of Buddhist Chicago. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion

An analysis of the social organization of Buddhist groups and networks in metropolitan Chicago sheds light on the social organization of Buddhism and other new religions in American cities generally. Following an overview of the history and geography of Buddhist Chicago, this essay examines the dynamics underlying the emergence of local Buddhist groups and networks under two main headings: religious identities and sociological factors. First, Buddhism 5 various branches, traditions, and lineages are discussed; sociological factors discussed include organizational types, ethnic/racial distinctions, sociological functions played by Buddhism for "culture Buddhists" and "convert Buddhists," and the role of local social dynamics in the emergence, proliferation, and interaction of Buddhist groups. As the field of American Buddhist studies enters a period of renewed productivity, this essay offers a conceptual framework for understanding major issues that can benefit both researchers within the field and interested social scientists outside of it.

2002. Relocating gender and rural economic strategies. Environment and Planning A

In recent decades, increasing entrepreneurial activities among women have contributed to shifting livelihood strategies at the household, community, and regional scales. In this paper I examine home-based work in an economic network to highlight the intersection of gender and economic practices in rural Appalachia. The research demonstrates that these livelihood strategies both construct and are shaped by dynamic material conditions and social processes in place. Economic restructuring in the central Appalachian region has led to the reworking of economic strategies, despite a continued reliance by households on homework and informal activities. The case study for this project is an economic network comprised of sixty home-based workers who produce knitwear for regional and national markets. In-depth interviews and extensive fieldwork are used to examine the complexity of shifting economic livelihoods in the rural Appalachian context. The analysis focuses on the (re)negotiation of gender identities by home-based workers in the context of economic restructuring. The discussion also shows how participation in these activities contributes to economic and social empowerment. Overall, this study offers a critical approach to the economy, work, and gender in a way that analyzes diverse economic practices and the construction of gender identity in a rural, economically marginalized region.

2004. A note on methods for measuring industnial agglomeration. Regional Studies

A range of quantitative techniques have been employed by researchers in economic geography and other social science disciplines for the purpose of measuring and spatially delimiting agglomerations of industrial activity. However, these techniques appear to have been applied with little consistency within the literature, particularly with regard to the use of arbitrary cut-off values for determining what level of industrial specialization defines an agglomeration. This paper proposes a new measure, the I standardized location quotient', which recognizes agglomerations as being comprised of locations with statistically significant (rather then arbitrarily defined) location quotient values for the industry/activity under analysis. The use of the measure in delimiting spatial agglomerations within the UK business services sector, using recent employment and workplace data, is demonstrated.

2006. People, places and paths: The Cypress Hills and the Niitsitapi landscape of Southern Alberta. Plains Anthropologist

The landscape of the Blackfoot is a series of named locales linked by paths, movements and narratives. The places are often outstanding natural features, river crossings, or resource patches perceived as focal points of spiritual energy. Myths and oral traditions explain how these landmarks were created through the actions of Napi who left behind songs, sacred objects, and practices to commemorate his creative acts on earth. This landscape is also created by people through their experience and engagement with the world around them and through their activities and movements on the ground As reflections of this habitual behavior paths represent the accumulated imprint of countless journeys as people move from place to place conducting their everyday business. Although created by people, the resultant network of places and paths constrains the patterned movement of groups over the landscape. From this perspective then, the landscape is not only the natural and cultural features of a region but also the names, oral traditions, and ceremonies, which establish the continuity between ancestral beings, social groups and the land. This paper attempts to position the Cypress Hills within the broader Niitsitapi landscape using the place names, paths and traditions of the people.

1999. Voices and silences: the problem of access to embeddedness. Geoforum

The economic geography literature invokes a broad range of socio-cultural factors in explaining the performance of economic actors. The Polanyian-Granovetterian notion of embeddedness is among those often used in this context. This paper discusses epistemological problems involved in doing empirical research on the embeddedness of business firms in the local context. The obvious group of actors addressed in such studies are corporate managers. They can be depicted as agents who derive their power from the corporate resources that they control as well as from the social capital that they gain through their connectedness to a range of social relations. Interviews between academic researchers and corporate managers are viewed as Bakhtinian dialogues. They are analysed in terms of voice and silence, multivoicedness, social language and speech genre. Voices represent managerial elites in their different roles as well as the social relationships in which they are involved. They are resonated in managers' utterances in interview dialogues. What is not expressed at all or is expressed unclearly or inadequately is captured by the metaphor of silence. Managers' embeddedness in multiple sets of social relations results in multivoicedness, which leads to the need for the researcher to try to identify the different voices and their social origins. The paper elaborates on the complexities involved in carrying out empirical research on embeddedness. It can also be read as a warning against pursuing such an endeavour without careful conceptual elaboration on the very notion of embeddedness. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. Associations between migrant status and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. Sexually Transmitted Infections

Objective: To examine associations between migration and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence Mexican female sex workers (FSW). Methods: FSW aged 18 years and older in Tijuana, California (BC) underwent interviews and testing for syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Multivariate logistic regressions identified correlates of STI. Results: Of 471 FSW, 79% were migrants to BC. migrant FSW, prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and any STI was 6.6%, 13.2%, 7.8%, 16.3% and 31.1% compared with 10.9%, 18.2%, 13.0%, and 42.4% among FSW born in BC. A greater of migrant FSW were registered with local health and were ever tested for HIV. Migrant status was protective for any STI in unadjusted models (unadjusted odds ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.97). In multivariate models controlling for confounders, migrant status was not associated with an elevated odds of STI acquisition and trended towards a protective association. Conclusions: Unexpectedly, migrant status (vs nativeborn status) appeared protective for any STI acquisition. is unclear which social or economic conditions may protect against STI and whether these erode over time migrants. Additional research is needed to inform our understanding of whether or how geography, variations health capital, or social network composition and information-sharing attributes can contribute to health protective behaviours in migrant FSW. By capitalising such mechanisms, efforts to preserve protective health behaviours in migrant FSW will help control STI in the population and may lead to the identification of strategies that are generalisable to other FSW.

2004. Urban networks, community organising and race: an analysis of racial integration in a desegregated South African neighbourhood. Geoforum

The paper addresses the question of racial integration in Delft South, a desegregated low-income neighbourhood in Cape Town developed through the provision of state funded housing to families previously classified coloured and African. Through a qualitative analysis, the research examines the effect relocation has had on the racial character of economic and social networks around which resident families construct their everyday activities. In light of the importance of race in shaping these networks, the paper then examines the relationship between access to housing and practices of social and spatial integration, in particular organisation of and participation in street- and neighbourhood-level organisations. I demonstrate that in Delft South legacies of segregation persist in residents' reliance on economic and social networks built on long, durable histories and geographies of racial segregation. Although physical relocation has not led to a lessening of the importance of racial identities, other identities built around issues such as neighbourhood norms, housing politics, and issues of criminality and legality manifest according to circumstances and residents' interests. Context and situation therefore are significant for whether and to what degree race and place matter in the post-apartheid context. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. A governmental contest: regulating US cinema during the Progressive Era. Environment and Planning A

Cinema was one of the hallmarks of early-20th-century urban life in the US, and it was quickly seen as symptomatic of a 'crisis of governmentality' faced by a rapidly changing society. Urban reformers debated how best to regulate it, but this was not only a debate over the unprecedented agency of the moving image itself. It was also a debate over how to understand the specific relations that constituted the 'vulnerable and impressionable' spectators who were the special concern of social reform and which underlay the more generic categories of population in reformist discourse. Also problematized was the precise relationship between spectators, the image, and the conditions of exhibition. While the problematization of cinema has largely been seen as a national phenomenon, in fact it had a geography that varied by scale and location and was constituted through local differences in population and governmental strategies.

2012. Cinema's milieux: governing the picture show in the United States during the Progressive era. Journal of Historical Geography

The regulation of American cinema during the Progressive era was an exercise in governmentality with multiple spatial rationalities operating through networks at multiple scales. Although produced and distributed nationally, moving pictures were consumed locally. The National Board of Censorship governed movie content from New York, where most major film producers were headquartered at that time, yet it was dependent upon the activities of social reformers and officials in cities across the country in monitoring manufacturers' compliance with its decisions. But as those correspondents often regarded the image on the screen as intimately associated with other aspects of the movie-going experience, local efforts to regulate film often went further, depending upon local concerns about spectators. This paper explores how cinema was problematized in Atlanta and Minneapolis, two regional centers with different sexual and racial politics. It does so by building on recent discussions of spatial rationalities of moral reform efforts, and in this case, how tensions between generative and vitalist spatial rationalities conspired to produce a variable geography of cinema regulation that was networked and multi-scalar, and how these experiments in regulating a new medium of visual communication began to articulate a distinctive perceptual rationality of government. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2000. The business of place: networks of property, partnership and produce. Geoforum

The paper examines one of Australia's most successful luxury hospitality businesses, Peppers Hotel Trust. It focuses on the Trust's flagship property The Convent at Peppertree a hotel, restaurant and winery complex located in the heart of Pokolbin in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales, Australia's most visited wine-tourism district. Against the familiar economic accounts which frame Peppertree as a valuable piece of real estate and the product of an unerring entrepreneurial vision, it is recast here as a more precarious network in which the complex threads from which it is woven are simultaneously social and material; configured by the intimate social relations of marriage, friendship and business partnerships and the material fabric of buildings and gardens, wines and foodstuffs through which these relations take and hold their shape. We trace three pathways through the Peppertree network the social relations of the business 'partnership', the 'Convent' building which anchors the business in place; and the 'gastronomic landscape' from which the restaurant at Peppertree sources local produce. These pathways open up some of the multifarious ways in which knowledge and agency are distributed through the network and enable us to admit new possibilities for financial story-telling; the spatial complications of production and consumption and the situatedness of our own research practice and account. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Geographic Constraints on Social Network Groups. Plos One

Social groups are fundamental building blocks of human societies. While our social interactions have always been constrained by geography, it has been impossible, due to practical difficulties, to evaluate the nature of this restriction on social group structure. We construct a social network of individuals whose most frequent geographical locations are also known. We also classify the individuals into groups according to a community detection algorithm. We study the variation of geographical span for social groups of varying sizes, and explore the relationship between topological positions and geographic positions of their members. We find that small social groups are geographically very tight, but become much more clumped when the group size exceeds about 30 members. Also, we find no correlation between the topological positions and geographic positions of individuals within network communities. These results suggest that spreading processes face distinct structural and spatial constraints.

1998. A vulnerability interpretation of the geography of HIV AIDS in Ghana, 1986-1995. Professional Geographer

Ten years after the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) was first reported in Ghana, it continues to spread throughout the country following patterns that are rare in other African countries. HIV is seen in twice as many females as males, more frequently in rural than urban regions, and regions with high rates of polygamy have significantly lower rates. The evidence presented in this paper shows that HIV diffusion patterns probably reflect the spatial distribution and social networks of vulnerable social groups. While information-based campaigns are still necessary in the fight against HIV/AIDS, they fail to enable or empower vulnerable people to protect themselves against infection.

2002. Social network analysis: a powerful strategy, also for the information sciences. Journal of Information Science

Social network analysis (SNA) is not a formal theory in sociology but rather a strategy for investigating social structures. As it is an idea that can be applied in many fields, we study, in particular, its influence in the information sciences. Information scientists study publication, citation and co-citation networks, collaboration structures and other forms of social interaction networks. Moreover, the Internet represents a social network of an unprecedented scale. In all these studies social network analysis can successfully be applied. SNA is further related to recent theories concerning the free market economy, geography and transport networks. The growth of SNA is documented and a co-author network of SNA is drawn. Centrality measures of the SNA network are calculated.

2004. Knowledge networks as channels and conduits: The effects of spillovers in the Boston biotechnology community. Organization Science

We contend that two important, nonrelational, features of formal interorganizational networks-geographic propinquity and organizational form-fundamentally alter the flow of information through a network. Within regional economies, contractual linkages among physically proximate organizations represent relatively transparent channels for information transfer because they are embedded in an ecology rich in informal and labor market transmission mechanisms. Similarly, we argue that the spillovers that result from proprietary alliances are a function of the institutional commitments and practices of members of the network. When the dominant nodes in an innovation network are committed to open regimes of information disclosure, the entire structure is characterized by less tightly monitored ties. The relative accessibility of knowledge transferred through contractual linkages to organizations determines whether innovation benefits accrue broadly to membership in a coherent network component or narrowly to centrality. We draw on novel network visualization methods and conditional fixed effects negative binomial regressions to test these arguments for human therapeutic biotechnology firms located in the Boston metropolitan area.

2008. A discrete-choice approach to modeling social influence on individual decision making. Environment and Planning B-Planning & Design

Individual decision making is commonly studied using discrete choice models. Models of this type are applied extensively to the study of travel behavior, residential location, and employment decisions, among other topics of interest. A notable characteristic of the underlying economic theory is the assumption that individuals seek to maximize utility on the basis of their personal attributes and the attributes of the alternatives available to them. This approach ignores the interrelated nature of decision making in social situations-in other words, the role that social structures play in shaping behavior. In this paper we describe a multinomial discrete choice approach to analyzing individual behavior in social situations where position in a social network may encourage or discourage different courses of action. By means of a simulation example, we explore some properties of the model, in particular the effect of network topology.

2010. Rethinking Territory. Antipode

Territory is the quintessential state space and appears to be of growing political importance. It is also a key concept in geography, but it has not been subject to as much critical attention as related geographical terms and remains under-theorised. Taking my cue from Timothy Mitchell's suggestion that the state should be understood as the effect of social practices, I argue that the phenomenon that we call territory is not an irreducible foundation of state power, let alone the expression of a biological imperative. Instead, territory too must be interpreted principally as an effect. This "territory-effect" can best be understood as the outcome of networked socio-technical practices. Thus, far from refuting or falsifying network theories of spatiality, the current resurgence of territory can be seen as itself a product of relational networks. Drawing on an empirical case study of the monitoring of regional economic performance through the measurement of gross value added (GVA), I show that "territory" and "network" are not, as is often assumed, incommensurable and rival principles of spatial organisation, but are intimately connected.

2011. Social networks and implementation of evidence-based practices in public youth-serving systems: a mixed-methods study. Implementation Science

Background: The present study examines the structure and operation of social networks of information and advice and their role in making decisions as to whether to adopt new evidence-based practices (EBPs) among agency directors and other program professionals in 12 California counties participating in a large randomized controlled trial. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 38 directors, assistant directors, and program managers of county probation, mental health, and child welfare departments. Grounded-theory analytic methods were used to identify themes related to EBP adoption and network influences. A web-based survey collected additional quantitative information on members of information and advice networks of study participants. A mixed-methods approach to data analysis was used to create a sociometric data set (n = 176) for examination of associations between advice seeking and network structure. Results: Systems leaders develop and maintain networks of information and advice based on roles, responsibility, geography, and friendship ties. Networks expose leaders to information about EBPs and opportunities to adopt EBPs; they also influence decisions to adopt EBPs. Individuals in counties at the same stage of implementation accounted for 83% of all network ties. Networks in counties that decided not to implement a specific EBP had no extra-county ties. Implementation of EBPs at the two-year follow-up was associated with the size of county, urban versus rural counties, and in-degree centrality. Collaboration was viewed as critical to implementing EBPs, especially in small, rural counties where agencies have limited resources on their own. Conclusions: Successful implementation of EBPs requires consideration and utilization of existing social networks of high-status systems leaders that often cut across service organizations and their geographic jurisdictions.

2010. More-than-human social geographies: posthuman and other possibilities. Progress in Human Geography

While 'the social' is problematized in diverse ways in current geographical debates this report reflects on the ongoing relevance of social geographies, especially those that attend to the complexity and interconnectivity of life. This review outlines three ways in which society-nature relations are being interrogated via: poststructural, posthuman and Indigenous foci. It concludes that important questions of social difference and unequal power relations remain relevant for more-than-human geographies.

2009. The virtual geographies of social networks: a comparative analysis of Facebook, LinkedIn and ASmallWorld. New Media & Society

This study provided a comparative analysis of three social network sites, the open-to-all Facebook, the professionally oriented LinkedIn and the exclusive, members-only ASmallWorld. The analysis focused on the underlying structure or architecture of these sites, on the premise that it may set the tone for particular types of interaction. Through this comparative examination, four themes emerged, highlighting the private/public balance present in each social networking site, styles of self-presentation in spaces privately public and publicly private, cultivation of taste performances as a mode of sociocultural identification and organization and the formation of tight or loose social settings. Facebook emerged as the architectural equivalent of a glasshouse, with a publicly open structure, looser behavioral norms and an abundance of tools that members use to leave cues for each other. LinkedIn and ASmallWorld produced tighter spaces, which were consistent with the taste ethos of each network and offered less room for spontaneous interaction and network generation.

2011. Structural changes in the 2003-2009 global hyperlink network. Global Networks-a Journal of Transnational Affairs

In this study, we examined the structure of the international hyperlink network as a global communication system at two different points in time (2003 and 2009). Research was carried out on the web-based network linking country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) that represent countries, using hyperlink connectivity by the means of network analysis. The results indicate that the 2009 international hyperlink network was completely interconnected. G7 countries and Spain were at the centre of the network. At the periphery were poorer countries from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In addition, several regional clusters based on geography, language and culture emerged. A comparison of the 2003 and 2009 results showed that the level of centralization and diversification among semi-peripheral countries increased. We discuss the results from the perspective of world-systems theory. We propose methodological procedures to overcome potential bias in international hyperlink data.

2010. Resourcing the food crisis: geographies of food. Geography

Eating is an everyday act which connects individuals with agricultural workers, commercial concerns, multinationals, weather patterns, financial markets, transport networks and world trade. It also reflects local cultural geography and changing social trends. Food insecurity threatens these connections, regardless of geographical location. As an aspect of 'living geography', the geographies of food production and consumption allow for enquiries into the connections between young people and the wider world, and exemplify the concept of interdependence. There are also links with the growing trend for convenience and the importance of decisions made by consumers. This article outlines the creative process which was undertaken by the author as he wrote an online continuing professional development (CPD) unit for the Training and Development Agency (TDA), and prepared a workshop for the Geographical Association conference in April 2009 in association with Oxfam. It provides some ideas for teaching and resourcing KS3-5 lessons on the subject of food security, with a focus on adding web-based media to provide the 'hook' into the activities.

2003. Rural mental health and social geographies of caring. Social & Cultural Geography

This paper contributes to an emerging geographical literature on the social geographies of caring. Drawing on recently undertaken empirical work in the Scottish Highlands, personal accounts about the provision of both formal and informal care for people with mental health problems are evaluated. The notion of 'community care' is critiqued, as too are claims about bow rural and remote rural locations engender particular configurations of caring roles, practices and relations. It is shown that geographical distance, social proximity, stoic cultures and rural gossip networks all have a part to play in bow caring occurs in such places. The paper concludes by suggesting areas of future research.

1999. Context, conversation and conviction: Social networks and voting at the 1992 British General Election. Political Studies

After some initial interest, analyses of contextual effects in British voting behaviour have tended to downplay or ignore the role of face to face conversations between electors. However, evidence from the 1992 British Election Study shows that conversations with partisan discussants do act as a statistically significant influence on voting. Those who discuss politics with supporters of a particular party are more likely to switch their votes to that party, if they had not previously voted for it, and less likely to switch to other parties. Conversations with family members are particularly important, though talking to other discussants also plays a part.

2000. "People who talk together vote together": An exploration of contextual effects in Great Britain. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Many students of British voting patterns have tested fur the existence of contextual effects, which postulate that voters are influenced by events and people in their local milieux. One of those contextual effects is the neighborhood effect, whereby individuals are influenced by the nature of the politically relevant information circulating within their social networks, many of which are spatially constrained to their local area. Although ecological analyses have identified patterns consistent with this hypothesis, there have been virtually no direct investigations of the effect, largely because of the absence of relevant data. Using information from a large, clustered survey of voters at the time of the 1992 general election, this paper uncovers clear evidence of such effects: people are much more likely to change their votes in a particular direction ii those with whom they discuss political issues support that direction, especially if they are members of the respondent's family and are the individuals with whom they discuss politics most.

2001. Talk as a political context: conversation and electoral change in British elections, 1992-1997. Electoral Studies

Voters' social networks are largely ignored as an aspect of their contextual milieux. Despite long-standing theoretical evocations of the conversation-conversion model in accounts of the neighbourhood effect, few analyses have considered the impact of actual conversations. The lacuna is addressed in this paper using panel survey data to look at vote and attitude change between the 1992 and 1997 British General Elections. Voters' contexts, as measured by their conversational milieux, were independent influences on both vote and attitude change over the period. Other things being equal, talking to a supporter of a particular party increased a respondent's chances of voting for that party (and decreased the chance of voting for its rivals), and of shifting his or her attitudes in the direction associated with the party. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2002. Re-scaling IPE: subnational states and the regulation of the global political economy. Review of International Political Economy

Over the past 30 years, subnational states have become significant global economic actors, yet they remain unincorporated into the main body of IPE research. This is largely because their relevance has been sought in the narrowly defined local economic milieu, when instead their real significance lies in their emergence as sites of regulation of the global political economy. In particular, through efforts to attract transnational corporate investment and create transnational business networks, sell exporting to small and medium firms, and imagineer local metropolises into 'world cities', subnational states become the structural site around which the local social foundations of transnational liberalism are built. As national Fordist blocs composed of national capital and nationally organized labour erode, a new hegemonic bloc in the Gramscian sense is emergent, organized not simply globally or locally but glocally. Such blocs have the potential to join transnational capital, small and medium manufacturers and farmers, and the consumption-oriented metropolitan middle class in and through the subnational state into a social formation supportive of the transnational liberal project. This is a key element in the re-scaling of the state and the production of new geographies of global regulation in the twenty-first century.

2010. Innovation, Sustainability and Regional Development: the Nelson/Marlborough Seafood Cluster, New Zealand. Business Strategy and the Environment

This paper explores how innovation, developed through multi-sector partnerships within a regional context, has assisted in increasing the sustainability of the New Zealand fishery industry. Qualitative data were collected from a single regional cluster, the Nelson/Marlborough seafood industry, located in the upper South Island - the largest seafood region in New Zealand. This context is unique in that New Zealand controls the world's fourth largest coastal fishing zone, with a 200-mile exclusive economic fishing zone (EEZ) established in 1978, and has one of the world's most innovative quota management systems. Analysis of the qualitative interview data demonstrated that: (1) collaboration among core firms was primarily at the product and process level, generally to improve the productivity of the firm; (2) opportunities for new sector growth were available from related industry collaboration; and (3) multi-sector collaborations involving both core firms and social infrastructure contributed more significantly to sustainable strategic outcomes. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

2004. Other transitions: Multiple economies of Moscow households in the 1990s. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

This article examines survival strategies of urban households in post-socialist cities during the transition from the Soviet system to a market economy. The article links the outcomes of systemic transformation to the daily lives of households and connects urban change induced by mass privatization to class and gender processes inside the households. These "other transitions" in everyday class and gender processes are consistently overlooked by macroeconomic approaches that dominate among transition theorists and policy consultants. The focus is on households in a Moscow neighborhood who attempt to meet the competing demands of earning income, fulfilling domestic responsibilities, and securing child care in a rapidly changing urban context. The diverse formal and informal economic practices of households are analyzed using the model of "multiple economies" that include paid work, informal work for cash, unpaid domestic labor, and help in kind, labor, and cash from networks of extended family, friends, and neighbors. Mapping the typically invisible transformations of multiple economies of households contributes to creating alternative geographies of transition that are rooted in daily household experiences, acknowledges the existence of multiple economies practices, and emphasizes their importance for household social reproduction. The research combined qualitative interviewing with GIS (geographic information systems) in order to develop the model of multiple economies, elicit household perspectives on urban change, and provide the information for mapping of the landscape of multiple economies. GIS was also used to understand the dynamics of local urban change resulting from privatization.

1997. Toward a social geography of the city: Race and dimensions of urban poverty in women's lives. Journal of Urban Affairs

Focusing on processes of racialization in the lives of women in low-income households, this article aims to contribute to a social geography of the city through a study of the feminization of poverty. Data were collected from a snowball sample of approximately 100 African- and Anglo-American women in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1989. Emphasizing the need for localized accounts of the feminization of poverty, attention is paid to specific aspects of these women's daily lives, namely their racialized experiences of economic restructuring, sources of income and household structures. Their division into ''work-rich'' and ''work-poor'' households is revealed further through an examination of their participation in formal and informal local social networks. I argue that their everyday experiences leave the weight of poverty falling more heavily on African-American women; living in the same place can take on different meanings for racialized social groups.

2002. Political economics of scale: Fast policy, interscalar relations, and neoliberal workfare. Economic Geography

Taking as its point of departure recent debates on the theoretical status of scale and resealing in political-economic geography, this article explores the scalar politics of neoliberal workfare. This tendentially hegemonic form of neoliberal social and labor-market policy combines objectives of the dismantling of welfare and the rollback of entitlements with an insistent focus on the activation and enforcement of work. The welfare/workfare restructuring process is an illustration of a deeply politicized and highly dynamic form of regulatory resealing, based inter alia on the selective appropriation of disembedded local programming models and their purposeful circulation around extralocal policy networks, the dumping of regulatory risks and responsibilities at the local scale and that of the "poor body," and the complex orchestration of ostensibly decentralized policy regimes by national states and transnational agencies and intermediaries. The rollback of Keynesian-welfarist institutions at the level of the national state provides the (scaled) context for the emergence of these neoliberalized political forms, but crucially, these forms are also beginning to exhibit their own distinctive dynamics and logics-captured here in terms of an ascendant regime of "fast-policy" formation. Workfare regimes are not monolithic systems, but dynamic configurations of restless reform, technocratic emulation, and tangled scalar relations. Politically constructed, they are also responsive/subject to (scaled) processes of local policy failure and social contestation. Scale and scale relations certainly matter, then, but in ways that are politically mediated and institutionally specific, rather than theoretically preordained.

2005. Economic sociologies in space. Economic Geography

How might economic geography (re)position itself within the interdisciplinary field of heterodox economics? Reflecting on this question, this article offers a critical assessment of the "New Economic Sociology," making the case for moving beyond the limited confines of the networks-and-embeddedness paradigm. More specifically, it argues for a more broadly based and purposive conversation with various currents within social-constructivist and macroeconomic sociology, which, in turn, calls for a more full-blooded critique of market relations and analyties and a more militant attitude toward economic orthodoxies. The promise of such a conversation, strategically focused on the simultaneously social and geographic constitution of economic relations, is an emboldened economic geography with a more persuasive voice in the field of heterodox economic studies.

1998. Transportation networks and the location of human activities. Geographical Analysis

The impact of transportation networks on the location of human activities is a surprisingly neglected topic In economic geography. Using the simple plant location problem, this paper investigates such an impact in the case of a few idealized networks. It is seen that a grid network tends to foster a dispersed pattern of activities, while the center of a radial network acts as an attractor. The case of two economies characterized by different network configurations that form a custom union is then analyzed. It is shown that the structural properties of the networks still hold, though some locations are pulled toward the common border This suggests that no such relocation should be expected within the European Union if the stare members endorse similar fiscal and social policies after the formation of the single market.

2010. Becoming coca: A materiality approach to a commodity chain analysis of hoja de coca in Colombia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography

Coca is a controversial plant, existing on the boundary between legality and illegality. This study aims at providing an analytical technique for discussing the problematic of coca in Colombia. Using new theoretical propositions in human geography, a more-than-human approach is adopted to encounter coca holistically. The results are a narrative account of coca's social life as experienced by the researcher following its network of non-cocaine derivatives. An analytical section invokes the Foucauldian dispositif to the drug trade and utilizes concepts of informed materials and technological zones to describe coca outside a political economy discourse. The research finds that coca's dynamic materiality complicates it as a commodity and that these conventional approaches do not fully encapsulate this complexity. By grappling with the messiness of coca's materiality, this paper reveals the multiplicity and interplay of coca's definitions, which lie at the heart of many conflicts.

2007. Remeasuring and rethinking social cleavages in Russia: Continuity and changes in electoral geography 1917-1995. Political Geography

This paper examines the role of social cleavages in creating spatial associations between major pre-Revolutionary and post-Soviet political parties at the guberniya-level statistical aggregates. The paper begins with a theoretical discussion of social cleavages and a literature review of cleavage theory research applied to various Russian elections. The analysis of spatial associations between the pre-Revolutionary/ post-Soviet parties involved elaborating a new measurement framework, creating a spatial database using GIS, transformation of thematic social-economic-geographic attributes, calculating the strength of the linear relationship among regional spatial units and utilizing probit statistical models. This research empirically supports the hypothesis that contemporary Russian parties are expressions of rediscovered cleavages as well as of conflicts engendered by the Tsarist and Soviet and post-Soviet periods of development. It appeared that the constituent assembly election of 1917 and parliamentary election of 1995 tend to be "maintaining'' elections for the liberals. The situation appeared different for the communitarian parties. A critical realignment - significant changes in the left electorate and a split in this electorate did occur. The 1995 election results indicate that only parties with developed networks and local and regional organizations faired well in the election and that nationalization of Russian political life was still weak in 1995. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012. Comparing two approaches to land use/cover change modeling and their implications for the assessment of biodiversity loss in a deciduous tropical forest. Environmental Modelling & Software

Land use/cover change (LUCC) modeling is an important approach to evaluating global biodiversity loss and is the topic of a wide range of research in ecology, geography and environmental social science. This paper reports on development and assessment of maps of change potential produced by two spatially explicit models and applied to a Tropical Deciduous Forest in western Mexico. The first model, DINAMICA EGO, uses the weights of evidence method which generates a map of change potential based on a set of explanatory variables and past trends involving some degree of expert knowledge. The second model, Land Change Modeler (LCM), is based upon neural networks. Both models were assessed through Relative Operating Characteristic and Difference in Potential. At the per transition level, we obtained better results using DINAMICA. However, when the per transition susceptibilities are combined to compose an overall change potential map, the map generated using LCM is more accurate because neural networks outputs are able to express the simultaneous change potential to various land cover types more adequately than individual probabilities obtained through the weights of evidence method. An analysis of the change potential obtained from both models, compared with observed deforestation and selected biodiversity indices (species richness, rarity, and biological value) showed that the prospective LUCC maps tended to identify locations with higher biodiversity levels as the most threatened areas as opposed to areas that had actually undergone deforestation. Overall however, the approximate assessment of biodiversity given by both models was more accurate than a random model. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2004. Understanding social and spatial divisions in the new economy: New media clusters and the digital divide. Economic Geography

Economic inequality is increasing but has been sidelined in some of the recent debates in urban and regional studies. This article outlines a holistic framework for economic geography, which focuses on understanding social and spatial divisions, by drawing on economists' ideas about the new economy and feminist perspectives on social reproduction. The framework is illustrated with reference to the emerging new media cluster in Brighton and Hove, which, as a consequence, emerges less as a new technology cluster and more as a reflection of increasing social divisions in the new economy.

2010. Co-ordinating Passages: Understanding the Resources Needed for Everyday Mobility. Mobilities

This article contributes to the 'mobilities turn' in social science by proposing new concepts and methods for analysing the ways in which people draw upon a range of resources to manage everyday mobility. We distinguish between the 'projects' people want to achieve and the 'passages' they need to go through in order to do so. We also distinguish between 'pre-travelling' and 're-ordering'. The analysis builds on insights from time-geography, mobility studies and actor-network-theory to develop a conceptual vocabulary for understanding the dynamic and situated nature of travel in everyday life. The study combines qualitative and quantitative data from a study of hypermobile people in the Netherlands.

2010. Counterurbanisation and Rural Gentrification: an Exploration of the Terms. Population Space and Place

This paper examines the interrelationships between the concepts of counterurbanisation and rural gentrification, suggesting that four different positions can be identified. Firstly, these concepts are highly commensurable and could usefully be more closely aligned. Secondly, rural gentrification has a political/critical dimension that is missing from conceptualisations of counterurbanisation, and hence rural gentrification might usefully displace counterurbanisation as a focus of study. Thirdly, counterurbanisation is a less reductionist concept than rural gentrification, and therefore counterurbanisation researchers need to disentangle themselves from too great a focus on rural gentrification. Fourthly, both concepts share many problematic features and may both be viewed as chaotic concepts. The paper then discusses how counterurbanisation and gentrification researchers have responded to criticisms relating to their conceptual foci, suggesting that these can be characterised as legislative or interpretive. It is argued that whilst the former response has been predominant, there are signs that the latter approach is also being adopted. The concluding part of the paper draws on the notion of an interpretive approach to understanding counterurbanisation and rural gentrification, and their interrelationships. Use is made of Latour's notion of 'circulatory sociologies of translation' to consider how the two concepts are linked not only to their objects of study but also to social relationships with other academics, with governmental organisations and with public opinion and values. Attention is drawn to the differential relationships that counterurbanisation and rural gentrification are implicated in, and how this might account for the differential character of the two concepts. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1997. The Internet in universities: Liberation or desensitization? Computers & Geosciences

The compression of space and time that accompanies cultural evolution is being accelerated by digital communications technology. The rapid transmission of information and computer-mediated communication are key factors in economic and geopolitical development. Networks such as the Internet are now able to handle images, sounds, texts and virtual objects. These can be stored, reproduced, combined and distributed. This digital miscegenation creates a virtual, recombinant culture that signifies how human society is evolving in the postmodern era. In universities, the Internet is already an important medium of communication, a way of enhancing access to educational resources and a means of creating interactive communities of learning. This will not merely enhance educational practice as it is now. Like technological developments before them, it will also change our view of what education is, or needs to be. This, in turn, will influence the values and the sensitivities that are implicitly transmitted in the educational process. Over and above its practical effects on education, the Internet is bound up in wider geopolitical movements and pressures. As a backdrop to considering the Internet as a medium for education, this article considers some of these geopolitical movements. The conclusion will be that the often rosy image created by advocates of digital communications technology may need balancing by consideration of some darker possibilities. As a matter of social geography, it enhances uniformity, urban concentration and the commodification of cultural practices, including education. Two themes are considered here. On the one hand, following the more optimistic views of educationalists, such as Illich and Wells, there is the hope that the Internet will act as a liberating, democratizing force that will make knowledge more freely and widely available. On the other hand, following the more pessimistic concerns of geographers and cultural theorists, such as Harvey and Baudrillard, there is the fear that the Internet will accelerate the loss of cultural diversity and will help to conceal the damage that technology is inflicting on the cultural and on the natural environment. Examples of both themes are to be found in the current use of the Internet in university education. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

2011. Relational place-making: the networked politics of place. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

\ Place-making - the set of social, political and material processes by which people iteratively create and recreate the experienced geographies in which they live - is an important but oft-neglected part of political theory. Place-making is an inherently networked process, constituted by the socio-spatial relationships that link individuals together through a common place-frame. While place-oriented scholars have long acknowledged the importance of interaction and communication in place-making, the mutual integration of network concepts, political theorisations and place conceptualisations has been relatively weak. We use case studies in Bolivia's forests and Athens, USA to explore how integrating these concepts can guide empirical research. This article argues that a more robust and explicit notion of 'relational place-making'- the networked, political processes of place-framing - positions the concept of place in a way that offers new analytical utility for political and urban geographic scholars.

2009. Geographies of brands and branding. Progress in Human Geography

This paper seeks to elucidate the geographies of brands and branding through interpreting their geographical entanglements. Focusing upon goods and services, it argues, first, that the object of the brand and the process of branding are geographical because they are entangled in inescapable spatial associations. Second, these spatial associations matter because they are geographically differentiated and uneven. Third, geographically entangled brands and branding are closely related to spatially uneven development through the articulation and reinforcement of economic and social inequalities and unequal and competitive sociospatial relations and divisions of labour. Despite their apparent pervasiveness and significance for geographical inquiry, the geographical entanglements of brands and branding have been under-investigated in Geography and hardly recognized and poorly specified in other social science research. A critical account is provided that demonstrates the entangled geographies of brands and branding in their: (1) geographical origins, provenance and sociospatial histories; (2) spatial circuits of value and meaning and uneven development; and (3) territorial and relational spaces and places. Reading the changing forms, extent and nature of the geographical entanglements of brands and branding provides a novel but relatively overlooked window to consider and illustrate the vital spaces at the intersections of economic, social, cultural and political geographies, the tensions between relational and territorial notions of space and place and the politics and limits of brands and branding. Learning from wider social science, the paper demonstrates the importance of geography by projecting more clearly specified and sophisticated treatments of space and place into accounts of brands and branding.

2010. Economic Geographies of Financialization. Economic Geography

This article argues that financialization-shorthand for the growing influence of capital markets, their intermediaries, and processes in contemporary economic and political life-generates an analytical opportunity and political economic imperative to move finance into the heart of economic geographic analysis. Drawing upon long-standing concerns about the relatively marginal location of finance in economic geography, we emphasize the integral role of finance in connecting the entangled geographies of the economic to the social, the cultural, and the political. In the wake of various "turns" in the discipline, we develop this integrationist approach to finance in ways that retain political economies of states, markets, and social power in our interpretations of geographically uneven development. In this article, we discuss the plural nature of emergent work on financialization and develop three analytical themes to shape our discussion of financialization. Next, we elaborate our analytical approach by warning against functional, political, and spatial disconnections traced in the literature on the geographies of money. We then explore how financialization is broadening and deepening the array of agents, relations, and sites that require consideration in economic geography and is generating tensions between territorial and relational spatialities of geographic differentiation. Finally, we address the relative dearth of empirical work by examining the financialization of brands that have shaped the evolution of the brewing business and the development of new derivative instruments to hedge against weather risks. We conclude by arguing that our analysis of financialization demonstrates how finance occupies an integral position within economic geographies and reveals some of the sociospatial relations, constructions, and reach of existing and new actors, relations, and sites in shaping the uneven development of financialized contemporary capitalism.

1999. Discursive aspects of technological innovation: the case of the British motor-sport industry. Environment and Planning A

A discursive approach to technological innovation recognises that scientific and technical innovations are the products of groups of people. The subject of this paper is how this insight from the sociology of scientific knowledge can make a contribution to debates in economic geography. Principally drawing on the work of social constructionists, this approach is used to provide insights into the reasons for both the creation and the maintenance of the geographical agglomeration of small firms constituted by the British motor-sport industry.

2008. Internet Global Governance: The representation of toponyms of countries in the cyberspace (Abstract). Scripta Nova-Revista Electronica De Geografia Y Ciencias Sociales

The thematic one of this work represents a new field of research in Geography. The Internet governance - IG should be define as a set of initiatives and constructive actions, designed by governments, public sectors, private sectors and civil society organizations, to establish a structure of global regulation, which promote the scientific and social developments Internet between countries and not just of their toponyms. The IG issue has implications in all respects, in the future development of the Internet in order that covers a range of topics not only linked to the issues of technological development, but also policy issues that concern the sovereignty, safety, geography, economics, citizenship and freedom of expression. So, this paper is part a research that has as general objective the consolidation of the Geography in the scope of science dedicated to investigate the IG in the cyberspace.

2011. On the Nature and Geography of Innovation and Interactive Learning: A Case Study of the Biotechnology Industry in the Aachen Technology Region, Germany. European Planning Studies

So far, relatively little research has been done on sectoral differences of innovation processes. In order to learn more about these differences, we apply the knowledge base concept which helps us to characterize the nature of critical knowledge that is indispensable for innovation activities. Two knowledge bases are distinguished: the analytical (science based) and the synthetic (engineering based) knowledge base. This paper focuses on the emerging biotechnology industry in the Aachen Technology Region in Germany. It aims to identify the knowledge base which is crucial for the development of new products and processes. Additional questions are as follows: How intense are cross-sectoral knowledge transfers and labour mobility? In which way can we observe innovation-oriented systemic interactions within the region and to which extent are the biotechnology firms connected to extra-regional knowledge sources? In order to investigate these questions, we apply social network analyses and descriptive statistics. Our results show that the knowledge base that is crucial for innovation activities is primarily of analytical nature. Interactive learning of biotechnology firms within the region is clearly dominated by industry-university links, while the vertical dimension of co-operative innovation processes is rather shaped on national and global scales for most firms.

2006. Gone "underground'? Lesbian visibility and the consolidation of queer space in Montreal. Social & Cultural Geography

Over the last two decades, urban researchers have investigated how gender shapes gay and lesbian geographies in major post-industrial cities. These studies demonstrated that while gay men have often produced highly visible territorial enclaves in inner-city areas, lesbian forms of territoriality at the urban scale have been relatively 'invisible' since their communities are constituted through social networks rather than commercial sites. Contrasting the patterns produced by these two populations in the inner-city areas of post-industrial cities during the 'queer' 1990s has created a gender-polarized and historically specific interpretation of their patterns of territoriality and visibility that may differ significantly from those of earlier periods. This paper, therefore, provides a long-range historical geography of lesbians in a major metropolitan area through a case study of Montreals lesbian bar cultures since 1950. The focus of the analysis is on the preconditions that led to the establishment of the city's lesbian commercial enclave in the 1980s and the factors that led to its decline in the 1990s. This case study, therefore, outlines the shifting character of lesbian territorial practices at the urban scale in Montreal since 1950. It illustrates that in Montreal lesbian territoriality and visibility have been strongly impacted by local neighbourbood dynamics, internal ideologies, and political and spatial relationships with gay men. Ultimately, these findings suggest that contemporary lesbian visibility at the urban scale may have been undermined by an increased identification with the 'queer' forms of community and their territorialization in Montreal's gay Village.

2003. Small firm finance and economic geography. Journal of Economic Geography

This paper argues that firm finance is something of a 'black-box' in economic geography, a largely take-for-granted aspect of production. Focusing on small firms,the paper argues that firm finance warrants analysis, not simply to 'add' to knowledge and to form another sub-discipline of economic geography, but in order to further develop and refine our understanding of uneven development. The paper explores the neglect of firm finance in economic geography and highlights some of the contributions of literatures in economics and business. Finally, the paper outlines three points of intersection between these disparate, usually disciplinary-bound, literatures in business, economics, and economic geography: the place-bound nature of firms, the social character of economic relations, and third, the power relations and asymmetries inherent in financial relationships. These intersections are used to critique existing small firm finance literatures and to outline the contours of an emerging research agenda in economic geography.

2004. From industrial district to 'urban village'? Manufacturing, money and consumption in Birmingham's Jewellery Quarter. Urban Studies

Cities now occupy a central role in economic regeneration. Literature on such regeneration has focused on the supply side, neo-liberal leanings of projects, the centrality of cultural production and consumption, and the undemocratic, exclusionary geographies being produced through such regeneration schemes. This paper explores how urban regeneration strategies, premised on promoting cultural production and consumption, are being experienced by one of Birmingham's oldest manufacturing communities-its jewellers in the city's historic Jewellery Quarter. The aim is to investigate how this repackaging of the Jewellery Quarter, moulded by Birmingham's broader urban regeneration strategies, is affecting the material and social networks that constitute jewellery manufacturing. The repackaging of the Jewellery Quarter highlights some of the contrasting, and contradictory, conceptions of economic development competing for space in the West Midlands. The paper argues that the greater stress being given to the aestheticisation of the Quarter may ultimately undermine the economic (and social) bases of the Quarter's jewellery manufacturing networks.

2010. Innovation, spillovers and university-industry collaboration: an extended knowledge production function approach. Journal of Economic Geography

This article analyses the effect of knowledge spillovers from academic research on regional innovation. Spillovers are localized to the extent that the underlying mechanisms are geographically bounded. However, university-industry collaboration-as one of the carriers of knowledge spillovers-is not limited to the regional scale. Consequently, we expect spillovers to take place over longer distances. The effect of university-industry collaboration networks on knowledge spillovers are modelled using an extended knowledge production function framework applied to regions in the Netherlands. We find that the impact of academic research on regional innovation is not only mediated by geographical proximity but also by networks stemming from university-industry collaboration.

2011. (PRODUCT)(RED)(TM): how celebrities push the boundaries of 'causumerism'. Environment and Planning A

(PRODUCT)(RED)(TM) (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of 'causumerism' (shopping for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the 'aid celebrities' who are behind RED (such as Bono) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help 'distant others'. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems 'prove' that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well-labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating a proportion of sales income to help distant others in Africa. The iconic brands sitting under the RED umbrella also play an important role as they offer a consistent and known venue for channeling consumer affect. We argue that celebrity validation, backed up by iconic brands, facilitates at least three shifts in the realm of causumerism: from 'conscious consumption' (mainly based on product-related information) to 'compassionate consumption' (mainly based on the management of consumer affect); from attention to the product and its production process toward the medical treatment of the 'people with the problem' (AIDS patients in Africa); and from addressing the causes of problems to solving their manifestations.

2006. The network analysis of urban streets: a primal approach. Environment and Planning B-Planning & Design

The network metaphor in the analysis of urban and territorial cases has a long tradition, especially in transportation or land-use planning and economic geography. More recently, urban design has brought its contribution by means of the 'space syntax' methodology. All these approaches-though under different terms like 'accessibility,' 'proximity,' 'integration' 'connectivity', 'cost', or 'effort'-focus on the idea that some places (or streets) are more important than others because they are more central. The study of centrality in complex systems, however, originated in other scientific areas, namely in structural sociology, well before its use in urban studies; moreover, as a structural property of the system, centrality has never been extensively investigated metrically in geographic networks as it has been topologically in a wide range of other relational networks such as social, biological, or technological ones. After a previous work on some structural properties of the primal graph representation of urban street networks, in this paper we provide an in-depth investigation of centrality in the primal approach as compared with the dual one. We introduce multiple centrality assessment (MCA), a methodology for geographic network analysis, which is defined and implemented on four 1-square-mile urban street systems. MCA provides a different perspective from space syntax in that: (1) it is based on primal, rather than dual, street graphs; (2) it works within a metric, rather than topological, framework; (3) it investigates a plurality of peer centrality indices rather than a single index. We show that, in the MCA primal approach, much more than in the dual approach, some centrality indices nicely capture the 'skeleton' of the urban structure that impacts so much on spatial cognition and collective behaviours. Moreover, the distributions of centrality in self-organized cities are different from those in planned cities.

2011. The Importance of Proximity for the Start-Ups' Knowledge Acquisition and Exploitation. Journal of Small Business Management

This paper intends to verify the impact of geographical proximity on the processes of knowledge acquisition and exploitation by high-tech start-ups considering at the same time the role of both the social and cognitive dimensions of proximity. Our basic assumption is that proximity means a lot more than just geography. The findings from this research broaden our understanding of how start-ups located inside an industrial cluster acquire knowledge from their customers and exploit it in an innovative way, underscoring the need to reconsider assumptions regarding the importance of geographical proximity between business partners during knowledge management.

2009. From stress to distress: Conceptualizing the British family farming patriarchal way of life. Journal of Rural Studies

'Rural stress' and 'farming stress' are terms that have become commonly appropriated by British health-based academic disciplines. the medical profession and social support networks, especially since the agricultural 'crises' of B.S.E. and Foot and Mouth disease. Looking beyond the media headlines, it is apparent that the terms in fact are colloquial catch-alls for visible psychological and physiological outcomes shown by individuals. Seldom have the underlying causes and origins of presentable medical outcomes been probed, particularly within the context of the patriarchal and traditionally patrilineal way of life which family forms of farming business activity in Britain encapsulate. Thus, this paper argues that insufficient attention has been paid to the conceptualization of the terms. They have become both over-used and ill-defined in their application to British family farm individuals and their life situations. A conceptual framework is outlined that attempts to shift the stress research agenda into the unilluminated spaces of the family farming 'way of life' and focus instead on 'distress'. Drawing upon theorization from agricultural and feminist geography together with Cultural approaches from rural geography, four distinct clusters of distress originate from the thoughts of individuals and the social practices now required to enact patriarchal family farming gender identities. These are explored using case study evidence from ethnographic repeated life history interviews with members of seven farming families in Powys, Mid Wales, an area dominated by family forms of farming business. Future research agendas need to be based firmly oil the distressing reality of patriarchal family farming and also be inclusive of those who, having rejected the associated way of life, now lie beyond the farm gate. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Following the plot of Bengt Pohjanen's Meanmaa: narrativization as a process of creating regional identity. Social & Cultural Geography

This paper discusses the artistic and cultural work of one minority author and regional activist, Bengt Pohjanen, and how it constitutes a means for mediating regional identity narratives, constructing Meanmaa, the region straddling the border between Sweden and Finland in the Tornio River Valley. We will approach narrativization as a creative social action, focusing on the performative, social and political aspects of regional stories, and by this means impugning the division between territorial, bounded, and networked, unbounded, conceptualizations of regions. We will follow the narrative plot of Bengt Pohjanen's Meanmaa, pointing out how an artistic and cultural region becomes part of our social reality and how regional consciousness and identity become established and constantly renegotiated within and across national borders.

2005. Points of departure: remittance emigration from South-West Ulster to new South Wales in the later nineteenth century. International Review of Social History

This paper considers aspects of the local geographies of Australian emigration created in south-west Ulster by the New South Wales government-sponsored remittance emigration scheme between 1858 and 1884. The scheme mobilized the financial resources of settlers in New South Wales to part-fund the passage of friends and relatives from Britain and Ireland. The paper utilizes the comprehensive socio-economic and demographic archive generated by the scheme, to explore the response of rural communities in thirteen civil parishes in Counties Cavan and Fermanagh to this opportunity to emigrate. it concludes that although the emigrant sample's demographic profile accorded with conventional models of Irish assisted emigration, it was also marked by pronounced over-representation of Protestants and under-representation of Catholics. Possible explanations for this are considered in terms of the positionality and human capital of the three major denominations and the efficiency of their social networks in negotiating the bureaucratic process in Australia.

2010. 'Vertebrating' the region as networked space of flows: learning from the spatial grammar of Catalanist territoriality. Environment and Planning A

For decades theoretical debates about political restructuring have resorted to and coconstructed geographical concepts of territory and scale, interpreting 'new' and 'Euro' regionalisms as processes of reterritorialization and resealing (and the politics thereof). But nested and hierarchical theories of scale have been severely critiqued, and bounded notions of territory opened to question. How then to develop a more relational understanding of the region without trading one limiting theoretical master narrative for another? Drawing inspiration from recent attempts to do just this, in this paper I ask: what can we learn about the complex and relational spatiality of the region, and thus scale and territory, through the spatial vocabularies of regionalists themselves? Using the case study of the Northwestern Mediterranean, I explore the imaginaries and stratagems of Catalan regionalism and transboundary macroregionalism, particularly in the neighboring regions of Catalunya and the Comunitat Valenciana and their proposed integration in a Euroregion called the Arc Mediterrani. While Catalanists increasingly emphasize networked economic relationships and flows, they do so within a structured, territorial, and in many ways bounded understanding of Mediterranean spatial relations. How Catalanists vertebrar territori (articulate or structurate territory, in Catalan) offers an alternative spatial grammar for thinking about how various spatialitics including network and geographical scale are distinct yet co-implicated in the social production of regional and macroregional territory.

2011. "This is a Montreal Issue": Negotiating responsibility in global production and investment networks. Geoforum

While geographers have increasingly focused on how global commodity and production networks create new 'geographies of responsibility' there has been little empirical work considering how responsibility is worked into management systems and social activism in such networks. Drawing on literature from global production networks, geographies of responsibility and other literatures, this paper explores the dynamic and contested ways in which concepts of responsibility can play a role in network regulation. Both foreign direct investment and commodity networks (here referred to as 'global production and investment networks') are subject to complex negotiations and compromises involving corporate social responsibility and sustainability initiatives as well as shareholder activist, human rights, labor, and environmental activism. This is illustrated by reference to conflicts in Canada over Alcan, Inc.'s investments from 1993 to 2007 in the Utkal Alumina Project in Orissa, India. The project involved significant socio-environmental conflict. In Canada, Alcan's investment was met by civil society campaigns that tested the company's commitments to sustainability and corporate social responsibility. The case study suggests revising theories of geographies of responsibility. While foreign direct investment can create new relationships between distant others, these are fluid and contingent and not necessarily desirable. Rather than see networks as a source of responsibility we should work to ensure that the relationships that networks foster be structured to ensure our deeper values are respected. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2004. Geography of development: Development, civil society and inequality - social capital is (almost) dead? Progress in Human Geography

2010. Spatializing Social Networks: Using Social Network Analysis to Investigate Geographies of Gang Rivalry, Territoriality, and Violence in Los Angeles. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Social network analysis is an increasingly prominent set of techniques used in a number of social sciences, but the use of the techniques of social network analysis in geography has been challenged because of a perceived lack of geographic nuance or consideration of spatialities of context in social networks. The concept of social position and the associated technique of structural equivalence in social network analysis are explored as a means to integrate two different kinds of embeddedness: relative location in geographic space and structural position in network space. Using spatialized network data, this article compares the geography of rivalry relations that connect territorially based criminal street gangs in a section of Los Angeles with a geography of the location of gang-related violence. The technique of structural equivalence uses the two different spatialities of embeddedness to identify gangs that are similarly embedded in the territorial geography and positioned in the rivalry network, which aids in understanding the overall context of gang violence. The technique demonstrated here has promise beyond this one study of gang crime as it operationalizes spatialities of embeddedness in a way that allows simultaneous systematic evaluation of the way in which social actors' positions in network relationships and spatial settings provide constraints on and possibilities for their behavior.

2006. Fear, romance and transience in the lives of homeless women. Social & Cultural Geography

This paper takes up the question of what it means to be a woman who lives on the streets and in hostels as a homeless person in London. Using qualitative data from three women respondents, the analysis focuses upon their reasons for becoming and staying homeless. We address issues concerning the women's perceptions of danger and safety on the streets, the way they construct their role as women in this situation and their options for alternative ways of living in the future. We point up the strategies used by these women to survive on the streets (to remain transient), and relate these to discussions of women's occupancy of public space and their scope to claim equal regard among women in general.


A central prediction of a large class of theoretical models is that industry location is not uniquely determined by fundamentals. Despite the theoretical prominence of this idea, there is little systematic evidence in support of its empirical relevance. This paper exploits the division of Germany after World War II and the reunification of East and West Germany as an exogenous shock to industry location. Focusing on a particular economic activity, an air hub, we develop a body of evidence that the relocation of Germany's air hub from Berlin to Frankfurt in response to division is a shift between multiple steady states.

2010. Knowledge Transfer at the Research-Policy Interface: The Geography Postgraduates' Experiences of Collaborative Studentships. Journal of Geography in Higher Education

The need for effective knowledge transfer has been well documented; however, few narratives reflect on postgraduates as brokers of knowledge when participating in collaborative studentships. This paper reports on the authors' experiences of undertaking Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and Scottish Government (SG) collaborative PhD studentships in geography, a new studentship which trains doctoral students to be employable in both academe and government. Particular focus is given to the experiences related to an annual month-long SG placement, which increases opportunities for knowledge transfer by engendering a deeper awareness of the needs of all partners. It concludes by considering what the experiences offer to the PhD process, authors' future prospects, and the issue of knowledge transfer more broadly.

2008. Cluster Regions A Social Network Perspective. Economic Development Quarterly

One ongoing debate in the cluster literature concerns methods of delineating the spatial footprint of industrial clusters. Some cluster regions correspond to political boundaries. Researchers have also used qualitative methods and various quantitative techniques including location quotients and spatial statistics to demarcate clusters. A common weakness of most approaches is that researchers do not incorporate collaboration among cluster participants. In this article, the use of social network analysis (SNA) is illustrated. SNA is not proposed as an alternative to other methods of cluster mapping. Instead, the authors suggest that it complements other methods. Because SNA focuses on networks of social or interpersonal relationships, it provides a dimension that techniques focusing on economic relationships do not capture. One advantage of SNA is that it enables the identification of critical nonindustry actors, such as politicians, economic development practitioners, and academic researchers.

2008. Scientific innovation and non-Western regional economies: Cuban biotechnology's 'experimental milieu'. Environment and Planning A

A good deal of research within the cultural turn in economic geography has sought to understand the relationship between economic activity and regional culture. This work encompasses an increasingly heterodox set of approaches to regional economic activity, from innovation studies to processes of embedding to accounts of regional learning and clustering, and an increasingly broad set of empirical cases through which these issues are regularly discussed. Only recently has the literature had much to say about the relationship between scientific knowledge and regional culture, however, or about the empirical experience of non-Western regional economic activity and forms of innovation within this. This paper seeks to further develop these two recent strands by bringing them together. Firstly it transposes the study of high-technology regional cultures to a developing world and socialist country context. I examine, as a case study, Cuba's Science Pole, a biomedical growth pole on the outskirts of Havana comprising some forty-two interlinked institutions and 14000 scientists. I show how a space for biotechnology was created and maintained outside of the capitalist milieu with which the industry has come to be associated in the West. More specifically, I reveal how the formal demands made by the Cuban state of this biotechnology endeavour paradoxically encouraged the development of a suite of informal and innovative scientific practices. To account for how this very different approach nevertheless resulted in a similar 'regional culture' of innovation to that found in high-technology regions in the West, I suggest we need to consider not just the structural components of regional cultures (labour mobility, attitudes to risk, etc) but also the forms of rationality that underpin such factors themselves. In order to do this I turn to some of the insights of the science-studies literature as to the epistemological foundations of processes of innovation and knowledge production, to argue that regional cultures of innovation are never just economic spaces, they are also epistemic spaces.

2009. Geographies of production II: fashion, creativity and fragmented labour. Progress in Human Geography


In the 19th century railway work was a high-status occupation; a strong sense of occupational community and identification with work was present within the industry. Railway companies were uncompromisingly modern large-scale bureaucratically organised corporations, developing extensive networks of lines, changing physical, social, and economic geographies, and producing new forms of administrative space. In this paper it is argued that for its workers, both as the immediate subjects and as the producers of new forms of spatial organisation, experience of the corporate geography of the railway was intrinsic to the meaning of work and the status of railway workers in society. The metaphorical relationship between the story and the journey made by de Certeau is used to trace the relationships between the large-scale public geography of the railway corporation and the intimate private geography of individual biography.

2000. Music and the politics of sound: nationalism, citizenship, and auditory space. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

The author argues that the distinctive properties of sound give music a very particular role in the organisation of social, economic, and political spaces. Music gains the cultural authority necessary for participation in such spatial processes through properties of sound, which are not fixed and universal but temporally and spatially specific, actively produced in the material/imaginal networks of musical performance. He examines theoretical arguments concerning the performative specificity of sonic experience and considers three ways in which the sonic properties of music are centrally involved in the production of cultural geographies. He draws examples from English music of the period 1880-1940 in order to explore how sound informs moral geographies of landscape, nation, and citizen.

2008. Oases: From Samarkand to Chang'an to ... now. Organised Sound

With the development of modern high-speed communication our sense of local and global are blurred to the point that these two topological extremes are often conflated as 'glocal'. This paper examines the significance of this change and assesses its effects on the productivity and creativity of electroacoustic musicians. More profoundly, it also considers whether this shift in social geography had any bearing on the constitution of an explicit electroacoustic community. To specifically carry out this analysis we consider how an understanding of the system of social relations as a non-random network changes our perception of proximity and distance. We then derive a typology for the contemporary critiques of new technologies and highlight the opportunities it offers to interpret social relations anew. This analysis helps firm up the notion of virtuality that we use to explore our understanding of electroacoustic musical creation with respect to the benefits it can derive from a 'glocal' environment. It also establishes the premise of a collective subject emerging from 'glocal' communications that may serve as a seed to a renewed electroacoustic community.

2011. 'Letting them go' - Agricultural retirement and human-livestock relations. Geoforum

Through a focus on agricultural retirement, this paper extends on the recent work considering human-livestock relations. Drawing on research conducted in Hampshire and West Sussex (UK), the paper utilises farmers' narratives of farm work and retirement to explore the themes of [dis]connection between farmers and their dairy cattle. The paper attempts to add complexity and nuance to assumptions about the nature and extent of animal objectification with commercial dairy farming, and consider the intricate moral geographies [re]created within the individual farm. The discursive and material 'placings' of animals are considered alongside an exploration of how the intricate temporality and spatiality of these are disturbed and disrupted by the move to retirement. In discussing these relations the paper examines how animals are central to the everyday lives and identities of farmers and how separation from them alters farmers' attachment to particular practices, places and social networks. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2000. The globalisation of education: Finnish education on the doorstep of the new EU millennium. Educational Review

This paper analyses the latest changes and future perspectives in educational policy in the so-called Nordic welfare model and especially in Finland. The broad question is: are the changes and the astonishingly new perspectives in education which have come about at least in Finland closely connected with the changes in educational policies of other post-industrialised welfare states and are they, as well, consequences of the new economic and political situation in the world? The question continues by asking: can we label this new educational policy, which is being practised now also in Finland, the policy of 'the globalisation of education' due to the enormously strong trends of globalisation in the new so-called network society of the new millennium? Neither the Berlin Wall nor the Soviet Union exists any longer. Finland as well as its Nordic neighbours has stepped into the European Union with its harmonising policy. The deep economic depression in the beginning of 1990s left lasting marks on Finnish geography by tearing down many of the dreams of the cosy Nordic welfare state. The old Nordic welfare state model with the very strong 'social-democratic' emphasis on the policy of equality of educational opportunity for every citizen is presently under discussion in Finland. Can we afford it? Is there any reason to continue along that road? Should we choose a new way? The paper begins by painting a framing picture of the situation of nation states and their educational systems in a world where multinational organisations, enterprises and political unions are more powerful than ever before in all fields of human activity. The next sections of the paper concentrate on analysing the situation in Nordic countries, through the example of Finland, and changes in their educational policy in the new context of the European Union, and the situation with regard to the aims and interests to develop European harmonisation in the name of the European dimension. The last sections of the paper analyse in more detail some ongoing and future changes and perspectives in Finnish educational policy in an international context. The author comes to the conclusion that a very radical shift towards new educational policies is going on in Finland. This change can be called the 'third wave', as has been done elsewhere, with all the rhetoric and practices of marketisation and parental choice, but compared with the old Finnish educational policy the change is much more profound than elsewhere. It may also have rather unexpected consequences in the new divisions of population by developing quite new mechanisms for including and excluding young people in the school system and in society.

2010. Making Connections: Crossing Boundaries of Place and Identity in Liverpool and Merseyside Amateur Transport Films. Mobilities

In this paper I draw on a selection of local transport films, dating from the 1930s to 1970s, to explore issues of mobility, place and identity in Liverpool and Merseyside. The archive footage discussed in the paper includes amateur film of the Birkenhead and Wallasey tunnel openings, commuter ferry services to Liverpool, and also of the river crossings at Runcorn. Mapping the changing social and cultural geographies of mobility in Merseyside, it is argued that these films engage in a spatial dialogue expressive of a shift between, on the one hand, local, organic spaces of place and identity and, on the other, centrifugal spaces and non-places of transit, which, since the 1960s and with the expansion of regional and national motorway networks, have shaped much of Liverpool's contemporary urban fabric.

2011. Cities in a World of Cities: The Comparative Gesture. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

Cities exist in a world of cities and thus routinely invite a comparative gesture in urban theorizing. However, for some decades urban studies have analytically divided the world of cities into, for example, wealthier and poorer, capitalist and socialist, or into different regional groupings of cities, with subsequently very little comparative research across these divides. Interest in drawing comparisons among different cities has escalated in an era of 'globalization', as economic and social activities as well as governance structures link cities together through spatially extensive flows of various kinds and intense networks of communication. Nonetheless, scholars of urban studies have been relatively reluctant to pursue the potential for international comparative research that stands at the heart of the field. Where an interest in globalization has drawn authors to explicit exercises in comparison, both the methodological resources and the prevalent intellectual and theoretical landscape have tended to limit and even undermine these initiatives. This article seeks, first, to understand why it is that in an intrinsically comparative field with an urgent contemporary need for thinking across different urban experiences, there has been relatively little comparative research, especially comparisons that stretch across the global North-South divide, or across contexts of wealthier and poorer cities. Secondly, through a review of existing strategies for comparing cities, the article considers the potential for comparative methodologies to overcome their limitations to meet growing demands for international and properly post-colonial urban studies. Finally, it proposes a new phase of comparative urban research that is experimental, but with theoretically rigorous foundations. Resume Les villes existent dans un monde de villes et invitent donc normalement a un mouvement comparatif au sein de la recherche urbaine. Toutefois, depuis quelques decennies, les demarches analytiques des etudes urbaines ont scinde le monde des villes en, par exemple, riches et pauvres, capitalistes et socialistes, ou en d'autres regroupements par regions, ce qui s'est traduit par de rares comparaisons entre ces grandes divisions. L'interet pour les travaux comparatifs entre villes s'est accentue au fil de la 'mondialisation', les activites economiques et sociales ainsi que les structures de gouvernance reliant les villes par des flux de plusieurs types et de grande envergure spatiale, et par d'actifs reseaux de communication. Pourtant, les auteurs d'etudes urbaines se sont montres peu enclins a approfondir le potentiel de recherches comparatives internationales qu'offre ce domaine. Lorsqu'un interet pour la mondialisation a pousse certains a des exercices comparatifs detailles, tant les ressources methodologiques que le contexte theorique et intellectuel dominant ont plutot limite, voire aneanti, ces initiatives. Dans un premier temps, cet article cherche a comprendre pourquoi, dans un domaine comparatif par nature ou un besoin urgent appelle a une reflexion associant differentes experiences urbaines, les etudes comparatives sont relativement rares, notamment les comparaisons qui depassent la division entre Nord et Sud, ou entre les villes les plus riches et les plus pauvres. Ensuite, faisant le bilan des strategies de comparaison existantes, il envisage les methodologies comparatives qui pourraient repousser leurs limites pour repondre aux demandes croissantes en etudes urbaines internationales et reellement postcoloniales. Pour finir, l'article propose une nouvelle phase experimentale d'etudes urbaines comparatives, egalement dotee de fondements rigoureux sur le plan theorique.

2001. Transnational processes, development studies and changing social hierarchies in the world system: a Central American case study. Third World Quarterly

Globalisation is bringing about changes in social hierarchies in the world capitalist system which traditional categories and frameworks in development studies and macro-sociologies are unable to capture. Under globalisation processes of uneven accumulation are unfolding in accordance with a social and not a national logic. The increasing subordination of the logic of geography to that of production and the rising disjuncture between the fortunes of social groups and of nation-states, among other processes, demand that we rethink development. The social configuration of space can no longer be conceived in the nation-state terms that development theories posit but rather as processes of uneven development denoted primarily by social group rather than territorial differentiation. Social polarisation, the fragmentation of national economies, and the select integration of social groups into transnational networks, suggest that development may be reconceived not as a national process, in which what 'develops' is a nation, but in terms of developed, underdeveloped and intermediate population groups occupying contradictory or unstable locations in a transnational environment. The shift to flexible accumulation worldwide and from an international to a global division of labour result in an increasing heterogeneity of labour markets in each locale. Labour market participation becomes a key determinant of new social hierarchies and of development conceived in social groups terms. Local and national labour markets are themselves increasingly transnationalised, part of a global labour market, in which differentiated participation determines social development. This article applies these propositions to a case study of Central America, examining the changing fortunes of one particular region under global capitalism and the lessons it offers for changing social hierarchies in the world capitalist system and for a renewal of the sociology of development.

2009. The Tung Oil Boom in Australasia: a Network Perspective. Geographical Research

Ideas about networks are explored in the context of the interest within the British Empire and the United States of America in planting Tung Oil trees (Aleurites fordii) during the 1920s and 1930s. Closer attention is paid to the Australian and New Zealand experience and short-lived enthusiasm for the search for seeds, the collation of information on growth rates, and the planting of Tung trees. The paper briefly distinguishes various types of network research in human geography and concludes by raising some questions about space and time in network approaches in the social sciences more generally.

2008. Political ecology in the key of policy: From chains of explanation to webs of relation. Geoforum

Political ecology (PE) is rooted in a combination of critical perspectives and the hard won insights distilled from field work. The theoretical base of political ecology was joined, by Piers Blaikie and others, to an unflinching commitment to empirical observation of biophysical and socio-economic phenomena in place. To this already ambitious mix was added a practical intent to contribute to material as well as social change: a practical political ecology of alternative development ran beneath the surface of much of this work. For many this led to serious encounters with policy and the machinery of policy research institutions. While seemingly contradictory with the critical tenets of political ecology, Blaikie's pursuit of this pathway led beyond the ivory tower to Political Ecology in the Key of Policy, initially to inform national and international policy and eventually expanding - through the work of second-generation PE - to address internal policy in social movements and alternative development networks. Among recent variations on political ecology that have built partly on the work of Blaikie, Feminist Political Ecology (FPE) expands PE to address women as a group, and gender as a category. FPE and post-structural PE are based on multiple actors with complex and overlapping identities, affinities and interests. An emergent wave of political ecology joins FPE, post-structural theory, and complexity science, to address theory, policy and practice in alternatives to sustainable development. It combines a radical empiricism and situated science, with feminist post-structural theories of multiple identity and "location", and alternative development paradigms. This approach honors the legacy of Piers Blaikie and other PE founders yet incorporates the insights and political projects of feminism, post-structural critique and autonomous or alternative development movements. (C) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2012. Re-thinking scales and culture: Rome and the city in and beyond IPE. International Politics

The article argues that critical International Political Economy can benefit from a trans-disciplinary approach to the role of cities as socio-economic actors in the global political economy. The constitution and exercise of agency is far from an automatic response to the global restructuring of capitalist social relations, but the product of historically and context-specific economic and extra-economic social processes and social struggles. Cities (re)emerge as subjects and objects of governance and intervention and seek to become (dis)embedded in multi-scalar networks of economic and symbolic power. In this process, they become active co-producers of the global political economy, in ways that cut across spatial scales and narrow geographical imaginations. International Politics (2012) 49, 238-259. doi:10.1057/ip.2011.42; published online 13 January 2012


Working-poor women face many challenges in their quest for economic self-sufficiency. Although welfare reform promises jobs, women do not have equal access to necessary services, including transportation. With the 2010 reauthorization of TANF (Temporary Asssistance for Needy Women), there is a need to develop a methodology that uses qualitative individual-level data to evaluate whether public transportation will serve working-poor single mothers in this quest for self-sufficiency. Using ethnography, travel diaries, and a GIS for a sample of women in the process of leaving welfare in Knoxville, Tennessee, travel behavior is examined both qualitatively and quantitatively in order to understand why they rarely use public transportation. Further research into the ways these women move around in a sprawling, medium-sized city reinforces and seeks to understand the extensive social networks working-poor mothers rely on. These women create communities of spatial necessity, bartering for basic needs to overcome transportation constraints.

1998. The spaces of multiculturalism and citizenship. International Social Science Journal

'Multicultural Policies and Modes of Citizenship in European Cities' is a cross-national and comparative research programme under the auspices of the UNESCO Management of Social Transformations initiative. It draws on insights from several disciplines, including geography. This article reviews four themes present in recent geographical writing relevant to the project. These are: the production of political and territorial scales; the emergence of new networks of urban governance; the significance of public spaces for citizenship; and normative-ideological models of the multicultural city. Examples from European, North American and Australian cities are used to illustrate these ideas.

2005. Regional industrial identity: Cluster configurations and economic development. Organization Science

We explore the concept of regional industrial identity as an important missing component in our understanding of the development of metropolitan regions and the spatial arrangements of industries. While economists and sociologists have explained the location of industry clusters on the basis of unevenly distributed resources, and historians have provided rich descriptive insight into the developmental dynamics of particular metropolitan regions, little systematic theory has been advanced to explain cross-regional inflows and outflows of resources, especially with respect to patterns in cluster development. This paper examines the concept of regional industrial identity as a social code that (1) arises from the shared understandings of residents and external audiences about the suitability of a region for particular kinds of business activity and (2) influences decisions about where to locate investments. We argue that such understandings are principally informed by configurations of industry clusters that have already formed in a region. Clusters, which are the results of historical investments, are also important signals about the types of business that can thrive in the future. We develop theoretical propositions linking characteristics of regional industry cluster configurations, in particular cluster dominance and cluster interrelatedness, to the strength and focus of regional identity and, as a result, to the types and amounts of resources that will develop within and flow into and out of regions.

2004. Getting closer or drifting apart? Quarterly Journal of Economics

Advances in communication and transportation technologies have the potential to bring people closer together and create a "global village." However, they also allow heterogeneous agents to segregate along special interests, which gives rise to communities fragmented by type rather than by geography. We show that lower communication costs should always decrease separation between individual agents even as group-based separation increases. Each measure of separation is pertinent for distinct types of social interaction. A group-based measure captures the diversity of group preferences that can have an impact on the provision of public goods. While an individual measure correlates with the speed of information transmission through the social network that affects, for example, learning about job opportunities and new technologies. We test the model by looking at coauthoring between academic economists before and during the rise of the Internet in the 1990s.

2008. The Spatial Organisation of Women's Soccer in Adelaide: Another Tale of Spatial Inequality? Geographical Research

Although sport is considered an important component of Australian society and a precious vehicle of social interaction, sports geography remains in many ways a neglected field of investigation. Nevertheless, geographical studies of sports can add valuable insights to more acknowledged geographical discourses. They can also contribute to regional sporting success. This paper analyses the current spatial organisation of women's soccer in Adelaide and outlines the unequal spatial expression of its recent professionally-oriented approach, the achievement phase. A significant proportion of Adelaide's female population experiences limited opportunity to participate fully in the sport. The sport therefore fails to maximise its human resources and its spatial organisation constitutes a limit to the competitiveness of South Australian women's soccer as a system. The paper uses the concept of social capital to explore the unequal engagement of four sub-regions in women's soccer. Many of the areas experiencing relative exclusion from women's soccer are the same ones that suffer the most from disengagement from the global economy. In those areas, socio-economic disadvantage is matched by limited opportunities for self-fulfilment through sport, and the effectiveness of social networks is weaker. This work aims to provide information for South Australian women's soccer institutions to foster enhanced equity in terms of access to the sport in metropolitan Adelaide. It also provides a base from which to investigate the reasons behind sub-regional differences in the ability to produce quality players, knowledge that, if applied to these less productive areas, may contribute to the general enhancement of overall sporting outcomes.

2007. Maintenance of endemicity in urban environments: a hypothesis linking risk, network structure and geography. Sexually Transmitted Infections

In industrialised countries, a rapid epidemic phase of HIV transmission has largely given way to more moderated endemic transmission. The dynamics of endemic transmission may differ substantially from those generating epidemic spread. We hypothesise that three elements play an important role in maintaining endemicity in high prevalence urban environments. First, persons are likely to be subject to multiple risks from multiple sources rather than engaging in a single, hierarchically classified, risk behaviour. Second, the network structure in these environments may include a substrate of "fixed'' factors (a large connected component, a characteristic degree distribution and small world phenomenon) upon which is superimposed a number of variable factors (transitivity, assortativity) that determine the level of prevalence. Third, the geographic range of persons in these milieux is constricted, making it likely that new partners will already be connected. The confluence of these three factors assures the ongoing risk bombardment needed for maintenance of endemicity. Further empirical and theoretical analysis will be required in order to validate this hypothesis.

2003. Convergence space: process geographies of grassroots globalization networks. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

This paper considers grassroots globalization networks, which comprise a diversity of social movements working in association to engage in multi-scalar political action. Drawing upon David Harvey's notion of militant particularism (regarding the problems of effecting politics between different geographical scales), and recent research on networks and their relationship to places, the paper analyses People's Global Action, an international network of social movements opposing neoliberal globalization. From an analysis of the process geographies of People's Global Action, the paper proposes the notion of convergence space as a conceptual tool by which to understand and critique grassroots globalization networks. The paper argues that contested social relations emerge in such convergence spaces and considers the implications of these for theorizing such networks, and for political action.

2007. Grassrooting network imaginaries: relationality, power, and mutual solidarity in global justice networks. Environment and Planning A

In this paper we draw critically upon actor network theory (ANT) in order to analyse the contours of relationality, communication, and operational logic within a global justice network-People's Global Action Asia. Drawing upon the concept of translation, we consider how connections are fostered and sustained within the network, focusing upon the work of key organisers (those we term the 'imagineers') and key events in producing the network. In so doing, we ground ANT in direct political engagement and introduce the concept of 'grassrooting vectors' to highlight the power relations at work within global justice networks, a consideration which is crucial to the formation of mutual solidarity between social movements.

2006. Entangled logics and grassroots imaginaries of global justice networks. Environmental Politics

This article concerns the operation of two global justice networks (GJNS): People's Global Action Asia (PGA Asia) and the European arm of the International Federation of Chemical, Energy and Mining Workers (ICEM). We investigate the entangled operational logics of both networks as they combat tendencies towards emerging operational hierarchies while attempting to embed international imaginations among the grassroots. The work of key activists, or imagineers, in their role as 'grassrooting vectors' is assessed, as are the possibilities for the construction of mutual solidarities between social movements.

2011. Geography, colonialism and town planning: Patrick Geddes' plan for mandatory Jerusalem. Cultural Geographies

Patrick Geddes worked in Jerusalem between 1919 and 1925. He was originally summoned to the city by the Zionists, in order to plan the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; eventually, he also submitted an overall plan for the city, presented to its British Governor. Geddes' university plan and many of his other local cultural and educational endeavours were not successful. However, his plan for the city was approved and still dictates its development on many planes. The article discusses Geddes' overall work in Jerusalem as a product of his imperial world view, as he pictured the re-instatement of a biblical Jerusalem and assigned the homecoming Zionists the ancient role of a regional leader among its neighbouring countries. Geddes' tools for the study of the environment, such as the survey, and his educational endeavours such as the museum and the exhibition, are discussed as local manifestations of the geographical imperial project. Geddes' urban theory is discussed as a rigid and a foreign product of western and orientalist nature, which was enforced upon the landscape. Geddes himself is presented as a colonial town planner, one who practiced through an imperial professional and personal network and who had aspired to serve both the British and the Jews over the control of identity and space in contested Palestine. Finally, the article links Geography and Planning through the colonial practice of urban and social transformation.

2009. Following the Actors: mobilising an actor-network theory methodology in geography. Australian Geographer

Methodological shifts in human geography, generally under the banner of the 'cultural turn', have seen an increased focus on methods such as interviews, discourse and textual deconstruction, and the recognition of notions such as reflexivity and intersubjectivity. Together these approaches argue that there is no logical natural order of things or notions of universality. These approaches argue that there is no such thing as objectivity in social research, but that research is informed by the experiences, aims and agency of those performing the research and that researchers should be written into the research environment. Drawing on these insights, the purpose of this paper is to explore a methodological approach centred on actor-network theory (ANT) and suggest how this approach could add value to research being undertaken in human geography. Within such an approach all research findings are created by the researcher through, first, the objectives and framing of a research project and, second, the methods used to create and follow the research network. Drawing on research into residential development and planning on the fringe of Sydney, Australia, this paper has three objectives: first, to position all research as partial and as the product of associations that stretch beyond the research field; second, to argue that all research is a process of translation; and, third, to explore the manner in which we as researchers construct ourselves in efforts to enter networks of research interest.


This paper introduces a special dossier that explores the changing economic geographies of service firms and functions. The emphasis is on exploring recent developments in the theory of the firm and what this means for understanding how complex production systems are organised in time and space. There are three important building blocks: exploring interactions between the literatures of economic geography and international business; exploring the global sourcing of services and a critical analysis of clusters. This introduction addresses some of the tensions that exist between research that emphasises the importance of social networks in production systems and the contractual and legal structures that constrain the activities of firms.

2009. Neo-liberalising corporate social responsibility: A political economy of corporate citizenship. Geoforum

In this paper we situate the rise of corporate social responsibility in the context of a re-casting of the boundaries between corporate- and state-centred regulation. We argue that this process can be understood in a theoretical framework of "rolling-out" neoliberalisation. We focus firstly upon an emergent CSR consultancy industry within the UK context, demonstrating that there is now a network of organisations dedicated to making profit out of socially-responsible corporate behaviour. These organisations have helped to re-define the nature and meaning of the private sector. Then we interpret global framework agreements on corporate behaviour (such as the UN Global Compact, the Equator Principles, and the World Economic Forum's Global Corporate Citizenship Initiative) as examples of how neoliberalism is created in and through new "in-between" spaces that set the rules of political action. Subsequently, we note that some NGOs have recently recognised the limits on campaigning for more socially responsible corporate activity, and re-connect these concerns with longer-term debates on corporate voluntarism versus state-centred regulation. We conclude that demonstrating how hegemony is constructed in and through neo-liberalising corporate social responsibility remains to be fully explored, but argue that it is beneficial to consider the diversity of political projects involved in this ongoing process. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007. From researching regions at a distance to participatory network building: Integrating action research and economic geography. Systemic Practice and Action Research

This paper describes the change in a researcher's practices from one of studying regional industrial development at a distance to one of working closely with a network of agri-food managers. This is accompanied by a discussion of the methodological and theoretical possibilities for an action research inspired economic geography. Some of the core characteristics of a pragmatic conceptualization of action research are revised. It is argued that theoretical developments within economic geography make possible a dialogue between researchers and local actors and that economic geography is challenged to accept that knowledge is generated through such a dialogue. Attempts to create a dialogue between action research and economic geography in a specific Norwegian industrial and geographical context are described. These attempts indicate that the researcher's methodological approach has been transformed from a narrow one relying solely on conventional social science methods to a broader one including participatory action research.

1998. Factors of spacial organization of cultural activities: The example of Croatia. Drustvena Istrazivanja

This article develops those tendencies in cultural geography which look upon elements of space as representatives of socio-cultural processes and phenomena. The main thesis is that the historical, social, geographical and other factors influencing spacial arrangement of institutions (in this case cultural institutions) are represented and recognized in a network of these institutions. Factors influencing the spacial organization of cultural activities are brought into relation in this article with their representatives (i.e. the results of their activity) in a network of cultural institutions. Three groups of factors have an impact on the development of cultural infrastructure: macrosocial factors, microsocial factors and elements of the geographical environment. Macrosocial factors - in the first place the institution of politics, and in some periods also the institution of religion as well as economic and technological prospects of the society - influence the establishment of cultural institutions and some of their varieties. Microsocial factors - education, employment in certain sectors of the economy, residence in cities or the country, material wealth - determine the population's life-style and have an effect on the cultural infrastructure through the consumption of cultural commodities. The geographical surroundings, affecting population density or the intensity of communication, create conditions and prerequisites for the development of cultural centres. In addition to the interpretational approach, well-established in cultural geography, quantitative methods are also used in the article, which enable the registration of spacial features of the cultural network. Through digitalization of data and its manifestation in the program ArcViewl, many cartographic correlations were carried out helping determine the impact of certain factors on the network of cultural institutions.

2005. Trance and visibility at dawn: racial dynamics in Goa's rave scene. Social & Cultural Geography

The geography of music has recently turned to questions of embodiment and materiality to account for the sensuous specificity of music. Extending this work, this article emphasizes the constitutive work that embodied experience of music and space does for social differences such as race and gender. It criticizes what is perceived as a limited conception of embodiment in non-representational theory. Using ethnographic evidence from the rave tourism scene in Goa, India, it is argued that precisely during the scene's most mystical and hedonistic moments (what will be called the 'morning phase), racial dynamics are at their starkest. It is crucial to understand that racial difference is emergent and not automatic. The article then suggests a Deleuzian musicology which conceives music not as form, language or ideology, but as force. Accounting for the richness of musical materiality involves examining the networks of power and inequality through which it necessarily operates.


This study investigates the network of secondary education in northern Italy in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Citing specific examples, the Republic of Venice, the State of Milan, the Duchy of Savoy, it brings into the discussion new information as well as recent research, showing bow the Church used education to re-establish its position in society. By providing a sample of individual establishments from different social and political setting, the author tries to promote a "history of comparisons" among the schools (or rather a "correlated history of schools') and provide information for an atlas of Italian scholastic institutions, that a group of national universities is now in the process of preparing. It is not the scope of this study to investigate the transition from medieval to early modern school systems. Rather, this article charts the response to a profound crisis that affected education in the mid-sixteenth century: the political impact upon the educational system demonstrating the unifying role of the Catholic Church but also the ways in which each school system responded to the social and political needs of the local state. This work examines seminaria nobilium, colleges, and seminaries directed by the Society of Jesus, the Barnabites, and the Somaschans, connecting history and geography, social and economic factors.

2006. Sustainability and peasant culture: towards alternative rural development models. A proposal from Cataluna. Boletin De La Asociacion De Geografos Espanoles

This paper has the objective of examining the relationships between rural culture and sustainability taking as an example the case of Catalonia. We argue that these relationships are mediated by particular and antagonic views of nature and society, of cities and the countryside as Strictly separated environments. In our opinion, this separation is critical to understand the problematic relationships that exist between rural culture and environmental conservation. Within Geography there have been various attempts to overcome the dualism nature-society such as systems theory, historical materialism o, more recently, actor-network theory. This last approach offer a relational view of interest for geographers and nature-society studies in that it dilutes dualisms in network of actors, both natural and social. The end of tensions between rural and urban areas could come through a new social contract admitting the specificities of the rural and offering a guarantee of a rural sustainability not threatening the productive base. The paper draws the basic lines of this contract and ends with a brief methodological account on how to (re)examine the relationships between sustainability and rural culture.


The author has became interested in why the book ''Medical Innovation:A Diffusion Study'' by Coleman et al. (New York, Bobbs-Merill, 1966) is still cited in various articles even today, almost 30 years after its publication. Accordingly, the author conducted a survey on articles which quoted his book published in 1966. The author used Science Citation Index, the Social Science Citation Index and the Arts & Humanities Citation Index to conduct this survey. The results of the survey suggested that this book has been cited in a total of 336 articles all over the world as of 1994. Based on these 336 articles, the author quantitatively investigated annual changes in the number of articles citing this book, the number of articles according to subject, the number of articles according to year and subject, the areas of study in which the book has been cited, the name of scientific journals in which this book has been cited, and the distribution of the nationalities of the authors citing this book. As a result, the author was able to draw the following conclusions : 1. The annual changes in number of articles citing Coleman's publications during the past 28 years first peaked in 1971, with secondary peaks in 1979 and 1985. Although the number of articles citing this book subsequently decreased, it has tented to increase in recent years, again peaking in 1993, and tented to continue to increase even now. 2. Coleman's book has been cited most frequently in the following four areas: medicine (72 articles, 21.4%), sociology (67 articles, 19.9%), business (48 articles, 14.3%), and medical sociology (20 articles, 6.0%). Articles in these areas account for about 60% of all articles citing this book. It has also been frequently cited in articles in the field of library and information science (19 articles, 5.7%) and health policy (15 articles, 4.5%). Articles in these six areas have accounted for about 70% of the total. In addition, there have been citations in 12 articles in the field of psychology, 7 in pharmacology, 7 in communications and 7 in mathematical sociology. Articles in ten fields, these four and the above mentioned six, have accounted for about 80% of the total. 3. The first year the book was cited according to each subject area are as followed: marketing, 1967 (the year following publication); pharmacology,sociology, and library and information science, 1968; medicine, 1969; mathematical sociology, education and rural sociology, 1970; nursing, health policy and business, 1971. The initial citation of this book in eleven fields above occurred within five years after publication. The areas in which the first citation of this book was late were geography(1978) and anthrolopology(1982). 4. The content of Coleman's study can be roughly divided into 1) diffusion, 2) decision making and 3) communication network. His study has been cited from different angles depending on the subject of the article. The diffusion and communication network angles have been cited in diverse subject areas, while studies citing his book from the decision making angle have been limited to three subjects, medicine, health policy, and medical sociology. 5. Coleman has been cited in as many as 176 different source journals, suggesting that his publication has influenced a broad range of studies. Judging from the journals, it seems to have been cited in journals with high standards. 6. Among the authors citing Coleman, affiliations of 278 researchers from as many as 22 countries could be identified. Scholars in the United States and European countries were found to be most interested in Coleman. Although the number of articles was small, he has also been cited by scholars from the so-called Third World, including Brazil,Nigeria, Ethiopia, India, Singapore and Korea. This study suggests that, although its value may vary among from subject to subject, Coleman's ''Medical Innovation'' is still attracting attentions as a thought-provoking study in the fields of medicine, medical sociology, mathematical sociology and other interdisciplinary areas throughout the world.

2007. Coupling, steering, differentiation. The geography of social systems. Erdkunde

Global value chains within international package tour tourism The issue of governance International travels to southerly regions are usually realised through package tours that have been construed and sold by tour operators. This observation forms the basis for the assumption that package tours constitute the product of a global value chain that is governed by tour operators. Global value chains have become a significant concept within the globalisation debate, having been successfully utilised to explain the relationship between market and product regions for industrial as well as agricultural goods. This article suggests the application of the concept of global value chains to the international package tour tourism. It will discuss the two predominant governance forms within package tourism, the hierarchical as wen as the relational, with which it is rendered possible to coordinate and control insecurities of cross-border transactions in package tourism.

2004. Dimensions of proximity in knowledge-based networks: The cases of investment banking and automobile design. European Planning Studies

The competitiveness of firms and regions is increasingly dependent on their capabilities to organise knowledge processes that unfold between different knowledge providers. In this article it is argued that this knowledge management in networks is a cognitive process that uses different dimensions of proximity. As much of the knowledge required is 'tacit' in character, 'embedded' social interaction becomes crucial. There are, however, conflicts of interest in business network. The organisation of knowledge processes thus becomes a complex governance task that depends to a large extent on the characteristics of the learning processes of the sectors involved. This paper offers some empirical evidence from the service sector with the case of M&A activities and from the manufacturing sector with the case of automobile design.

2005. Craniometric variation and population history of the prehistoric Tewa. American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Although the population history and social organization of the prehistoric Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest have received attention in the archaeological literature, little research on this topic has been conducted by biological anthropologists. Here, we examine postmarital residence at two ancestral Tewa Indian pueblos located in north-central New Mexico using determinant ratio analysis. In addition, we examine genetic relationships among pueblos, as well as levels of within-pueblo heterogeneity due to gene flow from extraregional sources, or regional aggregation. Results from determinant ratio analysis indicate greater within-pueblo male variation, consistent with matrilocal residence for at least one Tewa pueblo. Less than expected heterogeneity at two pueblos suggests that endogamy might have been practiced among some prehistoric Tewa pueblos. Gene flow from extraregional sources is indicated for two different pueblos by greater than expected within-group heterogeneity. Distance matrix correlation analyses indicate little if any relationship between phenotypic and geographic distances, suggesting that geography was not the primary basis of gene flow or mate exchange. The weak relationship between phenotypic and geographic distances may be the combined effects of endogamy at some pueblos, nonrandom extraregional gene flow or migration at other pueblos, and limited nonproximity-dependent regional gene flow or migration among pueblos, possibly structured on ritual exchange networks based on medicine society affiliation.

2008. Closed spaces: can't live with them, can't live without them. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

Spatial assumptions, mostly taken for granted in mediated and face-to-face language use, both represent and constitute social reality. How, though, do their hidden logics work in detail? What are their respective imaginative effects and functions? And, in view of their involvement in discourses of discrimination, are they dispensable? By using the press coverage of the German reunification as a case study, I discuss the social embeddedness and maintenance of fairly traditional spatial concepts in general, and the Euclidean 'container concept' in particular on a theoretical level. In everyday social practice, it is argued, these concepts have both constraining and enabling implications. Their constitutive dimension, however, is often neglected in recent critical discourse animated by 'new' spatial imaginations such as flows, networks, folds, or rhizomes. In this respect, I argue that everyday 'containerization' surely (over)simplifies contingency and complexity. Yet, the 'closed spaces' still remain reasonable and to a certain extent, indispensable tools for making the world intelligible by identifying, organizing, and structuring complex phenomena. Hence, instead of only searching for new and 'more adequate' spatial representations, the everyday use of the 'old' ones should also remain a subject of thorough sociogeographic inquiry.

2011. Selectivity, social ties and spatial mobility. An analysis of preferences for return migration to East Germany. Zeitschrift Fur Wirtschaftsgeographie

Selectivity, social ties and spatial mobility. An analysis of preferences for return migration to East Germany. In the public debate, brain drain from East Germany is supposed to be the most critical trend regarding the development and catching up of the New Lander. Therefore, potential for in- and re-migration has attracted much attention at least in the political context. Our contribution ana-lyses the re-migration potential on basis of data from a DFG research project focussing on the re-migration intentions of people formerly emigrated from Saxony-Anhalt. The analysis concentrates on the following aspects: the effect of job market success after emigration; the impact of social ties to the origin and the host region and on the selectivity of re-migration preferences. The econometric results confirm several expected effects: On the one hand an individual's job market success reduces the intention to return. Likewise, the re-migration preference increases for people whose expectations were disappointed. On the other hand, the relevance of social ties to the origin region for re-migration dispositions is confirmed by the estimations. Yet, regarding selectivity of re-migration preferences in terms of human capital econometric results are somewhat ambiguous.

2008. The role of human capability and resilience. Psychologist

What socio-economic, biological and psychological circumstances contribute to human capability and resilience over the life course? This article reports findings from a research network funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), bringing together scientists from diverse disciplines including psychology, psychiatry, sociology, economics, geography, epidemiology and social policy. The diverse team reflects the complexity of the topic involving multiple processes and the interplay between individual and context. Psychologists need to appreciate these contextual dependencies of human development, and take into account 'welfare wisdom', in order to help individuals to lead healthy and rewarding lives.

2009. On the origins of border effects: insights from the Habsburg Empire. Journal of Economic Geography

What are the origins of border effects on trade and why do borders continue to matter in periods of increasing economic integration We explore the hypothesis that border effects emerged as a result of asymmetric economic integration in the unique historical setting of the multi-national Habsburg Empire prior to the First World War. While markets tended to integrate mainly due to improved infrastructure, ethno-linguistic networks had persistent trade diverting effects. We find that the political borders which separated the empires successor states after the First World War became visible in the economy from the mid-1880s onwards, already 2530 years before the First World War. This effect of a border before a border cannot be explained by factors such as administrative barriers, physical geography, changes in infrastructure or patterns of integration with neighbouring regions outside of the Habsburg customs and monetary union. However, controlling for the changing ethno-linguistic composition of the population across the regional capital cities of the empire does explain most of the estimated border effects.

2007. Matter(s) of interest: Artefacts, spacing and timing. Geografiska Annaler Series B-Human Geography

This paper argues that time-geography can make a contribution to contemporary 'rematerialized' geographies, because the interconnections among social processes, human corporeality and inanimate material artefacts within the landscape were among Hagerstrand's central concerns. Time-geography needs none the less to be extended in several ways to make it more reconcilable with current thinking about materiality in geography. The possibility of combining Hagerstrand's framework with notions from (post) actor-network approaches is therefore explored. It is suggested that concepts and notions from the latter may contribute to the advancement of the conceptualization of action at a distance and agency in general in time-geography, as well as the incorporation of the immaterial realm into space-time diagrams. The resulting materially heterogeneous time-geography is a framework for studying the spacing and timing of different material entities that is sensitive to the role of artefacts and their local connectedness with other material forms. Some of its elements are illustrated briefly through an empirical study of the roles played by a few mundane artefacts in working parents' coping with child-care responsibilities on working days. The case study suggest that these artefacts not only enable goal fulfilment and routinization but also result in further spacing and timing practices, and can introduce uncertainty and novelty to existing orders.


This article is an introduction to and reflection on the papers about ICTs and everyday life in this issue. It outlines the motivations for the focus on the decoupling of activities, physical space and chronological time and characterises this process and three of its modalities: activity fragmentation; multi-tasking; and personalised networking. The piece concludes by singling out some common elements that run through the set of papers and by identifying four avenues for future research.

2011. Body Mass Index and the Built and Social Environments in Children and Adolescents Using Electronic Health Records. American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Background: No prior studies in children have evaluated how age may modify relationships of the built and social environments with BMI, nor evaluated the range of scales and contexts over which places may influence health. Purpose: To systematically evaluate associations of 33 environmental measures in three domains (land use, physical activity, and social environments) with BMI in children and adolescents in five geographies. Methods: Across-sectional, multilevel analysis was completed in 2009-2010 of electronic health record data (2001-2008) from 47,769 children aged 5-18 years residing in a 31-county region of Pennsylvania. Associations of environmental measures with BMI were evaluated using 0.5-mile network buffers; census tracts; minor civil divisions (i.e., townships, boroughs, cities); a mixed definition of place (townships, boroughs, and census tracts in cities); and counties, overall and by age strata. Results: Among all children, lower levels of community socioeconomic deprivation and greater diversity of physical activity establishments were associated with lower BMI. Associations of environmental measures differed by age, depending on scale and context. For example, higher population density was associated with lower BMI in older children; this effect was strongest in the larger geographies. Similarly, a lower level of county sprawl was associated with lower BMI in older children. Conclusions: Associations differed by age and definition of place, suggesting that the benefits of environmental intervention may not be uniform across the childhood age range. The study demonstrated the utility of using electronic patient information for large-scale, population-based epidemiologic research, a research area of growing interest and investment in the U.S. (Am J Prev Med 2011;41(4):e17-e28) (C) 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine


A significant portion of the modern world economy is constituted as a patchwork of dense industrial agglomerations. The currently shifting structure of production from Fordist to flexible accumulation bas intensified this state of affairs. In this paper, I describe changes in the thrust and content of regional policy resulting from these developments. I briefly delineate the inner logic of flexible production agglomerations, and I argue that they are likely to be most successful when they secure for themselves appropriate frameworks of institutional and collective order. Generic tasks for such frameworks are described in terms of five main arenas of social intervention: (1) industrial technology, (2) labor training, (3) business service associations, (4) innovation networks and cooperative manufacturing structures, and (5) local government and land use control. The case of recent public efforts to establish an electric car industry in Los Angeles is discussed as an illustration of the argument. The paper ends with a brief remark about some of the wider political implications of the analysis.

2010. Polycentric Settlement Structures as a Precondition for Urban and Rural Partnership in the Alpine-Adriatic Euroregion The CONSPACE Findings. Disp

Ten regional authorities in charge for spatial planning from five states, four of them EU members (Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Italy and Slovenia), joined the Interreg III B Project "CONSPACE" (Common Network for Spatial Planning and Implementation) in 2002. Following the ESDP policy options die project partners intented 10 develop a common understanding of a regional development perspective with a specific focus on (1) the polycentric structure of the region, (2) its natural and cultural heritage and (3) the interconnection of its regional transport networks to the TEN and TINA corridors. To develop an understanding for the potentials of polycentric development in the CONSPACE-macro region the project: partners elaborated on the differences to the classic central places concepts which is in use in all planning systems of the project: partners, and which intends to provide a specific territory with a pre-defined set of central goods to secure a pre-defined level of services. The rules behind are social rules and the implications on policy decisions are to correct: Failures of the market. In contrast polycentric regional development aims at optimized development of locations and facilities to improve the competitiveness of a region by regional policy decisions, competitive actions of stake holders and a cross-sectoral planning approach. The rules behind are market rules and the expected results depend on effects described by "new economic geography". The resulting functional and locational differentiation makes the decisive difference to the classical central places concept. At the same this approach requires strong cooperation of functionally differentiated locations over administrative boundaries which are of high relevance for many spatial planning instruments as well as for political decision-making. The findings and conclusions of the research activities were consolidated in the "CONSAPCE perspective", which collects proposals for the elements of a strategic action plan and in one several fields of actions addresses the strategic tasks for joint polycentric development.

2011. GEOGRAPHIES OF FINANCE: CENTERS, FLOWS, AND RELATIONS. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics

In this paper, I critically examine how geographers and other social scientists have developed complementary research programs for economistic studies of finance by drawing on new relational concepts such as networks and embeddedness and opening up new research frontiers. In so doing, I investigate how global financial spaces have been conceptualized in mainstream finance literature and how economic concepts have been applied to studies of finance. Drawing on these discussions, 1 suggest that we need to undertake an alternative research of financial space that pays more attention to relational power dynamics among financial firms and the macroeconomic impacts of financial flows on regional economies.

2001. Working for the Fenland dollar: An evaluation of local exchange trading schemes as an informal employment strategy to tackle social exclusion. Work Employment and Society

This article argues that in the current context of rising unemployment and growing exclusion from the traditional locus of social cohesion and income distribution, a new approach to social policy and employment is required. The scope of informal employment strategies to tackle social exclusion needs to be examined. One such initiative, which has been attracting increasing attention from policy-makers, is the Local Exchange Trading Scheme (LETS) local grassroots community currency which operates as a cashless trading network for members. LETS have been growing throughout the UK in recent years. Findings are presented from a case study of a LETS scheme. LETS was found to be successful at delivering new informal employment opportunities to socially excluded groups, boosting their income, and providing a forum for social interaction and community-building. However, there is scope for much greater participation. LETS's small size restricts its usefulness in the labour market for informal employment, and current state policy towards benefit recipients working on LETS is an obstacle. Possibilities for mainstream incorporation into welfare strategies are limited by the informal, noncommercial and deeply personal value regime enacted within LETS. Yet professionalisation would threaten this nascent socially embedded economic geography. State support for LETS, while highly desirable, should not be considered an unproblematic advocacy issue.

2006. The new mobilities paradigm. Environment and Planning A

It seems that a new paradigm is being formed within the social sciences, the 'new mobilities' paradigm. Some recent contributions to forming and stabilising this new paradigm include work from anthropology, cultural studies, geography, migration studies, science and technology studies, tourism and transport studies, and sociology. In this paper we draw out sonic characteristics, properties, and implications of this emergent paradigm, especially documenting some novel mobile theories and methods. We reflect on how far this paradigm has developed and thereby to extend and develop the 'mobility turn' within the social sciences.

2011. Public-Private Partnership Networks: Exploring Business-Government Relationships in United Kingdom Transportation Projects. Economic Geography

Since the early 1990s, U.K. governmental policy has formally encouraged the delivery of infrastructure through private finance initiatives, a model of publicprivate partnership in which the design, construction, financing, operation, and maintenance of facilities are bundled into a long-term contract with a single consortium of firms. Drawing on an analysis of governmental records of the firms that participated in every U.K. project between 1987 and 2009, this article traces the extent to which stable partnerships are used to produce private finance transportation initiatives. The findings highlight an important tension between the benefits and drawbacks of repeat collaborations on one-off projects. On the one hand, the extensive use of repeat-partnership relationships lowers transaction costs, encourages innovation, and supports learning from past experiences. On the other hand, deep embeddedness within social networks that encourages frequent repeat collaborations can reduce competition within the industry and contribute to higher delivery costs and lower-quality public services. Through this analysis, the article addresses the key economic geography literatures that are related to project ecologies, embeddedness, and repeat collaborations within networked production processes.

2003. Spaces of protest: gendered migration, social networks, and labor activism in West Java, Indonesia. Political Geography

This article examines the gender geography of labor activism through a comparative investigation of two communities in West Java, Indonesia. Based on in-depth interviews and a survey of workers carried out in 1995, 1998, and 2000 in the two sites, it explores the place-specific meanings attached to migrants' social networks and gender relations, and their roles in mediating the gendered patterns of labor protest in the two villages. Previous analyses of labor protest in Indonesia have occluded scales and processes that are critical to understanding how gender dynamics are linked to the geography of protest. By contrast, attention to the gender and place-based contexts of women's activism illustrates the complex interactions between migrants' local interpretations of gender norms, social network relations, household roles, state gender ideology, and global neo-liberal restructuring. Through examining these interactions, gender is conceptualized as ontologically inseparable from the production of specific activist spaces, rethinking the uni-directional spatial logic and deterministic views of gender and place put forth in theories of the New International Division of Labor. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2004. Transnational migration and the gender politics of scale: Indonesian domestic workers in Saudi Arabia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography

Recent research has begun to explore the dynamics of transnational migration from a feminist perspective, and studies of migrant domestic workers have played a prominent role in pushing forward this work. Emerging simultaneously, but largely separately, are explicit debates within geography about the politics of scale, the social construction of scale, and the gender dimensions of scale. This article develops an analysis of the gender politics of the production of scale, specifically, the "transnationalisation" of Indonesian activist approaches to overseas migrant domestic workers' issues. Based on fieldwork in an Indonesian community in West Java that has recently become a sending area for migrants to Saudi Arabia and interviews with activists representing Indonesian migrant women, the article examines the various gender-specific ways in which migrant women's rights activists construct and deploy the scales of the body, the nation and the transnational. It argues that activist approaches to migrant domestic workers' rights and the ways in which activists mobilise migrant women's narratives represent sophisticated feminist theoretical approaches to scale. By identifying and exploring the scale theory embedded in activist strategies, the analysis highlights the imbrication of feminist theory with practice, and underscores activists' agency in producing the meanings of specific scales. In so doing, the article is aimed more broadly at elaborating the ambivalent relationship between feminist activism/theory and transnationalism.

2005. Collaborative networks as determinants of knowledge diffusion patterns. Management Science

This paper examines whether interpersonal networks help explain two widely documented patterns of knowledge diffusion: (1) geographic localization of knowledge flows, and (2) concentration of knowledge flows within firm boundaries. I measure knowledge flows using patent citation data, and employ a novel regression framework based on choice-based sampling to estimate the probability of knowledge flow between inventors of any two patents. As expected, intraregional and intrafirm knowledge flows are found to be stronger than those across regional or firm boundaries. I explore whether these patterns can be explained by direct and indirect network ties among inventors, as inferred from past collaborations among them. The existence of a tie is found to be associated with a greater probability of knowledge flow, with the probability decreasing as the path length (geodesic) increases. Furthermore, the effect of regional or firm boundaries on knowledge flow decreases once interpersonal ties have been accounted for. In fact, being in the same region or firm is found to have little additional effect on the probability of knowledge flow among inventors who already have close network ties. The overall evidence is consistent with a view that interpersonal networks are important in determining observed patterns of knowledge diffusion.

2009. Geodemographics, visualisation, and social networks in applied geography. Applied Geography

This review begins by acknowledging the success of geodemographics as an important area of activity in applied geography. However, it then develops a critique of the conceptual and computational underpinnings of the approach, and argues that changes in data supply and online communication have rendered current practices obsolete. It presents elements of a new perspective, entailing: changes in the specification, estimation and testing of online geodemographic systems: adoption of consultative practices from online folksonomies; automated generation of pen portraits; and 'on the fly' visualisation of the outcome of geodemographic classifications. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2004. Regions, spaces of economic practice and diverse economies in the 'new Europe'. European Urban and Regional Studies

This paper considers some alternative readings of 'the region' in contemporary Europe. It does so through examining cities and regions as moments in webs of connections and through considering the diversity of economic practices that constitute regional economic life. Drawing inspiration from non-essentialist political economy, the paper charts several debates over how European regions are conceived in the mainstream, and emphasizes the limits of seeing regional spaces as bounded, centred on capitalist social relations and fixed in their identities. The paper explores alternative readings that emphasize the relational and open nature of regional spaces through a consideration of the economic practices found in the European garment industry.

2007. Domesticating neo-liberalism: Everyday lives and the geographies of post-socialist transformations. Geoforum

This paper examines the ways in which neo-liberalism is both constructed and made 'more tolerable' through everyday practices and livelihoods in post-socialist cities. It argues that existing conceptualisations of neo-liberalism centre too fully on the role of powerful global forces and institutions in constructing marketisation processes, and consequently neglect the ways in which everyday lives are embroiled in the formation of neo-liberal worlds. Through an exploration of the experience of neo-liberalism in the Slovak Republic and drawing upon research with households in one large housing estate in Bratislava, the paper examines the ways in which everyday lives construct neo-liberal possibilities in the attempt to make them 'more tolerable'. In particular, the paper explores the postponement of the future by some members of the middle-aged generation failing to reap the benefits of economic reform, the role of economic practices 'outside' of market-based capitalist relations in constructing engagements with the formal market, and the role of domestic food production in sustaining household networks and social reproduction for some of the most marginal households in the context of low-wage employment and state benefit reductions. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. Different types of social entrepreneurship: The role of geography and embeddedness on the measurement and scaling of social value. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

With its continued emergence in both academic and practitioner communities, the diversity of organizations categorized as social entrepreneurship continues to expand. The increasing diversity represents a challenge to the field as it attempts to build a scientific base of knowledge. To address this issue, we build upon a typology of different forms of social entrepreneurship to theorize about how the role of 'sites and spaces' may affect the social entrepreneurial process. Specifically, we explain how variance in the geographic focus of different types of social entrepreneurship influences the types of social networks in which social entrepreneurship is embedded. Drawing upon this logic of embeddedness, we develop propositions about how the structural embeddedness of social entrepreneurship may affect the measurement and scaling of social value. The purpose of this article is to add to the relatively sparse but growing theoretical foundation of the field of social entrepreneurship.

2010. Enlivened Geographies of Volunteering: Situated, Embodied and Emotional Practices of Voluntary Action. Scottish Geographical Journal

Examining the everyday practices and feelings of volunteering, in particular their situated, emotional and embodied nature, serves to place the experiences of volunteers centrally in accounts of what matters in the doing of volunteering and goes beyond service provision or active citizenship. Using qualitative evidence from three collaborative research projects, we present enlivened geographies of volunteering which focus on: the situatedness of formal volunteering in place and the negotiation of local 'moral economies' of norms and expectations surrounding access to volunteering opportunities and the practices of volunteering; complex positionings of informal volunteering in biographies of social participation; and intersections of embodiment and emotions in experiences among environmental volunteers. We contribute to the development of social geographies which are 'more-than-representational' and argue that connecting insights on everyday practices of volunteering with wider policy and practice agendas requires a focus on the enduring, but also emergent and excessive nature of the spaces of doing volunteering, on the relational nature of volunteering, and on opening up debates in the networks of research-policy-practice which understand spaces of volunteering as entailing more than volunteering.

2005. The geography of talent: entrepreneurship and local economic development in Oxfordshire. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

This paper considers the interaction of stocks of talent, entrepreneurship, processes of institutionalization and networking in local development. The main theme is that although innovation necessarily involves social networks and collective action, it should not be overlooked that the quality of those networks is dependent on the quality or talent of individuals who have initiated particular developments. The paper argues that the literature on local and regional development tends to overlook the agency of individuals and that to do so ignores processes that lead to the distinctive characteristics of localities. Using Oxfordshire as a case study. it demonstrates how, the expertise of talented individuals has been translated in the fastest growing high-tech economy in the UK. This has brought visibility to the county's techno-economic and institutional achievements feeding into high-level professional and political policy agendas.

2005. The uneven geography of global civil society: National and global influences on transnational association. Social Forces

Recent decades have seen an explosion of transnational networking and activism, but participation varies widely around the globe. Using negative binomial regression, we explore how national and global political and economic factors shape this "uneven geography" of participation in transnational social movement organizations (TSMOs). Contrary to assumptions in popular discourse, wefind a continued importance of the state and limited importance of global economic integration in determining participation in transnational associations. But while ties to the global economy do not significantly impact participation, a country's links to global institutions enhance opportunities for transnational activism. Rich countries' citizens are more active transnationally, but low-income countries with strong ties to theglobalpolity are also more tied to global activist networks. This suggests that TSMOs do not simply reproduce world-system stratification, but - aided by it supportive institutional environment - they help sow the seeds for its transformation.

2005. Networks, territories, and the cartography of ancient states. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

With broad lines and dark shading, the cartographic depictions of ancient states and empires convey the impression of comprehensive political entities having firm boundaries and uniform territorial control. These depictions oversimplify the complexities of early state growth, as well as overstating the capacity of central governments to control large territories. Archaeological and textual evidence suggests that ancient states are better understood through network models rather than bounded-territory models. Network approaches enable us to depict competition within and among polities as they grow, the efficient use of nodal points as a focus for political leaders, and the realities of nonoverlapping ritual, social, and economic activities that have an impact on political cohesion. Network maps and bounded-territory representations are compared for the Inka, Mauryan, and Sassanian polities.

2011. The role of statistics in the analysis of ecosystem services. Environmetrics

Operationalising the holistic approach implicit in an ecosystem services assessment is a challenge, incorporating social and economic considerations alongside the physical, chemical and biological function of ecosystems. The paper considers the role of statistics within a range of frameworks proposed for the analysis of ecosystem services. The use of different statistical techniques within the component parts of an ecosystem services assessment framework are discussed, including (1) data availability and sampling strategies, (2) statistical data analysis, (3) geography and spatial models, (4) meta-analysis, (5) environmental models, (6) societal models, (7) feedbacks and loop analysis, and (8) graphical models including Bayesian belief networks. Issues of value and the potential for a statistical contribution to multivariate non-monetary valuation are considered. We argue that statistics has an underpinning role by providing tools to link together the component elements along with their uncertainties for a thorough ecosystem services assessment, and should be an integral part of this developing inter-disciplinary research area. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


The incorporation of a city is a complex geographic event, yet the geography of newly incorporated municipalities (NIM) has been understudied. This paper first explores the highly uneven spatial distribution of NIMs in the United States, arguing that one potential explanation for the underlying geographic concentration of NIMs to a select few states may lie with the varied annexation standards of each state. However, it is also argued that the concentration of NIMs in particular "hotspots" within specific states suggests that something more is at play, and the localized clustering effect seems to be stimulated by a process of knowledge spillover and social networks of learning. Second, little research has been conducted that empirically compares the socio-economic characteristics of NIMs to a set of nearby cohort cities. It is argued that while race, income, population size, and population density are key differentiating variables between NIMs and cohort cites, nuanced differences and similarities exist that make it difficult to support sweeping generalizations.

2009. Mental Health Risk and Social Ecological Variables Associated with Educational Attainment for Gulf War Veterans: Implications for Veterans Returning to Civilian Life. American Journal of Community Psychology

This study examines how post-secondary educational attainment among young veterans of the first gulf war affects their mental health status. The all-volunteer military attracts recruits by offering them veterans' educational benefits. Education should help veterans adjust to civilian life. Few studies have shown whether education following military service helps improve veterans' mental health, however. Viewing resiliency, life span and life course, and social geography theories through the lens of social ecology, it is hypothesized that selected contextual factors in the personal, interpersonal, and organizational domains could mediate or moderate the relationship between education and veterans' mental health. Informational social networks showed an association with obtaining mental illness treatment. Recent treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) showed an association with use of veterans' educational benefits. Residing with a small nuclear family in conjunction with having higher levels of health and educational benefits and a higher family income was associated with higher educational attainment.

2007. From mosaic to network: social and cultural geography in Switzerland. Social & Cultural Geography


A key assumption in agglomeration theory is that knowledge-based firms benefit from knowledge spillovers in cities. Cities however may have different locations in the national context, such as embedded in a network of nearby cities or relatively isolated. We examine social networks employed by university spin-off firms in urban environments that contrast in such a way, namely, Delft (the Netherlands) and Trondheim (Norway). A set of growth models is explored with a focus on characteristics of social networks through which knowledge is acquired, such as tightness, strength and spatial orientation. The networks appear to differ in various respects, except for a positive influence on growth of heterogeneity in the social background of partners. The largest difference is observed in strength of relationships: an increase in strength tends to hamper growth in Delft, while it tends to enhance growth in Trondheim.

2009. Policy-driven university - industry linkages and regional innovation networks in Korea. Environment and Planning C-Government and Policy

In this paper we examine the role of the Korean government in creating university - industry linkages and in promoting the role of universities as knowledge providers in regional innovation systems. We investigate the different types of universities' roles in the capital region of Seoul and in the noncapital regions. We argue that government policy is the main determinant that drives Korean universities to play the role of knowledge provider for industrial innovation. This policy has also brought about regional differences in the way universities participate in innovation activities in the capital region and outside the capital region. In the Korean context, universities in noncapital regions act as a backbone for creating and managing regional innovation networks as well as a close and easily accessible knowledge provider to local industry. However, universities in the capital region play the role of a close knowledge provider only to local industry, while corporate research and development centres are the key players in developing and managing innovation networks in the capital region. To arrive at our conclusions we use social networks analysis and government document analysis to demonstrate the structure of innovation networks and to analyze two types of universities' roles in the regional innovation networks of four Korean industrial clusters.

2004. Concerns, attitudes, and abilities of early-career geography faculty. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Professional experiences during graduate school through the first few years of an academic appointment shape patterns of work and social behavior that prefigure the long-term success of new faculty members, including prospects for tenure and promotion. We explore these experiences through interviews and surveys with a sample of early-career faculty in postsecondary American geography. Our analysis reveals that teaching is the primary source of anxiety among new professors, many of whom begin their first academic positions with little or no preparation in learning theory, course design, or pedagogy. Many new faculty members struggle to maintain healthy personal and family lives, while adjusting to unfamiliar norms of their new institutions. New professors benefit from support offered by their department chairpersons and from working in collegial environments. Among women, we found a greater sense of self-doubt about their scholarly abilities and futures despite having records comparable in accomplishment to their male peers. Many women cope with this sense of marginalization by forming supportive mentoring relationships with other women faculty on campus and through disciplinary specialty groups. Networking with colleagues on campus and at academic conferences enhances the job performance and satisfaction of all faculty members irrespective of gender. Our findings underscore the importance of examining the social, professional, and disciplinary contexts of higher education to acquire a broader understanding of faculty development. This knowledge can help departments prepare new faculty for successful and satisfying academic careers.

2006. Concerns, attitudes, and abilities of early-career geography faculty. Journal of Geography in Higher Education

Professional experiences during graduate school through the first few years of an academic appointment shape patterns of work and social behavior that prefigure the long-term success of new faculty members, including prospects for tenure and promotion. We explore these experiences through interviews and surveys with a sample of early-career faculty in postsecondary American geography. Our analysis reveals that teaching is the primary source of anxiety among new professors, many of whom begin their first academic positions with little or no preparation in learning theory, course design, or pedagogy. Many new faculty members struggle to maintain healthy personal and family lives, while adjusting to unfamiliar norms of their new institutions. New professors benefit from support offered by their department chairpersons and from working in collegial environments. Among women, we found a greater sense of self-doubt about their scholarly abilities and futures despite having records comparable in accomplishment to their male peers. Many women cope with this sense of marginalization by forming supportive mentoring relationships with other women faculty on campus and through disciplinary specialty groups. Networking with colleagues on campus and at academic conferences enhances the job performance and satisfaction of all faculty members irrespective of gender. Our findings underscore the importance of examining the social, professional, and disciplinary contexts of higher education to acquire a broader understanding of faculty development. This knowledge can help departments prepare new faculty for successful and satisfying academic careers.

2007. Embeddedness in action: Saffron and the making of the local in southern Tuscany. Agriculture and Human Values

Despite the widespread use of the concept of embeddedness in the literature on agri-food networks, not much has been written on the process through which a food economy becomes embedded. To explore this dynamic and contribute to a more critical perspective on the meanings and implications of embeddedness in the context of food, this paper analyzes the emergence of saffron as a local food network in southern Tuscany. By adopting a constructivist approach, the analysis shows that embeddedness assumes simultaneously a social, spatial, and temporal dimension that are dynamically created by participants in the saffron economy as a response to specific market requirements. The paper concludes that a focus on how embeddedness is achieved in the context of food has both theoretical and empirical implications. Theoretically, it supports the need for a more holistic and actor-oriented approach that takes into consideration the tensions inherent in the process of embedding and also its ramifications outside of the social realm. Practically, a focus on how a food network comes to be embedded complicates the notion of food relocalization - an issue that raises empirical questions about the sustainability of local food networks and their contribution to rural development.

2009. Quality food, public procurement, and sustainable development: the school meal revolution in Rome. Environment and Planning A

In the last decade the concept of quality has been widely used to describe the dynamics that have been shaping the agrifood system. Despite differences in research focus and approach, scholars agree that quality is the outcome of a contingent and so far underresearched process of negotiation that entails and determines relations of power in the food chain. To understand the nature and implications of the relationship between quality and power in the food sector, this paper focuses on the recent 'quality revolution' implemented in the school meals system in Rome. Based on the analysis of documentary material and qualitative data collected through formal and informal interviews, the paper examines the process through which city authorities have integrated different (and at times contrasting) quality conventions. The analysis shows that procurement policies such as those implemented in Rome have the power to create an 'economy of quality' that can deliver the economic, environmental, and social benefits of sustainable development.

2003. Social networks and industrial geography. Journal of Evolutionary Economics

In many industries, production resides in a small number of highly concentrated regions; for example, several high tech industries cluster in Silicon Valley. Explanations for this phenomenon have focused on how the co-location of firms in an industry might increase the efficiency of production. In contrast, this article argues that industries cluster because entrepreneurs find it difficult to access the information and resources they require when they reside far from the sources of these valuable inputs. Since existing firms often represent the largest pools of these important factors, the current geographic distribution of production places important constraints on entrepreneurial activity. As a result, new foundings tend to arise in the same areas as existing ones, and hence reproduce the industrial geography. In support of this thesis, the article reviews empirical evidence from the shoe manufacturing and biotechnology industries.

2006. Complexity, networks and knowledge flow. Research Policy

Because knowledge plays an important role in the creation of wealth, economic actors often wish to skew the flow of knowledge in their favor. We ask, when will an actor socially close to the source of some knowledge have the greatest advantage over distant actors in receiving and building on the knowledge? Marrying a social network perspective with a view of knowledge transfer as a search process, we argue that the value of social proximity to the knowledge source depends crucially on the nature of the knowledge at hand. Simple knowledge diffuses equally to close and distant actors because distant recipients with poor connections to the source of the knowledge can compensate for their limited access by means of unaided local search. Complex knowledge resists diffusion even within the social circles in which it originated. With knowledge of moderate complexity, however, high-fidelity transmission along social networks combined with local search allows socially proximate recipients to receive and extend knowledge generated elsewhere, while interdependencies stymie more distant recipients who rely heavily on unaided search. To test this hypothesis, we examine patent data and compare citation rates across proximate and distant actors on three dimensions: (1) the inventor collaboration network; (2) firm membership; and (3) geography. We find robust support for the proposition that socially proximate actors have the greatest advantage over distant actors for knowledge of moderate complexity. We discuss the implications of our findings for the distribution of intra-industry profits, the geographic agglomeration of industries, the design of social networks within firms, and the modularization of technologies. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2001. Syndication networks and the spatial distribution of venture capital investments. American Journal of Sociology

Sociological investigations of economic exchange reveal how institutions and social structures shape transaction patterns among economic actors. This article explores how interfirm networks in the U.S. venture capital (VC) market affect spatial patterns of exchange. Evidence suggests that information about potential investment opportunities generally circulates within geographic and industry spaces. In turn, the circumscribed flow of information within these spaces contributes to the geographic- and industry-localization of VC investments. Empirical analyses demonstrate that the social networks in the VC community-built up through the industry's extensive use of syndicated investing-diffuse information across boundaries and therefore expand the spatial radius of exchange. Venture capitalists that build axial positions in the industry's coinvestment network invest more frequently in spatially distant companies. Thus, variation in actors' positioning within the structure of the market appears to differentiate market participants' ability to overcome boundaries that otherwise would curtail exchange.

2008. Entrepreneurship: A Field of Dreams? Academy of Management Annals

This paper has two objectives. We begin by contrasting two potential paths for future research in entrepreneurship. One is the establishment of an independent field of research with a clear jurisdiction, a common theoretical canon, and autonomy from related fields. The second is a phenomena-based approach, in which scholars congregate around common interests in empirical phenomena but approach them with distinct disciplinary lenses. After discussing these alternatives and lobbying for the phenomena-based approach, we then review some of the recent, discipline-based research in economic and organizational sociology relevant to entrepreneurship, and identify significant gaps in that literature.

2010. Genetic differentiation across the social transition in a socially polymorphic sweat bee, Halictus rubicundus. Molecular Ecology

Eusociality is widely considered a major evolutionary transition. The socially polymorphic sweat bee Halictus rubicundus, solitary in cooler regions of its Holarctic range and eusocial in warmer parts, is an excellent model organism to address this transition, and specifically the question of whether sociality is associated with a strong barrier to gene flow between phenotypically divergent populations. Mitochondrial DNA (COI) from specimens collected across the British Isles, where both solitary and social phenotypes are represented, displayed limited variation, but placed all specimens in the same European lineage; haplotype network analysis failed to differentiate solitary and social lineages. Microsatellite genetic variability was high and enabled us to quantify genetic differentiation among populations and social phenotypes across Great Britain and Ireland. Results from conceptually different analyses consistently showed greater genetic differentiation between geographically distant populations, independently of their social phenotype, suggesting that the two social forms are not reproductively isolated. A landscape genetic approach revealed significant isolation by distance (Mantel test r = 0.622, P < 0.001). The Irish Sea acts as physical barrier to gene flow (partial Mantel test r = 0.453, P < 0.01), indicating that geography, rather than expression of solitary or social behaviour (partial Mantel test r = -0.238, P = 0.053), had a significant effect on the genetic structure of H. rubicundus across the British Isles. Although we cannot reject the hypothesis of a genetic underpinning to differences in solitary and eusocial phenotypes, our data clearly demonstrate a lack of reproductive isolation between the two social forms.

2010. The availability of community ties predicts likelihood of peer referral for mammography: Geographic constraints on viral marketing. Social Science & Medicine

Engaging social networks to encourage preventive health behavior offers a supplement to conventional mass media campaigns and yet we do not fully understand the conditions that facilitate or hamper such interpersonal diffusion. One set of factors that should affect the diffusion of health campaign information involves a person's community Variables describing geographic communities should predict the likelihood of residents accepting campaign invitations to pass along information to friends, family, and others. We investigate two aspects of a community - the availability of community tics and residential stability-as potential influences on diffusion of publicly-funded breast cancer screening in the United States in 2008-2009. In a survey study of 1515 participants living in 91 zip codes across the State of Minnesota, USA, we focus on the extent to which women refer others when given the opportunity to nominate family, friends, and peers to receive free mammograms. We predicted nomination tendency for a particular zip code would be a function of available community tics, measured as religious congregation density in that zip code, and also expected the predictive power of available ties would be greatest in communities with relatively high residential stability (meaning lower turnover in home residence). Results support our hypotheses Congregation density positively predicted nomination tendency both in bivariate analysis and in Tobit regression models, and was most predictive in zip codes above the median in residential stability. We conclude that having a local infrastructure of social ties available in a community predicts the diffusion of available health care services in that community. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012. Creative economies of scale: an agent-based model of creativity and agglomeration. Journal of Economic Geography

This article presents an agent-based model that simulates the social dynamics of the creative perspective within an evolutionary economic geography framework. Stylized facts are developed from the social psychology, network analysis and economic geography literature in order to construct specific agent behaviours with respect to four types of actions: social interaction, learning, creativity and migration. The model demonstrates how location affects the evolution of social networks from a neutral initial state and in turn how these trajectories establish varying contexts in which creative activity can flourish or founder. Ultimately, the model shows why individuals tend to be more creative in large and diverse locations. The article presents four additional scenarios which test notions of: local diversity versus specialization; nature versus nurture; the role of differing local education strategies; and competing talent attraction and retention strategies.

2007. Contextualizing research on social capital in regional clusters. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

Numerous works in economic geography and regional studies have considered social capital a salient factor in the performance of regional business clusters. Theoretical arguments have focused on those structural, relational and cognitive features of social capital that are expected to facilitate cooperation and innovation as a basis for cluster success. However, the available empirical evidence on the performance implications of social capital is weak and largely inconsistent. I argue that one reason for the observed cross-study inconsistencies is the neglect of the situational context in which social capital evolves. I discuss how acontextual studies can lead to analytical error and flawed conclusions concerning the performance outcomes of social capital. I propose several approaches to contextualizing research and discuss how they would advance our understanding of the performance implications of social capital in a cluster setting.

2007. A matter of distrust: Explaining the persistence of dysfunctional beliefs in regional clusters. Growth and Change

Much theoretical writing on regional clusters is based on a functionalist and normative view of trust-based social exchange underlying innovativeness and competitiveness. Empirical research, however, reports many cases of clusters that are best characterized as loosely connected agglomerations of firms, driven by intense distrust and rivalry, rather than trust and cooperation, and with outcomes that may or may not be advantageous. The aim of this paper is to offer a microlevel Darwinian explanation for the persistence of distrust in clusters. From the "meme's eye view," a cluster may be understood as a cultural phenomenon that is created and reproduced by human agents as they selectively perceive and enact the ideas that draw their attention. The outcome is not necessarily a distribution of ideas that benefits the individual members of the cluster or enhances the performance of the cluster as a whole. This paper outlines the general evolutionary principles involved in this process and applies them in a discussion of some of the conditions under which ideas related to distrust may be selected and reproduced.

2009. Collective learning in clusters: Mechanisms and biases. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

Although collective learning has long been considered a core feature of successful clusters, many researchers have treated the concept of learning more as a metaphor than a construct that requires an understanding of the various processes and mechanisms involved. I draw on the cultural-evolutionary perspective to argue that learning in clusters is an inherently biased process, with outcomes that can be both functional and dysfunctional. The cultural-evolutionary approach views learning as a process of imitation, treats beliefs as the unit of selection, and considers individuals as agents who are limited in their cognitive capabilities and social autonomy. Using interview data on 62 small business owners and 34 institutional actors in a textile and a surgical instruments cluster in South-west Germany, I show that the learning process can involve social biases which, in these cases, have the effect of reproducing a collective mindset built on distrust and rivalry. The findings provide an explanation for the fact that many studies of clusters have not been able to document the high levels of interfirm collaboration that cluster theory predicts.

2011. Partners Forever? An Empirical Study of Relational Ties in Two Small-firm Clusters. Urban Studies

Many researchers take as axiomatic the proposition that economic action in clusters is embedded in dense, durable and trust-based social networks. It is suggested here that the bias towards high-trust, enduring relations obscures the competitive dynamics of networks, even where co-operation can be identified. Drawing attention to the competitive motives underlying the construction of social networks, an investigation is made into the duration and brokering of dyadic relations in business owners' advice networks. The analysis of 668 dyadic ties in a population of 113 small business owners in two textile and clothing clusters in Germany reveals considerable variation in the duration of social relations and the likelihood that they were formed through third-party brokers, many of whom were direct competitors creating more ephemeral links. The findings suggest that 'marketless' conceptions of social networks in clusters need to be balanced with a stronger concern for the role of competition in the social embeddedness of small firms.

2007. Why butterflies don't leave: Locational behavior of entrepreneurial firms. Economic Geography

Entrepreneurship is an important process in regional economic development. Especially the growth of new firms is of major significance to the commercialization of new ideas and employment growth. These growing new firms are transforming structurally like caterpillars turning into butterflies. However, like butterflies, they are at risk of leaving their region of origin for better places. This article analyzes how and why the spatial organization of firms develops subsequent to their start-up. A new conceptual framework and an empirical study of the life course of entrepreneurial firms are used to construct a theory on the firms' locational behavior that explains that behavior as the outcome of a process of initiatives by entrepreneurs, enabled and constrained by resources, capabilities, and relations with stakeholders within and outside the firms. The study shows that entrepreneurs decide whether to move their firms outside their region of origin for different reasons in distinct phases of the firms' life course. Being embedded in social networks, for example, is an important constraint on locational behavior during the early life course of a firm, but over time it becomes less important, and other mechanisms, such as stink costs, increasingly determine a firm's locational behavior. The development of spatial organization is also of major importance: when a multi-locational spatial organization has been realized, it is much easier to move the headquarters to another region. The spatial organization of entrepreneurial firms co-evolves with the accumulation of the firms' capabilities. A developmental approach that incorporates evolutionary mechanisms and recognizes human agency provides new insights into the age-old study of the location of firms.

2010. Global Commodity Chains and the Marxian Law of Value. Antipode

This paper develops a Marxian critique of the "global commodity chain" (GCC) paradigm. It is argued that this approach fails to provide an actual explanation of the phenomenon it sets about to investigate. Instead, it offers a typological description of the immediate manifestations of the determinations at stake. As a consequence, the GCC approach one-sidedly conceptualises the relations among individual capitals within a commodity chain as the simple result of relations of power (or co-operation), that is, of direct social relations. By contrast, this paper argues that the latter are concrete mediations of the inner laws regulating the indirect social relations among individual capitals: the process of global competition through which the formation of the general rate of profit asserts itself. On this basis, it develops an alternative account of the social determinations underlying the genesis, structure and evolving configuration of GCCs as an expression of the unfolding of the Marxian "law of value".

2010. The Outsourcing of Manufacturing and the Rise of Giant Global Contractors: A Marxian Approach to Some Recent Transformations of Global Value Chains. New Political Economy

This article aims to show that the Marxian 'law of value' can provide solid foundations for the comprehension of the constitution and dynamics of Global Value Chains (GVC). It offers an explanation of the social processes of 'value creation and capture' within a chain based on the system-wide motion of global capital accumulation. A firm connection is thus established between the particular dynamics internal to each industry and the general dynamics of the 'system as a whole', which is, precisely, where the greatest weakness of the GVC approach lies. Furthermore, the usefulness of those general theoretical insights is then shown through a more empirical discussion of recent transformations in the composition and governance structure of GVC resulting from two interrelated processes: the tendency for a growing de-linking between innovation and manufacturing and the rise of highly concentrated global contractors. These phenomena have paradigmatically developed in the electronics industry, giving rise to the formation of the so-called modular or turnkey production networks. The discussion therefore focuses on that particular industrial sector.

2006. Understanding place attachment among second home owners. American Behavioral Scientist

Many high amenity rural communities are growing rapidly and have high rates of seasonal residence, with concomitant "impacts" on longer term permanent residents. The de facto stance that seasonal residents are "outsiders" marginalizes their experience and treats as givens questions that should remain open to empirical scrutiny. This article compares seasonal and year-round resident attachment to such a landscape. Counter to popular assumptions, seasonal residents exhibit higher levels of attachment, but its creation and meaning base varies: Year-rounder attachment is rooted in social networks and community meanings, whereas seasonal attachment is fostered through meanings of environmental quality and escape from day-to-day cares.

2010. European medium-technology innovation networks: a multi-methodological multi-regional approach. International Journal of Technology Management

Most scientific studies on innovation deal with high-technology sectors, although medium-technology industries are still the most relevant contributors to employment and market shares in Europe. Based on three different methodological approaches (social network analysis, regression analysis and qualitative research), the importance of technology-specific, firm-specific and region-specific factors on the structure of innovation networks in medium-technology sectors is investigated. It can be shown within this explorative study that networks in the four investigated case regions increasingly rely on knowledge instead of material linkages and firm characteristics determine the position of organisations within the networks. The actual structure of networks and the choice, which firm-specific factors are important for network positions, vary across the regions and cannot be explained by general regional characteristics. Thus, more concrete research on single regions is still necessary.

2004. Situated electronic commerce: Toward a view as complement rather than substitute for offline commerce. Urban Geography

The adoption and use of electronic commerce by many firms was shaped by a number of assumptions about how it adds value to economic exchange. Many of these assumptions have direct relevance for the interaction between e-commerce and geography in that they emphasized the ability of e-commerce to transcend distance and reach into markets without physical presence. The belief in this ability was based on the immediacy of electronic transmission and the distance-insensitive tariffing applied to packet-switched IP networks, the presumed efficiency of transaction automation over in-person interaction, and the view promulgated by network economists that electronic commerce is highly subject to network effects that reward rapid growth in the number of users. As a result, many firms entered the online arena without adequate attention to the role of geography in shaping commercial exchange patterns. This paper argues for a view of e-commerce as situated within a particular social and geographic context, enabling services that complement a firm's physical location, work in concert with other modes of interaction and exchange, and emphasize pre-existing exchange partners. A review of business-to-consumer and business-to-business electronic commerce research is provided in support of this situated perspective.

2010. Social capital, ICT use and company performance: Findings from the Medicon Valley Biotech Cluster. Technological Forecasting and Social Change

This study explores how some uses of ICTs, as well as having social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development. The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital, such as use of online databases for recruitment, intranets to enhance employee access to information and education, and collaborative tools to connect with off-premise researchers, companies reported better performance outcomes. Social capital in the form of connections to people who can provide access to information and opportunity predicted company performance, particularly for small start-up companies. The pattern of results complements prior work that establishes the importance of social capital in regional business clusters by demonstrating how certain ICT uses complement personal relationships to enhance the likelihood of success among companies in the region. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2007. Entrepreneurship, proximity and regional innovation systems. Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie

Research on regional innovation systems (RIS) suffers from two research gaps: The lack of focus on the entrepreneurial dimension and the dominance of empirical studies on intraregional networks and linkages between innovative actors. Referring to the agenda set by Oinas and Malecki, this paper deals with both interrelated issues. It is shown that while intraregional connections are without any doubt of great relevance for the functioning of RISs they bear the risk of lock-in effects. ne complementary importance of extra-regional relationships for the innovativeness; of economic regions is emphasised. Entrepreneurial migrants play a crucial role in such relationships. This paper provides a discussion of the five dimensions of proximity recently introduced by Boschma. It is argued that geographical proximity is only one, but often not the most important dimension. For international connections of innovative actors within RIS, cognitive and institutional proximity might be even more relevant.

1998. Sinhalese and Tamil nationalism as post-colonial political projects from 'above', 1948-1983. Political Geography

This article examines Sinhalese and Tamil nationalism in Sri Lanka in the period from independence in 1948 to the rise of militant Tamil separatist nationalism in the early 1980s. Inspired by recent developments in political geography, the core of the argument is that Sinhalese and Tamil nationalism represent post-colonial political projects where nationalist material and discursive practices have been initiated by segments of the dominant class for Be purpose of mobilization within political alliances. More specifically, it is argued that Sri Lankan post-colonial politics has been characterized by three kinds of political alliances; ethnic class alliances, political patron-client networks and strategic government alliances. The emergence and radicalization of Sinhalese and Tamil nationalist politics should be understood as a matter of continuities and changes in the material and discursive practices within these alliances. In the early post-colonial period, this politics of alliances ensured a degree of political participation and social redistribution, and as such served to defuse ethnic and class tensions. In the late post-colonial period, the neglect of the material and discursive practices of the ethnic class alliances and particularly the strategic government alliances undermined the legitimacy of the political system and led to a radicalization of Tamil nationalist demands in the 1970s and the emergence of militant Tamil nationalism from below in the 1980s. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Time scarcity: another health inequality? Environment and Planning A

Considerable policy action has focused on the social patterning of health, especially the health risks associated with low income. More recent attention has turned to transport, food systems, workplaces, and location, and the way their intersections with social position and income create health inequalities. Time is another dimension that structures what people do; yet the way in which time contours health has been neglected. This paper explores (a) how time might influence health, and (b) the way in which time scarcity complicates current understandings of health inequalities. Alongside other meanings, time can be thought of as a health resource. People need time to access health services, build close relationships, exercise, work, play, care, and consume all activities that are fundamental to health. There is evidence that the experience of time pressure is directly related to poorer mental health. Lack of time is also the main reason people give for not taking exercise or eating healthy food. Thus, another impact of time scarcity may be its prevention of activities and behaviours critical for good health. We investigate whether time scarcity, like financial pressure, is socially patterned, and thus likely to generate health inequality. The experience of time scarcity appears to be linked to variations in time devoted to employment or caring activities closely bound to gender, status, and life course. One reason that time scarcity is socially patterned is because of the way in which caring is valued, allocated, and negotiated in households and the market. Adding paid employment to caring workloads is now normative, transforming the allocation of time within families. But caring requires a close interlocking with others' needs, which are often urgent and unpredictable, creating conflict with the linear, scheduled, and commodified approach to time required in the workplace. We review the evidence for the possibility that these time pressures are indeed contributing to socially patterned health inequalities among people caring for others. We also explore the potential for time scarcity to compound other sources of health inequality through interplays with income and space (urban form, transportation networks and place of residence). People who are both time and income poor, such as lone mothers, may face compounding barriers to good health, and the urban geography of time-scarce families represents the embedding of time money space trade-offs linked to physical location. In Australia and the US, poorer families are more likely to live in mid to outer suburbs, necessitating longer commutes to work. These suburbs have inferior public transport access, and can lack goods and services essential to health such as shops selling fresh foods. We conclude with a tentative framework for considering time and health in the context of policy actions. For example, social policy efforts to increase workforce participation may be economically necessary, but could have time-related consequences that alter health. Similarly, if cities are to be made livable, health promoting, and more equitable, urban designers need to understand time and time income space trade-offs. Indeed, many social policies and planning and health interventions involve time dimensions which, if they remain unacknowledged, could further compound time pressures and time-related health inequality.

2003. Stabilizing flows in the legal field: illusions of permanence, intellectual property rights and the transnationalization of law. Global Networks-a Journal of Transnational Affairs

In this article I examine some of the problems that 'modern' legal theory poses for a consideration of the extended reach of social actors and institutions in time and space. While jurisprudence has begun to engage with the concept of globalization, it has done so in a relatively limited manner. Thus legal theory's encounters with highly visible transnational practices have, for the most part, resulted not in challenging the prevailing formal legal paradigm, but in a renewed if slightly modified search for a general jurisprudence that ultimately takes little account of the manner in which the work of law is carried out transnationally. In the first part of this article I examine how legal theory's concern to maintain its own integrity places limitations on its ability to examine the permeability of social boundaries. In the latter part I draw on critical 'human geography, post-structuralism and actor-network theory (ANT), to examine the manner in which transnational actors have been able to mobilize law, and in particular intellectual property rights (IPRs), as a necessary strategy for both maintaining the meanings of bio-technologies through time and space, and enrolling farmers into particular social networks.

2003. The geography of opportunity: spatial heterogeneity in founding rates and the performance of biotechnology firms. Research Policy

One of the most commonly observed features of the organization of markets is that similar business enterprises cluster in physical space. In this paper, we develop an explanation for firm co-location in high-technology industries that draws upon a relational account of new venture creation. We argue that industries cluster because entrepreneurs find it difficult to leverage the social ties necessary to mobilize essential resources when they reside far from those resources. Therefore, opportunities for high tech entrepreneurship mirror the distribution of critical resources. The same factors that enable high tech entrepreneurship, however, do not necessary promote firm performance. In the empirical analyses, we investigate the effects of geographic proximity to established biotechnology firms, sources of biotechnology expertise (highly-skilled labor), and venture capitalists on the location-specific founding rates and performance of biotechnology firms. The paper finds that the local conditions that promote new venture creation differ from those that maximize the performance of recently established companies. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

2009. Why do some places succeed when others decline? A social interaction model of cluster viability. Journal of Economic Geography

One of the most convincing explanations papers generally provide concerning clusters in knowledge-based economies refers to the geographically bounded dimension of knowledge spillovers. Here, we shall underline that location decision externalities precede local knowledge spillovers in the explanation of cluster aggregate efficiency, which thus requires us to focus on the sequential process of location and the nature of interdependences in location decision-making. To that end, we mean to associate cluster emergence with the formation of locational norms, and to study the critical parameters of their stability. These parameters relate to the type of decision externalities among more or less cognitively distant firms, which influences the weight and the resulting ambivalent role of knowledge spillovers at the aggregate level of clusters. We suggest two theoretical propositions which we test within a simple and general norm location dynamics modeling framework. We then proceed to discuss the results so obtained by comparing them with an emerging related literature based on the life cycle and viability of clusters.

2011. Social Network Analysis of the Academic GIScience Community. Professional Geographer

There is mounting interest among scientists regarding the use of scientometric social network analysis, or quantitative analysis of the evolution of science as defined by individual researchers and the networks they form. Given that geographers have seldom used this approach compared to researchers in other fields, its implications for research and policy need to be assessed. We applied scientometric social network analysis to geographic information science (GIScience) to understand how the field has evolved over the last sixteen years and to assess the applicability of the standard logistic model of the growth of scientific disciplines. In particular, we examined collaboration in the field at multiple scales, namely, the evolution of the entire research network structure, the nature of subnetworks in defining geographic information science, and the roles individuals play within the community. By delineating how collaborations and research networks have evolved in GIScience, the study addresses the potential of scientometric social network analysis for geography.

2005. Complexity, science and the public - The geography of a new interpretation. Theory Culture & Society

This article addresses complexity by selecting some of its key aspects that share a common feature: the power to change. They seem to change not only the way the world is approached by scientists, but also the way this approach, the resulting perspectives and their multiple relationships, are interpreted. These main aspects are: (1) the challenge of measurability, with an unexpected result that escapes the gravitational field of the measurability problem; (2) the meaning of reproducibility and the redrawn boundaries of scientific inquiry, with implications for the social sciences; (3) the altered expectations concerning prediction, which seem to break with a glorious tradition of unquestioned technological success; and (4) the discovery of all-embracing patterns of events that unavoidably include large events, possibly perceived as 'crises', which one may hope to understand and confront, rather than rule out. The resulting geography, with its new landmarks, new relationships among its elements and new means of orientation, is expected to reach the public sooner or later, even if the effect - according to complexity theory itself - cannot be foreseen in detail. All these fibres of change are considered in the context of a fresh meaning of time and of a topology dominated by network concepts.

2011. Methods for collaboratively identifying research priorities and emerging issues in science and policy. Methods in Ecology and Evolution

P>1. There is a widely recognized gap between the data generated by researchers and the information required by policy makers. In an effort to bridge the gap between conservation policy and science, we have convened in several countries multiple groups of policy makers, practitioners and researchers to identify priority information needs that can be met by new research in the social and natural sciences. 2. The exercises we have coordinated included identification of priority policy-relevant research questions in specific geographies (UK, USA, Canada); questions relating to global conservation; questions relating to global agriculture; policy opportunities in the United Kingdom; and emerging global conservation issues or 'horizon scanning'. 3. We outline the exercises and describe our methods, which are based on principles of inclusivity, openness and democracy. Methods to maximize inclusiveness and rigour in such exercises include solicitation of questions and priorities from an extensive community, online collation of material, repeated voting and engagement with policy networks to foster uptake and application of the results. 4. These methods are transferable to a wide range of policy or research areas within and beyond the conservation sciences.

1999. Modernity and hybridity: Nature, Regeneracionismo, and the production of the Spanish waterscape, 1890-1930. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Spain is arguably the European country where the water crisis has become most acute in recent years. The political and ecological importance of water is not, however, only a recent development in Spain, Throughout this century, water politics, economics, culture, and engineering have infused and embodied the myriad tensions and conflicts that drove and still drive Spanish society. And although the significance of water on the Iberian peninsula has attracted considerable scholarly and other attention, the central role of water politics, water culture, and water engineering in shaping Spanish society on the one hand, and the contemporary water geography and ecology of Spain as the product of centuries of socioecological interaction on the other, have remained largely unexplored. The hybrid character of the water landscape, or "waterscape," comes to the fore in Spain in a clear and unambiguous manner. The socionatural production of Spanish society can be illustrated by excavating the central role of water politics and engineering in Spain's modernization process. In the first part of the paper, I develop a theoretical and methodological perspective that is explicitly critical of traditional approaches in water resources studies, which tend to separate various aspects of the hydrological cycle into discrete and independent objects of study. My perspective, broadly situated within the political ecology tradition, draws critically from recent work by ecological historians, cultural critics, sociologists of science, critical social theorists, and political economists. My main objective is to bring together what has been severed for too long by insisting that nature and society are deeply intertwined. In the second part of the paper, I excavate the origins of Spain's early-twentieth century modernization process (1890-1930) as expressed in debates and actions around the hydrological condition. The conceptual framework presented in the first part helps structure a narrative that weaves water through the network of socionatural relations in ways that permit the recasting of modernity as a deeply geographical, although by no means coherent, homogeneous, total, or uncontested project. In sum, I seek to document how the socionatural is historically produced to generate a particular, but inherently dynamic, geographical configuration.

1997. Virtual departments, power, and location in different organizational settings. Economic Geography

Virtual departments are teams of employees drawn from multiple locations and divisions within an organization. The electronic space of the virtual department is where tasks related to the production function are integrated during reengineering processes, establishing new relationships among hierarchy, location, and This study assesses whether the virtual department breaks down or reinforces vertical chains and levels of command spanning many locations within an organizational hierarchy. Virtual departments in different organizational settings (different sectors, operational purposes, management styles) were tracked through their first ten years of growth. The research culminated in interviews with planners, departmental managers, and operatives to interpret virtual department-induced changes in hierarchy, location, and power. Contrary to claims in the literature, reengineering processes reinforce older hierarchical and spatial structures. They reproduce hierarchical human relations in electronic space, contributing to the formation of hierarchical levels of network access. Traditional locations of power are far from being erased or reduced even though an electronic geography remains superimposed on the physical one. The electronic spaces or virtual departments emerged as powerful technical and social ''machines,'' crucial to overcoming business problems, yet also spawning new social tensions in traditional hierarchical structures.

2010. Immigrants riding for justice: Space-time and emotions in the construction of a counterpublic. Political Geography

During the past two decades, a new immigrants' rights movement in the U.S. has emerged, constructing a counterpublic that challenges hegemonic immigration discourses, policies, and practices. We show how a counterpublic is constructed in practice, using as a case study the Immigrant Workers' Freedom Ride (IWFR), an event in 2003 that helped further the momentum of immigrant rights activism. We examine how immigrant activists and their allies came together and worked to construct, articulate, and enact a shared political identity that we refer to as an identity-in-alliance. Space-time and emotions were crucial in the development of this identity as 'Freedom Riders,' as well as a sense of solidarity. We reflect on the vulnerabilities within the counterpublic and challenges it faced when inserting its discourses on immigration, race, and citizenship into the hegemonic public sphere. Taking the insights gained from these practices, we extend Nancy Fraser's concept of the counterpublic by demonstrating the centrality of space-time and emotions to its theorization. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2001. Navigating the time-space context of HIV and AIDS: daily routines and access to care. Social Science & Medicine

Geographers have shown that daily activities and social networks are constrained by time-space, but there are also enabling facets or opportunities created by daily routines for accessing material and emotional resources, improving quality of life, and even challenging existing power relations. Time-geography in this paper is taken as a starting point to assess how individuals living with HIV and AIDS navigate the complex and often difficult time-space contexts defining their access to services. The concept of time-space windows of access is offered as a way to understand the opportunities created by daily routines and social network interaction even in highly marginalized social, economic, and political circumstances. Survey data and in-depth interviews conducted with a diverse group of persons living with HIV and AIDS are used to illustrate this conceptual argument. Results indicate that the time-space characteristics of daily routines, such as frequency of activities, variety or heterogeneity in activities, and whether activities are self- or social network-oriented, serve to define the availability of temporal and spatial windows of access to services. In addition, daily routines seem to matter for specific types of services, and have a limited role to play in terms of primary medical services or those associated with basic needs. The implications of these findings for theorizing and for enhancing access to services are provided. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2012. Geography of Twitter networks. Social Networks

The paper examines the influence of geographic distance, national boundaries, language, and frequency of air travel on the formation of social ties on Twitter, a popular micro-blogging website. Based on a large sample of publicly available Twitter data, our study shows that a substantial share of ties lies within the same metropolitan region, and that between regional clusters, distance, national borders and language differences all predict Twitter ties. We find that the frequency of airline flights between the two parties is the best predictor of Twitter ties. This highlights the importance of looking at pre-existing ties between places and people. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2000. The regionalization of Chinese business networks: A study of Singaporean firms in Hainan, China. Professional Geographer

This paper examines the central role of social and political institutions behind motivations and strategies of ethnic Chinese Singaporean investment in Huinan, China. Drawing upon 22 case studies of Singaporean firms in Hainan, we show that Singaporean investment in Hainan is embedded in Chinese business networks and their associated institutions. At the personal level, direct investments are largely motivated by the cultural attachments of Singaporean Hainanese to Hainan. Their small- and medium-sized joint ventures largely reflect the characteristics of ethnically-based Chinese business networks that stress connections, or guanxi. Similarly the influence of social organizations (e.g., clan associations) anti government institutions (e.g., public and quasi-public agencies) on Singaporean investment strategies in Hainan reveals the significance of ongoing social relations institutionalized at the broader societal level.

2000. Embedded statism and the social sciences 2: geographies (and metageographies) in globalization. Environment and Planning A

This paper was stimulated by the ability of David Held and his colleagues to produce a rigorous and coherent treatment of globalization from a conventional social science position. Their geographical-scale approach to globalization is contrasted with Bauman's emphasis on the space of flows. Four arguments are sustained. First, to produce a viable social science treatment of globalization the academic pecking order has to be reversed: political science dominates the analysis. Second, an emphasis on geographical scale promotes a comparative 'historical globalizations' approach which, combined with the politics, leads to the omission of the 1970s global watershed when a century of reducing economic polarization was reversed. Third, the problems of studying flows are rehearsed and it is emphasized that networks need to be studied in the whole; you are not studying flows unless you have both origins and destinations. Fourth, the embedded statism is recast as a problem of metageography, a states metageography exists which has no rivals; a possible alternative metageography, the world-city network, is briefly introduced.

2005. Leading world cities: Empirical evaluations of urban nodes in multiple networks. Urban Studies

This is an empirical paper that uses an interlocking network model to evaluate the importance of leading world cities within contemporary globalisation. Cities are treated as locales through which four globalisations - economic, cultural, political and social - are produced and reproduced. Sixteen sets of data describing agents of global network formation, such as global service firms, NGOs and UN agencies, are analysed to measure cities' overall network locations and sub-net articulator roles. Analyses are synthesised in a taxonomy of leading world cities that identifies five classes of 'global city' and types of other world cities.

2005. A census-based socio-economic status (SES) index as a tool to examine the relationship between mental health services use and deprivation. Social Science & Medicine

This paper discusses the development and application of a socio-economic status (SES) index, created to explore the relationship between socio-economic variables and psychiatric service use. The study was conducted in a community-based mental health service (CMHS) in Verona, Northern Italy, utilising service use data from 1996. An ecological SES index was constructed through a factor analysis from 1991 Census data, at census block level. Three factors reflected the following domains: the educational-employment sector (with four components), the relational network (with three components) and the material conditions (with three components). All service users were assigned a SES value, according to their place of residence in 1996. When these data were explored spatially, using ArcView 8.3, an association was observed between socio-economic deprivation and psychiatric service use. The SES index was then successfully validated using occupational status at the individual level. This study confirms the usefulness of developing and validating an ecological census-based SES index, for service planning and resource allocation in an area with a community-based system of mental health care. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2009. Drugscapes and the role of place and space in injection drug use-related HIV risk environments. International Journal of Drug Policy

Although considerable research has been conducted to identify the behavioural characteristics that predispose individuals to inject drugs or become infected with HIV via injection drug use, much less research has been conducted on structural and policy determinants, cultural norms, stigma, and ecological factors which may affect drug use risk behaviour. users' networks and HIV rates associated with drug use across geographic areas. For programme planners, whether official or grassroots, an understanding of place-based characteristics can help better identify risk environments to injection drug use-related HIV, and determine how to facilitate actions regarding public policy and harm reduction to aid in the reduction of risk. As such. we consider in this commentary the importance of geographic place and the socio-spatial and political processes related to place that may help determine where IDU-related HIV risk environments occur. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2009. Applying social network analysis in economic geography: framing some key analytic issues. Annals of Regional Science

Social network analysis attracts increasing attention in economic geography. We claim social network analysis is a promising tool for empirically investigating the structure and evolution of inter-organizational interaction and knowledge flows within and across regions. However, the potential of the application of network methodology to regional issues is far from exhausted. The aim of our paper is twofold. The first objective is to shed light on the untapped potential of social network analysis techniques in economic geography: we set out some theoretical challenges concerning the static and dynamic analysis of networks in geography. Basically, we claim that network analysis has a huge potential to enrich the literature on clusters, regional innovation systems and knowledge spillovers. The second objective is to describe how these challenges can be met through the application of network analysis techniques, using primary (survey) and secondary (patent) data. We argue that the choice between these two types of data has strong implications for the type of research questions that can be dealt with in economic geography, such as the feasibility of dynamic network analysis.

2006. Stigma, fatigue and social breakdown: Exploring the impacts of HIV/AIDS on patient and carer well-being in the Caprivi Region, Namibia. Social Science & Medicine

It is generally assumed that caring is a substantial burden upon households afflicted by HIV/AIDS. However, as a 'private' household responsibility, little is known about the experiences of either those who provide the care, or those receiving care, despite the fact that the process may extend over several years and may have a greater impact upon the livelihood security and well-being of the household than the actual death of the ill person. Drawing upon data collected through solicited diaries, this paper explores how illness and the daily and long-term duties of caring amongst a sample of households in the Caprivi Region of Namibia impacts upon the physical and psychological well-being of ill people and their carers. While optimism and enhanced well-being were recorded during periods of illness remission, AIDS-related illnesses invariably result in periods of sickness and dependency. This results in disempowerment and lowered self-esteem, and decreased well-being amongst ill people. This paper argues that the increasing dependency of the ill person, widespread pressure to maintain household integrity through 'seeing for yourself', i.e. being self-sufficient, or at least contributing to reciprocal support networks, and the stigma attached to HIV/AIDS can result in considerable intra-household tension and breakdown of key social support networks. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010. The geographies of the creative industries: scale, clusters and connectivity. Geography

The creative industries comprise one of the fastest growing sectors of the UK economy. This article introduces the geographies of these industries in the context of recent government policy that regards the sector as a catalyst for economic, social and cultural regeneration. It then focuses on one region, the South West, and one sub-sector, the digital media industry, as a background to exploring the activities of the creative agency South West Screen and the company Spider Eye Animation. Thinking about these organisations enables us to explore the clusters, networks and connections that characterise the geographies of the creative industries and to illuminate the links between local, regional, national and international scales.

2008. Seen and not heard? Text messaging and digital sociality. Social & Cultural Geography

Mobile phones have invited a number of dystopian understandings, particularly as far as young people are concerned. They have been variously argued to contribute to poor spelling and grammar, disturb attention to school work, facilitate text bullying, lead to brain cancers and promote the destruction of face-to-face relationships. Despite these concerns, text messaging is by far the most common form of mobile communication between young people in New Zealand. Drawing on actor-network theory and qualitative research conducted with New Zealand teenagers, we explore how teenagers, cell phones, socio-spatial relations and discourses exist within a hybrid and interdependent network which we have termed digital sociality. This network seems to facilitate rather than destroy proximal contact. The machine and the human, in a cyborgian sense, meld to develop new and complex workings of space and the social which suggests mobile technologies are not as damaging to young people as many have suggested and calls for preventative approaches to this technology might need therefore to be rethought.

2010. Decisions concerning communication modes and the influence of travel time: a situational approach. Environment and Planning A

In this paper we examine the tradeoff between face-to-face (F2F) communication and a telephone call in the situation where people consider discussing something important but not urgent with a good friend located at a distance. In so doing we extend previous studies of communication behaviour in two ways. We develop and employ a situational approach to communication mode choice inspired by time geography and attitude theory, and we devote particular attention to the socio-psychological mechanisms driving communication mode decisions. As a consequence, we can analyse the effects of travel time in the physical world on communication choices via and in combination with those of a person's attitudes, perceptions, desires, and past behaviours. Our data collected from Dutch single-earner and dual-earner households suggest that travel time mediates the effects of goal desire, past behaviour, and perceived time pressure. When the travel time increases, respondents with a strong desire to discuss something important but not urgent trade a preference for F2F contact for a telephone conversation. Those who have frequently used the telephone in a similar situation before have a lower intention to conduct an F2F conversation but only when the travel time is short. Finally, we see that time-pressured respondents are more inclined to use the telephone when the travel time is longer, presumably because F2F communication involves more time in that situation.

2010. Making Space for Theory: The Challenges of Theorizing Space and Place for Spatial Analysis in Criminology. Journal of Quantitative Criminology

2011. Polities, territory and historical change in Postclassic Matlatzinco (Toluca Valley, central Mexico). Journal of Historical Geography

Historical interpretation of political dynamics in pre-conquest central Mexico from indigenous records is fraught with difficulties. Beyond the basic challenges involved in interpreting fragmentary evidence is the fact that the majority of evidence comes from the dominant imperial polity (Tenochtitlan) and paints a biased and overly generalized view of political and social dynamics in provincial areas. We present a reconstruction of the political geography of the Toluca Valley of central Mexico in Aztec times that avoids these biases by focusing not on the events described in native histories, but on the individual towns and their spatial locations. We find that a theoretical perspective that defines political entities by networks and relations among people more adequately captures the historical situation than traditional models that define polities based on territory and boundaries. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2007. The power of governance in financial relationships: Governing tensions in exotic infrastructure territory. Growth and Change

The scope of financial products has recently extended to include investments in infrastructure assets that were previously community owned. While private investment in infrastructure is not new, the rise of institutional investors searching for infrastructure investments to match long-term liabilities is a recent phenomenon. Most cannot hire the necessary expertise or take on the relatively large risks that accompany undertaking such endeavors in-house, with many opting to place capital in specialised infrastructure funds. While there is a plethora of studies on various aspects of public and corporate governance, this paper concentrates on the governance of relationships between institutional investors and their infrastructure fund managers, contributing to the growing body of literature on financial geographies through a focus on the decision-making of financial actors at the micro level, where the origins and destination of capital into geographies are determined. This private governance is defined as the "regulation" by private agents, insofar as they must anticipate and deal with potential or inherent conflicts of interest. Even as the "embedded" argument stresses the role of concrete personal relations and networks in generating trust, when interests need to be safeguarded in new and unfamiliar settings such as in infrastructure equity investing, the scope of private governance plays a central role in creating the financial relationship. This is supported through a discussion of four problems in private infrastructure governance, which are affected by but also have an impact upon the development of trust and long-term relationships. Despite differing constraints and various degrees of negotiating leverage, innovative economic action is structured through anticipating and aligning diverging interests of (new) social relations.

2006. County versus region? Migrational connections in the East Midlands, 1700-1830. Journal of Historical Geography

Much literature on the industrial revolution has argued for the emergence of distinct, econmically specialised regions during the eighteenth century. Large towns are thought to have played a vital part in drawing these industrial regions together, economically, socially and culturally. However, using the example of the East Midlands, this paper highlights the fact that neither industrialisation nor regional development was a uniform process. The East Midlands was significantly affected by industrialisation, but unlike 'classic industrial regions' such as the North-west or West Midlands, it did not experience a concomitant growth in regional integration and identity. Data on migration to Leicester, Nottingham and Derby in the period 1700-1830 are used to examine the nature and extent of social and economic linkages between these towns and their hinterlands and thus to explore the nature of urban-centred spatial integration in the East Midlands. It is argued that the apparent lack of region-wide integration can be explained, firstly, by the unusual dominance of the three county towns at the head of weak county urban networks, and secondly, by the persistence of a proto-industrial structure in the East Midlands' staple hosiery industry. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2008. Agricultural education: Gender identity and knowledge exchange. Journal of Rural Studies

Women farmers are underserved in agricultural education and technical assistance. Long held social constructions of farming women as 'farmwives' and in some cases 'the bookkeepers' rather than farmers or decision-makers influence the direction of most educational programming delivered through extension programs in land-grant universities in the United States. Consequently, many women farmers generally view these spaces as hostile. rather than helpful environments. This paper uses the agricultural training framework developed by Liepins and Schick (1998) to analyze our research on developing educational programming for women farmers. We conducted five focus groups with members of the Pennsylvania Women's Agricultural Network (PA-WAgN) to better understand women farmers' needs for education. Women farmers reported the kinds of knowledge and information they want, in what kinds of contexts, and through what means of communication. We adapt and extend the original theoretical framework developed by Liepins and Schick to incorporate the seriality of women's identities, their discourses of embodiment and the agency granted to them through social networks. Through a presentation of the results of these focus groups, we discuss both the relevance of gender to agricultural education and the importance of the network model in providing education to women farmers. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2011. Challenges for spatially oriented entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

During the past two decades, interdisciplinary oriented entrepreneurship research focused increasingly on spatial aspects of entrepreneurial activities and support policies. This paper takes stock of central themes in entrepreneurship research at and across different geographic scales, the preferred sources of data and information as well as methodological approaches. It sets out to discuss the shifting interest of research over time and to sketch out theoretical and methodological challenges for further research. This paper is based on a review of 18 international journals in small business and entrepreneurship research, economic geography, regional economics and neighbouring sciences for the period 1990-2007. Altogether, 348 relevant articles were identified, read and classified. The analysis reveals that the entrepreneur's socio-spatial contexts in which they operate on a daily basis are still absent from much of the entrepreneurship debate. We suggest intensifying research efforts on the linkage between entrepreneurial activities and localities in order to reach a better understanding of the everydayness of entrepreneurship.


This article critically analyses the territories and tribes of tourism studies, an aim which initially divides into two objectives. The first of these is an epistemological enquiry which focuses on the nature and the structure of the field. The second objective is a sociological one which focuses on the culture and practices of academics in the field. However whilst this traditional distinction can bring some clarity to an initial understanding of tourism studies, additional insights into the complexity and dynamics of the field are obtained by adding a further layer of analysis. Here actor-network theory is deployed to link relevant objects and reveal academic networks.

2000. Health seeking behavior: Q-structures of rural and urban women in India with sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive tract infections. Professional Geographer

I use a gender framework to examine why women need to utilize social network to discover and resolve problems related to reproductive tract infections (RTI) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In India, women's health is linked with social status and perception of their hearth needs. This paper provides insight on how social networks are gender-, location-, and context-specific and how they are linked to STD issues. This piper examines why social network are integral to women. The health-seeking behavior of rural and urban casual sex workers is examined via Q-analysis, a language of mapping relationships. Results from Q-analysis reveal women's use of four sytems - kinship belief, traditional medical, and western medical services. Finally, I conclude with important implications for research on gender relations and social networks.

2006. The persistence of segregation in Buffalo, New York: Comer vs. Cisneros and geographies of relocation decisions among low-income black households. Urban Geography

Debates about the causes of segregation continue to consider the role that own-race preferences have in understanding the persistence of racial residential segregation in American cities. In this paper, I offer an alternative to the own-race preference model. I argue that segregation of low-income Black households from Whites persists in Buffalo, New York, because the spatial rootedness of Blacks' survival strategies leads households to choose housing in the central city, where their social networks and most Black households live. I illustrate this argument by exploring the multiple reasons for why a group of African American households, who were prompted to move through the settlement of a high-profile housing discrimination lawsuit, chose to relocate to neighborhoods in the central city in Buffalo. I adopt a context-sensitive perspective in making the argument and further argue that such approaches are ultimately useful in capturing the complex reasons that underlie the persistence of segregation.

2011. Fragments from many pasts: layering the toponymic tapestry of Milan. Journal of Historical Geography

In the recent literature on the cultural politics of naming, toponyms and street names are increasingly read within the wider social historical context upon which naming is contingent. In this perspective, naming is often seen as an act of power and a way to inscribe an ideological discourse into the landscape. In this article, we analyze the street names currently inscribed in the historical center of the Italian city of Milan. Italy as a reflection of its long and contested social and political history. Fragments of all the different toponymic regimes and hegemonic discourses that took over one after the other over time have remained inscribed in Milan's street network, originating a complex tapestry in which different pasts revive and conflicting ideologies co-exist. In this context, we examine the role Geographical Information Science (GIScience) methods and technologies play in quantifying, revealing, and visualizing the spatial patterns of downtown Milan's toponymic texture at the urban scale and at the scale of the six historical neighborhoods. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2005. Social geography and continuity effects in immigrant women's narratives of negative interactions. Journal of Aging Studies

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of social geography and continuity in ethnic identity in shaping immigrant women's exposure and reactions to interpersonal problems in old age. Methods: More than 100 hours of semistructured, in-person interviews were conducted with 19 immigrant Japanese women about their views of interpersonal relationships including problems they experienced living in the Midwestern region of the United States. Results: Interpersonal problems reported focused on exposure to a specific type of issue among a specific group: gossip within the immigrant community. Spatial distance from country of origin, desire for continuity to ethnic identity, and intragroup variation among Japanese residents in the Midwest were factors that resulted in an inability to terminate interpersonally troubled ties. Discussion: Immigrants' interpersonal problems are deeply connected to spaces and places lived and the human need for continuity. Contextual approaches are needed in gerontology to further understanding about negative interactions in late life across the population of older adults. &COPY; 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2007. The "Amazonian trial of the century": Indigenous identities, transnational networks, and petroleum in Ecuador. Alternatives

This examination of the work of three organizations in the northeastern Ecuadoran Amazon, FEINCE, OISE, and FOISE, explores how they engage and produce representations of indigeneity in relation to an on-going lawsuit against Chevron Texaco. Each of these organizations has used distinct network associations and performances based on their particular histories in relation to petroleum in order to mediate cultural, political, and economic possibilities for their constituencies. As these organizations mobilize support for local causes through specific network connections, they produce and articulate distinct meanings of indigeneity, with distinct consequences for the future of their constituencies. I argue that an analysis of how collective indigenous identity, localities, and social networks shape and are shaped by representative organizations can help productively explore the social relations through which knowledge about Ecuadoran Amazon peoples and places is produced.


Heterosexuals meet friends in everyday environments. Lesbians may not because there may not be other homosexuals there, or they may not recognise those present. This paper therefore explores where lesbians meet and how they establish social networks. Consideration is given to how gay places influence the character of these networks.

1995. OUT AND ABOUT - GEOGRAPHIES OF LESBIAN LANDSCAPES. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

The notion of 'gay space' is often taken to be synonymous with predominantly gay male residential neighbourhoods in major cities, such as San Francisco. This paper examines some of the spaces that lesbians create. It begins by considering how lesbian structures of meaning are constructed around specific materially grounded sites: a residential district and a lesbian institutional base in a provincial UK town. It then moves on to examine how lesbian spaces are produced and claimed through collective imaginings focused upon social networks, specific 'lesbian' celebrities and political events. Attention is given to the specific time-space frameworks within which different forms of lesbian space are produced, from relatively fixed to periodic or fleeting.

2002. Cyberkids? Exploring children's identities and social networks in on-line and off-line worlds. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

In the first rush of academic and popular commentaries on cyberspace, a stark opposition has been drawn between off-line and on-line worlds-the "real" and "virtual." Such understandings of the relationship between these spaces are now increasingly subject to critique, yet relatively little is known about how people actually employ information and communication technologies (ICT) within the context of their everyday lives. In this article, by drawing on research with children aged 11 - 16, we provide primary empirical material demonstrating how on-line spaces are used, encountered, and interpreted within the context of young people's off-line everyday lives. In doing so we consider both how children's "real" worlds are incorporated into their "virtual" worlds and how their "virtual" worlds are incorporated into their "real" worlds. In other words, we demonstrate how the real and the virtual are mutually constituted. We also reflect on some of the forms of "private" and "public" spaces constituted by children's activities on and around the screen.

2008. Changing spaces: the role of the internet in shaping Deaf geographies. Social & Cultural Geography

While there is a burgeoning literature on the role of ICT in the creation of new forms of social networks, dubbed on-line communities, much less attention has been paid to the complex set of relationships which are emerging between some off-line communities and the internet, and in particular to some of the new spatialities that are emerging as a result of community-based ICT practices. This paper develops this work by focusing on the example of 'the Deaf community'. In reflecting on the implications of the communication possibilities offered by the internet for the production of Deaf space we begin by outlining the history of development of the off-line Deaf community in the UK and by reflecting on the concept of 'community'. The paper then goes on to explore how Deaf people are using the internet to communicate with each other and, in doing so, to reflect upon how the internet is contributing to the re-spatialisation and scaling-up of this community while also having other unanticipated effects on Deaf people's mobilities and the space of the Deaf club.

2002. The regional approach to the ocean, the ocean regions, and ocean regionalisation - a post-modern dilemma. Ocean & Coastal Management

Essentially, this paper aims at considering how the ocean regionalisation may be implemented focusing on the principle of sustainable development, on the subsequent criteria designed by the inter-governmental organisation framework, and on the approaches from the scientific literature. In this respect, a model is proposed, according to which two main stages are identified: (i) the stage of the modern approach to the ocean, which was operated by the modern society and was supported by the culture of modernity; (ii) the stage of the postmodern approach, which has been triggered by the converging inputs from the changes in society and nature. The watershed between these two stages may be located in the 1970s. The investigation may be carried out considering a triangular relationship between (i) the changing ocean reality (ontological dimension), (ii) the representation of this reality (semiological dimension), and (iii) the building up of signified, consisting in theories, meta-theories and values (epistemological and ethical dimensions). In this framework, special relevance is attributed to the interaction between science and policy. Moving from this basis, how ocean regionalisation had been conceived by oceanography, geography and law is considered focusing on the implications that have arisen in terms of ocean management. Analysis is essentially focused on three questions: (i) how much the conceptual implications of the approach to the ocean regional scale have been underestimated, and how ample the political consequences have been; (ii) why the political designs referring to this spatial scale of the ocean, which have been carrying out since the 1970s, have been marked by a lack of consistency of the legal framework with the prospect of operating sustainable management programmes; (iii) whether, and what kind of, discrepancy has solidified between the legal framework, provided by the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and the ecosystem-oriented approach to the ocean, designed by the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). These considerations lead to identify three cardinal needs. First, the need to try lessons from the Regional Seas Programme of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) by carrying out a critical analysis of the conceptual background and methodological endowment which it was based on, and of the subsequent political outcomes. Secondly, an increasing need for scientific approaches supported by the consideration of the ocean as a bi-modular system consisting in ecosystems and organisational patterns, being both modules subject to the impacts from global change and globalisation. Thirdly, a need to design and operate a more effective interaction between science and policy, and, as far as science in itself is concerned, the need to design a more epistemologically-sound interaction between natural and social disciplines. Moving from this discussion, it is proposed to distinguish the mere ocean area, where the organisational patterns have not yet created a real ocean system, from the ocean region, which differently has acquired the features of an ocean system. These two kinds of spaces may be found in the coastal milieu, extending up to the outer edge of the continental margin, in the deep-ocean, extending seawards from the continental margin, or they may extend across the continental margin and the deep-ocean. Where it is agreed that ocean reality may evolve on the basis of these two reference patterns, the following sequence of conceptual mises-au-point and statements may be considered. (.) The ocean area-This kind of ocean space may solidify in those areas where the ocean is frequented and used in the traditional ways without benefiting from a well-designed organisational pattern. Human presence and resource uses have brought about spatial differentiation but not such a real cohesion which may be only achieved by adopting an organisational plan. (.) The ocean region-This occurs only where an ocean area is endowed with such an organisational framework that allows the pursuit of clearly pre-determined objectives in terms of environmental, resource management, and economic development. This is the product of an extensive human interaction with the ocean ecosystem, and of a substantial political approach to the ocean milieu. Where it is agreed that ocean reality may evolve on the basis of these two reference patterns, the following sequence of conceptual mises-au-point and statements may be considered: (.) The ocean region and regional strategy-At the present time, ocean regions may be found only in quite limited parts of the ocean world. (.) The final objective-Where the decision-making centres conform their programmes and actions to the principles and guidelines from UNCED, the objective of each ocean region should be the pursuit of sustainable development on the regional scale. (.) Sustainable region-This occurs where the regional organisation is primarily based on the protection of the ecosystem integrity, where economic development operates through the optimisation of resource usage, and where social equity, including the access to the natural and cultural heritage of the ocean environment, is guaranteed. (.) Ocean regionalisation-When an individual ocean is subject to the organisational forces that lead to the creation of regions, it can be stated that an ocean regionalisation has occurred. (.) Global change-Ocean regionalisation should be viewed as one of the most important consequences of the global, environmental and social change that characterises the present phase of society. (.) Globalisation-The setting up of a transport and communication global network, together with the associated establishment of global production and consume patterns, of market strategies and social behaviour, may be regarded as the cardinal set of socio-economic factors, which ocean regionalisation is going to increasingly depend on. (.) Enlargement of the geographical approach-The development of ocean regions encourages to set up effective inter-disciplinary approaches, that primarily should focus on: (i) the consistency of the regional organisation with the regional objectives; (ii) the consistency of the ocean resource use with the protection of the ecosystem, primarily the safeguard of its biodiversity, productivity and resilience; and (iii) the configuration and functions of the decision-making system in guiding regional organisation. (.) Ocean region and ecosystem-The most desirable conditions in terms of optimal ocean organisation on the regional scale occur where the spatial extent of the ocean, which is encompassed by an individual regional management programme, fully coincides with the spatial extent of an ocean ecosystem, or with a set of contiguous ecosystems. (.) Decision-making systems-The more the co-operative process between decision-making systems operating in contiguous ocean regions develops, the greater the potential for a holistic political approach to the oceans becomes. The spatial consequences deriving from the interaction between the decision-making centres are of peculiar interest. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2005. Global village or cyber-balkans? Modeling and measuring the integration of electronic communities. Management Science

Information technology can link geographically separated people and help them locate interesting or useful resources. These attributes have the potential to bridge gaps and unite communities. Paradoxically, they also have the potential to fragment interaction and divide groups. Advances in technology can make it easier for people to spend more time on special interests and to screen out unwanted contact. Geographic boundaries can thus be supplanted by boundaries on other dimensions. This paper formally defines a precise set of measures of information integration and develops a model of individual knowledge profiles and community affiliation. These factors suggest specific conditions under which improved access, search, and screening can either integrate or fragment interaction on various dimensions. As IT capabilities continue to improve, preferences-not geography or technology-become the key determinants of community boundaries.

2007. Promoting the sense of self, place, and belonging in displaced persons: The example of homelessness. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing

This article discusses the psychosocial impact of displacement using homelessness as an illustrative example of displacement. This article draws on the geography literature concerning the sense of space and place and on social theories of self-identity and belonging, notably Anthony Giddens' structuration theory. The impact of displacement is an important dimension of homelessness because it influences social and functional abilities that are relevant to reentry into homes and society. This article explains the relevance of these considerations in the care of displaced persons and emphasizes the role of place in determining identity and self-efficacy. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2011. Getting into Networks and Clusters: Evidence from the Midi-Pyrenean Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Collaboration Network. Regional Studies

VICENTE J., BALLAND P. A. and BROSSARD O. Getting into networks and clusters: evidence from the Midi-Pyrenean global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) collaboration network, Regional Studies. This paper analyses clusters from collaborative knowledge relations embedded in wider networks in a particular technological field. Focusing on the interface of clusters and networks contributes to a better understanding of collaboration, within and across places and cognitive domains. An empirical analysis of the Midi-Pyrenean global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) cluster is proposed based on a relational database constructed from collaborative research and development projects funded at the European, national, and regional levels. Using Social Network Analysis tools, the results are discussed according to (1) the structural, technological, and geographical dimensions of knowledge flows; (2) the influence of particular organizations in the structure; and (3) the heterogeneity and complementarities of their position and role. The paper concludes by showing that the findings provide new opportunities for cluster theories.

2010. Small world network models of the dynamics of HIV infection. Annals of Operations Research

It has long been recognised that the structure of social networks plays an important role in the dynamics of disease propagation. The spread of HIV results from a complex network of social interactions and other factors related to culture, sexual behaviour, demography, geography and disease characteristics, as well as the availability, accessibility and delivery of healthcare. The small world phenomenon has recently been used for representing social network interactions. It states that, given some random connections, the degrees of separation between any two individuals within a population can be very small. In this paper we present a discrete event simulation model which uses a variant of the small world network model to represent social interactions and the sexual transmission of HIV within a population. We use the model to demonstrate the importance of the choice of topology and initial distribution of infection, and capture the direct and non-linear relationship between the probability of a casual partnership (small world randomness parameter) and the spread of HIV. Finally, we illustrate the use of our model for the evaluation of interventions such as the promotion of safer sex and introduction of a vaccine.

2009. Questioning Quebec through social geography. Canadian Geographer-Geographe Canadien

In the early 1960s, two revolutions were underway: the quiet revolution in Quebec and the quantitative revolution in geography. Apparently unrelated, these episodes of change probably shared common underlying values associated with modernity. Since then, the transformations experienced in Quebec have been interpreted in a multitude of ways, including geographical considerations. Research careers, mine included, have been shaped by this undertaking. All along, I have found that social geography, with the capacity it has to reinvent itself, has helped making sense of this turbulent environment. In the 1970s, exploring the structural dynamics of Canada's social space helped in figuring out the place occupied by Quebec in this ensemble. Then, analyzing the historical relationships between cosmopolitan Montreal and provincial Quebec City suggested that the oxymoron 'quiet revolution' stood for a central process in the cultural dynamics of Quebec's social space, where new ideas arriving through Montreal are sifted and institutionalized by the state in Quebec City. Nevertheless, Quebec City is also capable of initiating progressive urban movements, as illustrated by the odyssey of the Rassemblement populaire de Quebec, documented through participant observation. Such urban movements may affect the urban fabric but, as intense and creative social networks, they may affect even more their interacting members, as it seems to have been the case with regard to rapidly evolving gender relations during the last decades. All in all, after more than four decades, I keep the conviction that a practice of social geography that is open to various theories and methods is capable of producing liberating knowledge.

2010. Jamaica on Broadway: The Popular Caribbean and Mock Transnational Performance. Theatre Journal

The 1957 black-cast Broadway musical Jamaica achieved enormous commercial success, presenting a spectacle of a mid-century popular Caribbeana. Returning to this musical and its production history in the light of recent theorizations of the transnational, this essay identifies a tradition of "mock transnational performance" that has been significant within African American commercial theatre and that shapes Jamaica's staging of the Caribbean. Mock transnational is meant to describe a theatrical mode and performative stance that takes up the misuse of diasporic cultural indices to critique and refigure the politics of the nation-state and racialized national formations. The essay locates Jamaica's mock transnational strategies in the leftist poetry of lyricist Yip Harburg; in the auditory maneuvers and performance strategies of its star, Lena Horne; and in the networks of professional support and social activism cultivated in the musical's backstage relations. These surplus moments made use of diasporic imaginative geographies, sounds, and gestures often in tension with the musical's book-to explore and complicate the relationship between African American racial consciousness and theatrical form, on the one hand, and African diasporic histories and fantasies on the other.

2012. My Networking Is Not Working! Conceptualizing the Latent and Dysfunctional Dimensions of the Network Paradigm. Economic Geography

Networks have become a major analytical concept in economic geography and have served to extend both empirical and theoretical research agendas. However, much of the literature on networks is characterized as associative, considering them only as cumulative constructs through the constant enrollment of additional actors. Through the lens of social capital and a discussion of the limitations of the networking paradigm in economic geography, this article aims to move beyond this associative nature and introduce variance in network practices in the form of nonworking and not working. By presenting a hypothetical example of a project-based network, we introduce the concepts of nonworking and not working as latency and disassociation as dimensions of network practices. In doing so, we present a more nuanced approach to the networking paradigm in relational economic geography, one that moves beyond a purely associative understanding to incorporate nonworking and not working.

2011. Elite knowledges: framing risk and the geographies of credit. Environment and Planning A

This paper examines the history of credit scoring in Britain, and how this technology was imported from the US and adapted by the British retail banking sector. It seeks to highlight the elites who develop the social codes embedded within credit scoring software, to offer insight into the complex techno-economic networks that produce the geographies of financial inclusion, exclusion, and differential risk pricing. It is argued that the scientific status of these systems is questionable, due to the social interactions involved within the statistical modelling. Finally, the paper suggests that the spaces of credit are fluid, based upon the frequent social recalibrations of these models.

2011. Tax doesn't have to be taxing: London's 'onshore' finance industry and the fiscal spaces of a global crisis. Environment and Planning A

In this paper I will explore London's onshore finance industry and how it facilitates corporate tax avoidance programmes. In doing so, I will discuss how financial elites design transactions and corporate activities so as to minimise their exposure to taxation, and how these structures are shaped by the international geographies of taxation. I will investigate an area of London's financial sector that has previously been neglected by geographers and social scientists. Finally, I turn to illustrate how tax minimisation strategies are implemented, through the example of residential mortgage-backed securitisation, and how tax-minimisation strategies made securitisation a practical tool for financiers. This provides new insights into how taxation elites facilitated the increased financialisation of Britain's economy and the severity of its exposure to the credit crunch.

2001. Environmental risk and (re)action: air quality, health, and civic involvement in an urban industrial neighbourhood. Health & Place

This paper explores the links between (perceived) environmental risk and community (re) action in an urban industrial neighbourhood in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with residents of an area with a documented history of adverse air quality, in order to determine the relative influence of social capital (networks, norms, and social trust) and place attachment (sense of belonging in a neighbourhood) in deciding to take civic action around this particular environmental issue. The interviews illustrate the complexity of lay understandings of air pollution, and indicate that social capital is a primary contributor to the decision to take certain kinds of action, while attachment to place plays a lesser role. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

2002. Analyzing an innovative environment: San Diego as a bioscience beachhead. Economic Development Quarterly

This article examines dynamics underlying the growth of a flourishing bioscience cluster in San Diego, California, to illustrate the construction of an innovative environment and the matching of place characteristics with a specific economic activity. Extensive interviews explore the formation of synergistic connections promoting the political, economic, and social networks of entrepreneurial individuals at the metropolitan scale. Spatial proximity is shaped by real estate considerations within and between local clusters in a volatile industry affected strongly by shifting access to financial and human capital. Five key factors underlying regional success are found to be access to an outstanding research university, advocacy leadership, risk financing, an entrepreneurial culture, and appropriate real estate, knit by an intensive information exchange network.

2001. Sisterhood and seine-nets: Engendering development and conservation in Ghana's marine fishery. Professional Geographer

As processors and marketers of fish, women fishtraders in the Fanti town of Cape Coast, Ghana have become powerful financers and owners of canoes, nets. and other fishing equipment. Since the 1960s, when motors were first introduced to Ghana's artisanal canoe fleet, two interrelated processes have occurred in Cape Coast. First, Ghana's fisheries have become increasingly exploited and-in the case of some species-overfished. Second, the social relations of production in the artisanal sector have shifted from bring socially embedded to being more market-based and impersonal. I argue that two recent Women in Development (WID) projects in particular have contributed to the breakdown of fishtraders' traditional economic networks and livelihood strategies: (a) loan schemes that target women's associations, and (b) the 1985 Intestate Succession Law, which reconfigured inheritance rights. These WID projects, based on western notions of sender and the household, have created disharmony and mistrust among Cape Coast's fishtraders rather than promoting their "development." The breakdown of fishtraders' labor and marketing organizations has resulted in increasingly desperate strategies to get fish, increased degradation of Ghana's marine environment. and uncertainty for the future of the coastal economy.

2004. Assessing adolescent risk behavior using social networks and the geography of risk and protection. Journal of Adolescent Health

2006. Adolescent substance use and abuse prevention and treatment: Primary care strategies involving social networks and the geography of risk and protection. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings

The use and abuse of licit and illicit substances in adolescence is a national public health concern. This behavior impairs healthy development for many adolescents in the United States. Although not every adolescent who becomes a regular user of licit and illicit substances will develop a substance abuse disorder, all adolescents using these substances can experience a life-threatening outcome. Understanding the epidemiology and social profile of adolescent substance use, namely the risk and protective factors and the environmental and genetic factors, is essential to the development of strategies for prevention. There are many methods that can be employed to better assess environments in which adolescents live. The method discussed in this paper is descriptive and utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. The primary goal of this paper is to illustrate and describe an analysis of substance using and non-substance using adolescents, their social networks, the risky and protective settings where they socialize, and the relationship of these variables to health outcomes such as substance use, depression, and stress. Published data from the researchers' recent investigation examine the effect of social network affiliations and geographical risk factors on drug involvement and illustrate how these factors may then be incorporated into prevention and intervention planning, especially in medical settings.

2007. Places and health: A qualitative study to explore how older women living alone perceive the social and physical dimensions of their neighbourhoods. Social Science & Medicine

There is growing interest in the impact that neighbourhood environment might have on the health of older people. Although the number of older Australian women, particularly those living alone, is projected to increase in coming decades, their experiences of neighbourhood have not been exclusively examined. The aims of this paper are: (1) to explore, from the perspective of these women, the social and physical dimensions of neighbourhoods and (2) to investigate variation in these accounts according to whether women lived in areas of higher or lower socioeconomic status. Twenty women aged between 75 and 93 years, residing in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia (SA), participated in a series of two in-depth interviews. Women's perceptions of their neighbourhood, and accounts of every-day activities in the community were analysed to determine how both social and physical aspects of neighbourhood might relate to health and wellbeing. Findings suggest that a reciprocal and trusting relationship with neighbours underpinned older women's sense of satisfaction with, and feeling of security within; the neighbourhood. Other factors such as living in close proximity to services and existing social networks were also seen as important. Women's stories demonstrated that they were able to draw on both existing social networks and neighbours to sustain their independence and social connection within the community. Women living in more disadvantaged areas were more conscious of social disconnection in their neighbourhoods, and to the way that traffic noise and pollution detracted from their neighbourhood environment. These findings indicate that, for older women living alone, trusting and reciprocal relationships with neighbours are likely to form an important part of their broader social support network and should be recognised in relation to the process of maintaining the health of older women living in the community. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1994. FRIENDS IN HIGH PLACES. Journal of Geography

''Friends in High Places'' is a group activity designed to integrate geography with other social studies disciplines such as government, political science, American history, and world issues. It is necessary to consider geography when shaping foreign policy because the formulation of foreign policy requires of its very nature reaching out from our borders like a worldwide network of nerve fibers. As chief diplomat, the President conducts foreign affairs including 1) the initiation of foreign policy, 2) the recognition of new foreign governments, and 3) the making of treaties.

2010. INTRA-REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT GROWTH IN LUXEMBOURG (1994-2005). Geografiska Annaler Series B-Human Geography

The specialization of city-centres towards more advanced service activities has mostly been studied in the largest city-regions, the case of smaller urban centres being less well documented. In that context, the objective of this article is to analyse the role of sectoral and regional factors in employment growth in Luxembourg between 1994 and 2005. Using statistical data from the Luxembourg General Inspection of Social Security, this contribution distinguishes 12 categories of manufacturing industries and services according to an OECD-Eurostat knowledge-based classification. Five intra-regional areas are distinguished based on morphological and functional criteria in the Luxembourg Metropolitan Area. Using several indexes, this article first analyses the sectoral specialization and geographical concentration of employment. A model of intra-regional employment growth, initially developed by Marimon and Zilibotti and applied at the European level, is then shown to account for 40 per cent of employment growth. An estimation of the contributions of sectoral and geographical factors highlights the primacy of the latter over the former. Finally, the construction of virtual economies confirms the City's overall lower performance as compared to its close periphery. Results underscore a process of functional integration in the Luxembourg metropolitan area: as the core of the city undergoes a specialization process, the urban area benefits from a relocation of activities less sensitive to distance and transaction costs, while the periphery becomes increasingly diversified, notably in the South where traditional industrial activities are being replaced by service activities. These results suggest that the evolution pattern of employment growth in Luxembourg is very similar to that of some larger metropolitan centres, owing to its exceptional financial service activities.

2008. Weak ties, immigrant women and neoliberal states: Moving beyond the public/private binary. Geoforum

This paper engages with the vacillations in provincial and federal gender specific service funding in Canada between 2001 and 2007. I connect this state scale analysis to local settlement experiences of Sikh immigrant women living in a small British Columbia community. Using the concept of network analysis, particularly the idea of weak ties, I offer a corrective to the overly positive appraisals of strong ties and institutional completeness. I argue that experiences of settlement, especially in cases where women face various forms of domestic violence, are shaped by the articulation of neoliberalism and patriarchy. This analysis contributes to the ongoing reformulation advanced by feminist geographers with regard to the public/private binary. In its place this case study reveals the multiple public and private intersections and continuums that exist, and how the recognition of these geographies can assist in building effective public resources to tackle the challenges faced by some immigrant women. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2006. Linking home to work: Ethnic labor market concentration in the San Francisco consolidated metropolitan area. Urban Geography

Different perspectives have been offered to explain ethnic labor market concentrations. In most studies, however, residential places are seldom included in the research framework. Using data from 5% Public Used Microdata Samples in 2000, this case study of the San Francisco Bay Area reveals that the robust growth of the new economy is dramatically segmenting the geography of employment and thereby the spatial division of labor in each ethnic group. Living arrangements, such as central-city residence and living in coethnic-concentrated-PUMAs, increase the chances of niche employment for most racial/ethnic groups, even after controlling for human capital and certain local context factors. However, there is a "substitution" effect between personal socioeconomic status and location factors. This study argues that living arrangements can provide a mechanism through which personal characteristics, social networking, and ethnic recourses interact with macroeconomic trends, and thus carve out local labor market experiences across the urban space.

2006. Geographies of cultural capital: education, international migration and family strategies between Hong Kong and Canada. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

This paper intervenes in debates on education and social reproduction, developing the link between 'parental choice', class status and spatial mobility. Drawing on research in Canada and Hong Kong with migrant students and 'returnee' graduates, it demonstrates the relationship between 'choice', social class and international mobility, arguing that geographies of middle-class decisionmaking in education have been recently transformed with the growth of a multi-billion dollar international education market. The paper unpacks the meanings and consequences of international education in Hong Kong, revealing how migration to Canada has enabled middle-class families to accumulate a more valuable form of cultural capital in a 'Western' university degree. It argues for a geographically sensitive account of the relative value of international education and its close links with both class reproduction and place-based transnational social networks.

2006. Owner-managers, clusters and local embeddedness: small firms in the Sheffield (UK) metal-working cluster. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

The primary objective of this paper is to explore the ways in which the characteristics of owner-managers influence the extent to which their firms are embedded within local clusters of economic activity. Data are drawn from an interview survey of a random sample of small metal-working firms in Sheffield, UK. The data are analysed using non-parametric statistical methods to test bivariate relationships. Owner-manager attributes are found to have no in fluence on the extent of the use of local material supply networks but they do in fluence the extent of dependence on local markets. Owner-managers born and bred in the local region with limited formal education, working as an operative ( rather than executive) prior to start up and with many years experience are more likely to rely on local markets. Owner-manager characteristics are also linked to participation in business networks. Those with most experience and those previously working for large firms are more likely to participate. It is concluded that owner-manager attributes can be important in explaining the level of embeddedness of small firms in a cluster of economic activity and that such attributes need to be built into theories of cluster behaviour.

2007. What is global and what is local in knowledge-generating interaction? The case of the biotech cluster in Uppsala, Sweden. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

The aim of this paper is to describe the structure of the biotech cluster in Uppsala, Sweden, and to analyse how cluster knowledge dynamics result from processes and interactions unfolding at different spatial scales. The empirical basis for the analyses are derived from various sources: business registers, an internet- based survey of 106 firms, 23 in-depth interviews with key individuals, and a longitudinal database give data on the degree to which collaborations, rivalry, business transactions, capital sourcing and labour mobility take place in the local cluster. In addition to asking questions about which interactions are most localized and globalized, respectively, the paper also sets out to give an account of the 'clusterness' of the case in point. The paper shows that while the business relations of the biotech companies in Uppsala are strongly globalized, the sourcing of capital, the informal social networking and the labour market dynamics are much more regionalized/ localized.

2011. What drives global ICT adoption? Analysis and research directions. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications

Information and communication technology (ICT) adoption is increasing globally and offers unique opportunities for information systems (IS) and electronic commerce researchers to undertake research that will have an impact. The purpose of this article is to survey the academic literature on this topic and provide research directions for future work. We analyze economic, social and other factors that drive global ICT adoption and the individual, organizational, industry and economy impacts. We do this with respect to a set of relevant problems, technology opportunities, theories, research methods, and solutions. The integration of these areas enables us to establish a balanced picture of the current state of global ICT adoption research. It also offers a useful means to analyze the kinds of research that needs to be pursued to make additional progress in the related area of e-commerce research. With these ideas in mind, we present five emerging research directions in three different categories: new economic geography, rational expectations theory, and new empirical methods. We also analyze several topics in the global arena of emerging technologies. (C) 2011 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

2007. Strategy and the contested politics of scale: Air transportation in Australia. Economic Geography

This article explores the ways in which the contested reconfiguration of air transportation infrastructures following deregulation in Australia resulted in the rescaling of air transportation services and their disassociation from the scales of political jurisdictions. In tracing the complex interactions between the state's and firms' strategies and their impacts at different scales, the article contends that it is not sufficient to view scale as an arena and outcome of political struggle. Rather, it argues for an activated understanding of scale as strategy. The reconfigurations of the scales of transportation networks in Australia reveal their profound implications for the production of space: for social equity, the fortunes of cities, and the manner of Australia's insertion in the international division of labor.

2008. Are Labour Markets Necessarily 'Local'? Spatiality, Segmentation and Scale. Urban Studies

This paper draws on recent debates about scale to approach the geography of labour markets from a dynamic perspective sensitive to the spatiality and scale of labour market restructuring. Its exploration of labour market reconfigurations after the collapse of a major firm (Ansett Airlines) raises questions about geography's faith in the inherently 'local' constitution of labour markets. Through an examination of the job reallocation process after redundancy, the paper suggests that multiple labour markets use and articulate scale in different ways. It argues that labour market rescaling processes are enacted at the critical moment of recruitment, where social networks, personal aspirations and employer preferences combine to shape workers' destinations.

2011. Coloniality and the Contours of Global Production in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Antipode

To destabilize sequentialist, stage-like understandings of global production, this paper examines changing relations of accumulation taking shape in the garment export industry in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. I draw upon a framework called "the coloniality of power" to consider the reworking of the social and spatial boundaries between hyper-exploited wage work and the people and places cast out from its relations. Through a critical ethnography of a restructuring garment firm and its operations in a trade zone on the Dominican-Haitian border, I argue for attention to how places and labouring bodies are marked differentially as Other. The production of racialized and gendered hierarchies of Otherness creates the conditions for relational and relative North-South divides, constituting uneven and fragmented geographies of production.

2007. Inheriting knowledge and sustaining relationships: What stimulates the innovative performance of small software firms in the Netherlands? Research Policy

Previous studies showed that firms established by experienced founders have higher survival rates and employment growth, but the potential effect of pre-entry experiences on innovation remains unclear. Using an original dataset, we examine the effect of founder's experiences, the relationship with the founder's previous employer and spatial proximity to the previous workplace on the innovative performance of small software firms in the Netherlands. Apart from entrepreneurial experiences, the results suggest no effect of pre-entry experiences. Continued contacts with the founder's previous employer appear to limit the firm's innovative performance, but firms do benefit from being established near the previous workplace. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2009. Do Regional and Non-regional Knowledge Flows Differ? An Empirical Study on Clustered Firms in the Dutch Life Sciences and Computing Services Industry. Industry and Innovation

In the literature on innovation and geographical proximity, inter-organizational knowledge flows are increasingly acknowledged to take place at multiple spatial levels. Furthermore, the knowledge flows within and between regions are assumed to have different characteristics. Until now, hardly any study has examined those latter assumptions empirically. This study aims to provide empirical insights by analysing whether there are differences in the characteristics of regional and non-regional inter-organizational knowledge flows in the Dutch computing services and life sciences industry. The results indeed show significant differences. Confirming the assumptions in the literature, regional knowledge flows are characterized by a higher number of face-to-face contacts, while the knowledge exchanged through non-regional knowledge flows is more valuable. The relations between the duration and the social base of the knowledge flow and its spatial scale are less straightforward.

1998. Wild(er)ness: reconfiguring the geographies of wildlife. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

Amidst millennial talk of the 'end of nature' (McKibben 1989), this paper examines the precarious geographies of 'wildlife' in rather less apocalyptic terms. Animal (and plant) species designated wild are placed categorically outside the ambit of 'human society', confined to inhabiting the margins and interstices of the social world. Yet, we contend, such animals have long been routinely imagined and organized within multiple circuits of social power, which (re)configure them in important ways. These social orderings of animal life confound the moral geographies of wilderness, which presuppose an easy coincidence between the species and spaces of a pristine nature. In this paper, we employ the fluid spatial vocabulary of topology to map a more volatile and relational conception of the fabrics of wildlife. Our arguments are worked through glimpses of two historically very different social orderings of 'wild' animals - those associated with the military vernacular of the gladiatorial games of Imperial Rome, and the scientific vernacular of endangered species listing and conservation under CITES (the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species). These 'foldings' of wildlife in distant time/space aim to disrupt the linear historical narratives of 'civilization' and 'evolution', which consign wildlife to marginal spaces with a teleological destiny of erasure.

2000. Elephants on the move: spatial formations of wildlife exchange. Environment and Planning D-Society & Space

In this paper we explore tensions between the notions and spaces of social agency mobilised in actant network theory and feminist science studies by focusing on their implications for the status and treatment of nonhuman animals, in this case the African elephant. The notion of a spatial formation of wildlife exchange (SFWE) is deployed to trace the diverse modalities and spatialities of social networks in which such creatures are caught up and the ways in which these practical orderings work through the bodies of elephants, both in the sense of their energies being variously transduced and of their experiences being reconfigured in the process. These themes are pursued through two contemporary global networks of wildlife conservation/science. The first, characterised as a mode of ordering of foresight, is a network concerned with 'captive breeding' and configured through the coding and exchange of computerised information on the lineages and breeding properties of animals held in zoological collections worldwide. The second, characterised as a mode of ordering of authenticity, is a network concerned with 'in-situ' conservation projects and configured through the recruitment of paying volunteers, corporate donors, and field scientists to a global programme of research expeditions. Our account traces three simultaneous moments in the patterning of elephants in each network-as virtual bodies, as bodies in place, and as living spaces.

2011. Opening up or Closing down Opportunities?: The Role of Social Networks and Attachment to Place in Informing Young Peoples' Attitudes and Access to Training and Employment. Urban Studies

Drawing on case study evidence from three deprived urban neighbourhoods in England, this paper explores the influence of social networks and attachment to place on young people's access to training and employment opportunities. The findings presented contribute to the emerging literature which highlights the importance that place-based social networks have in facilitating young people's access to training and employment opportunities through provision of trusted information, references and role models. Moreover, the evidence also demonstrates how both social networks and attachment to place may constrain geographical and social horizons, and therefore limit the available opportunities in employment and training that young people perceive are open to them. The paper concludes by focusing on policy implications. In particular, it is argued that it is important that the influence of social networks, place attachment and associated subjective geographies is recognised by academics and policy-makers seeking a better understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of young people towards training and employment-especially in deprived areas.

2007. A story of two transnationalisms: Global Salafi Jihad and transnational human rights mobilization in the Middle East and North Africa. Mobilization

Into the 1990s, Arab countries witnessed a rise in the number of terrorist attacks perpetrated by Islamist militants against governments, foreign targets, and citizens. In response to terrorism, governments throughout the Middle East and North Africa suppressed the civil and political rights of all citizens. This clampdown on civil society transpired on the heels of political reforms in several countries and coincided with the increasing integration of these states into international treaty regimes, signaling a willingness to comply with world standards on human rights. Engaging the literatures on terrorism, world polity, and social movements, I first analyze the relationship between political regime type and movement mobilization. Next I examine the impact of transnational terrorism on human rights mobilization. I use network analysis to show that, contrary to expectations of world polity theory and the boomerang hypothesis, activists' ties to the transnational rights network thinned over the same time period (1980-2000) that these states became more integrated into international society through treaty ratification and memberships in intergovernmental organizations. The findings indicate that while the globalization of human rights has empowered human rights movements in non-democratic societies, state power continues to set limits on mobilizing capacities.

2007. The role of metanetworks in network evolution. Journal of Mathematical Sociology

The question of what structures of relations between actors emerge in the evolution of social networks is of fundamental sociological interest. The present research proposes that processes of network evolution can be usefully conceptualized in terms of a network of networks, or "metanetwork," wherein networks that are one link manipulation away from one another are connected. Moreover, the geography of metanetworks has real effects on the course of network evolution. Specifically, both equilibrium and non-equilibrium networks located in more desirable regions of the metanetwork are found to be more probable. These effects of metanetwork geography are illustrated by two dynamic network models: one in which actors pursue access to unique information through "structural holes," and the other in which actors pursue access to valid information by minimizing path length. Finally, I discuss future directions for modeling network dynamics in terms of metanetworks.

2006. Lost in translation? International migration, learning and knowledge. Progress in Human Geography

There are changing but increasingly important ways in which international migration contributes to knowledge creation and transfer. The paper focuses on four main issues. First, the different ways in which knowledge is conceptualized, and the significance of corporeal mobility in effecting knowledge creation and transfer in relation to each of these types. Second, the significance of international migration in knowledge creation and transfer, and how this is mediated by whether migration is constituted within bounded (by company structures) or boundaryless careers, and as free agent labour migration. Third, the situating of migrants within firms, and the particular obstacles to their engagement in co-learning and knowledge translation: especially positionality, intercultural communication and social identities. Fourth, a focus on the importance of place, which is explored through theories of learning regions and creativity, and notions of the transferability of social learning across different public and private spheres. The need to view migrant learning and knowledge creation/transfer as widely dispersed, rather than as elite practices in privileged regions, is a recurrent theme.

2009. Repaying favours: unravelling the nature of community exchange in an English locality. Community Development Journal

A recurring assumption in community development has been that when material support is provided on a one-to-one basis to the extended family or social and neighbourhood networks, such favours are repaid by offering help in return rather than money. Reporting a study of the community exchanges of 120 households in an English locality, however, the finding is that well over one-third of these were repaid using money. The outcome is a call for the community development literature to recognise and respond to the existence of this sphere of 'paid favours' which demonstrates how monetary transactions can be neither market-like nor profit-motivated.


Over the last 30 years Wilmsen and Denbow have recovered and studied pottery from 28 sites in Botswana dated between ca cal AD 200 and AD 1885. Some sherds in several of these assemblages appear, on stylistic evidence, to have been made in other sub-regions of Botswana than where they were found. These inferences are confirmed in this paper by use of an independent archaeometric technique, optical petrography. We are able to demonstrate the transport of pots from the Okavango Delta to Bosutswe in the eastern hardveld, some 400-600 km distant, as early as cal AD 900-1100, and of others over equal distances to the Tsodilo Hills probably before that time. We are also able to demonstrate several shorter itineraries at contemporary and later times in the Tsodilo-Delta-Chobe region as well as in the hardveld. Furthermore, we demonstrate that clays were transported from geological deposits to sites where pots were made from them. We consider some implications of these findings for a deeper appreciation of the movement of peoples and goods at several time periods of the past and present as well as further implications for understanding the participation of the region in the Indian Ocean trade during the 8(th)-10(th) centuries.

2008. The Lure of the Capital City: An Anthro-geographical Analysis of Recent African Immigration to Washington, DC. Population Space and Place

Although not a historical immigrant destination, the Washington, DC, metropolitan area has one of the highest concentrations of African immigrants in the United States. African migration to the US has increased in recent decades due to changes in US immigration policy and the global economy, as well as an increased focus on Africa in the US refugee resettlement programme, but this does not explain why Washington in particular is so attractive to African immigrants. Framed by the growing body of literature on the multiple meanings of place in population geography and anthropology, the authors draw upon biographical interviews and ethnographic fieldwork to investigate the details of African immigrants' life histories and the transnational social networks that influence their migration decisions and their perceptions of Washington as a place. They investigate how African immigrants are adding new layers of meaning to spaces within Washington, in a dynamic and complex process that requires them to navigate local power relations and reinterpret their identities in a racialised environment. The authors' anthro-geographical approach provides a wider lens through which to analyse the ways in which African immigrants imagine Washington, and make this particular space meaningful in the context of local and global structures. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


The resurgence and visibility of homelessness since the 1980s have become significant social and political issues, widely debated in academic circles and in the popular press. The composition of the homeless population has changed markedly in this period, and now includes more women and children, and more of the deinstitutionalised mentally ill. The lives of street kids in the city of Newcastle, Australia show patterns of structured behaviour and territorial and social organisation. They have a distinctive group identity and moral order. Their subculture is complex with strains of nonpatriarchal and patriarchal relations combined with little tolerance of forms of difference. The moral code of the youth subculture may be a form of resistance to their histories of abuse but is also conservative in reproducing aspects of the culture that they resist. The social networks generated on the street provide a self-maintaining force which contributes to a culture of chronic homelessness.

2006. The economic geographies of the outer city: Industrial dynamics and imaginary spaces of location in Copenhagen. European Planning Studies

The paper focuses on the changing economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen. The outer city is not a well-defined place but can be understood as a set of processes transforming the urban economic landscape outside the built- up area. Several central and interrelated economic processes transform the outer city. The paper examines the changing industrial dynamics and location spaces within the framework of geographical proximity and relation propinquity in order to examine the social and cultural embeddedness of location. Imaginary spaces of location are the social constructs of the firm (of the interviewee representing the firm). They are representations of the perception, experience and interpretation of the location of the firm. The imaginary spaces of firms in the outer city are different from those of the firms in the built- up area, and a survey points to the fact that multiple rationalities are important in order to understand industrial location.

2009. Was Germany Ever United? Evidence from Intra- and International Trade, 1885-1933. Journal of Economic History

When did Germany become economically integrated? Based on a large new data set on trade flows within and across the borders of Germany, I explore the geography of trade costs across Central Europe, 1885-1933. The key finding is that the German Empire before 1914 was a poorly integrated economy. This internal fragmentation resulted from cultural heterogeneity, from administrative borders, and from natural geography that divided Germany into eastern and western parts. After World War I and again with the Great Depression, internal integration improved, while external integration worsened in part because of border changes along the lines of ethnolinguistic heterogeneity. By the end of the Weimar Republic in 1933, Germany was reasonably well integrated.

2009. A Social Innovation Framework for Water Demand Management Policy: Practitioners' Capabilities, Capacity, Collaboration, and Commitment. Society & Natural Resources

Water demand management (WDM) is reconceptualized within a social innovation framework. This social innovation framework encourages new opportunities and investigations about the social capital necessary for successful WDM. Influential elements include the knowledge held by WDM practitioners and the social networks in which they are embedded. These two elements have been neglected in conventional WDM policy and research. A reconceptualization of WDM requires changes in how we use decision makers' tacit knowledge and in how we support social networks for information exchange. It also suggests new ways to overcome implementation barriers in the area of resource management and to improve program sustainability.

2004. The scalar transformation of the US commercial property-development industry: A cautionary note on the limits of globalization. Economic Geography

Economic geographers have commonly interpreted globalization in terms of a scalar transformation of economic activities in which the dominant form of economic organization progressively shifts from local to more global scales. This article critically examines this thesis in the context of a study of the U.S. commercial property-development industry. The first section argues that the literature on commercial property development tends to highlight globalizing sectors and activities. This focus generates a partial understanding of the industry that has important ramifications, not the least for examining the relationship between local economic and political elites in U.S. cities. A more cultural reading of economic actors and practices allows for an alternative approach that emphasizes the cultural embeddedness of economic and political practices and the local networks through which knowledge and influence are mobilized. The second section introduces the study area-Columbus, Ohio-and the research methods, and the third section presents the empirical results. These results fail to demonstrate any simple and linear process of scalar transformation. Indeed, a brief comparison with other cities points to the continuing dominance of a localized and fragmented organizational form. The fourth section draws on interviews with property developers to interpret this local structure of social relations. Three conclusions are drawn regarding the extent and nature of scalar transformation in the property-development industry. The most significant is the need for a more circumspect account of globalization and scalar transformation.


This study examines the geographic reach of the African American barbershop, a neighborhood institution that is commonly acknowledged as important, yet whose significance is often overlooked. Data were gathered regarding the residential location of clienteles for two barbershops in the inner suburbs of St. Louis, Missouri, a city with a history of racial segregation. Plotting this information on maps of the area revealed that many customers travel to these shops from well outside the neighborhood. The significance of the spatial extent of the shops' communities is contextualized with in-depth interviews and ethnographic research on life inside the businesses. In light of urban and inner-suburban decline in metropolitan St. Louis, this research strengthens the case for the importance of such informal institutions for understanding the resilience of the African American community in the face of the reproduction of racialized social geographies.

2011. The intrafirm context of retail expansion planning. Environment and Planning A

The benefits that rigorous analysis can have for retail-store portfolio management in guiding and informing investment decisions (store expansion, closure, extension, refascia, and acquisition) is well established within the economic geography research literature. However, studies of retailers addressing location planning in practice have identified wide variation in the sophistication of techniques and resources employed as well as in terms of the credibility that such research and analysis receives from senior management within the firm. By drawing on a qualitative research project involving some forty location planning analysts, consultants, and managers at UK-based retailers, we differentiate between three approaches to store portfolio decision-making that differ in terms of resource allocation, sophistication, and legitimacy. We seek to explain those differences that are embedded within the context of intrafirm relations and social communities by drawing on theories from strategic management concerning core rigidities, lock-in, and legitimisation, and review the challenges that location planners face in gaining legitimacy within the organisation, along with strategies appropriate for increasing their acceptance and influence across the firm.

2009. Rural geography: blurring boundaries and making connections. Progress in Human Geography

A number of commentaries and articles have been published in recent years reflecting on the nature, history and practice of rural geography. The introspective mood follows a period in which rural geography has been widely considered to have been resurgent, but indicates concerns about the unevenness of progress in rural geography, and about the readiness of the subdiscipline to address new challenges. This article, the first of three progress reports on rural geography, focuses on attempts within these interventions to rethink the boundaries of rural geography and its connections with other fields of study. First, it examines renewed debates on the definition and delimitation of the rural, including efforts to rematerialize the rural. Second, it considers the rejuvenation of work on rural-urban linkages, including concepts of city regions, exurbanization and rurbanity. Third, it discusses the interdisciplinary engagement of rural geographers, including collaboration with physical and natural scientists.

2012. Rural geography III: Rural futures and the future of rural geography. Progress in Human Geography

Global concerns such as climate change and food security have focused renewed attention on the future of rural space. Although the direct engagement of rural geographers with climate change and food security has been limited to date, recent research in rural geography holds a number of lessons on these issues, highlighting, for example, spatial and social differentiation in the development of alternative food networks and the challenge of contested discourses of rurality to technocratic solutions to both food security and climate change. Through such perspectives, rural geography has a strong and distinctive contribution to make to research on both issues.

2005. International venture capital research: From cross-country comparisons to crossing borders. International Journal of Management Reviews

Venture capital (VC) has become an international phenomenon, and VC firms are a specific kind of service firm whose characteristics have distinctive implications for international behaviour. There is now a disparate body of research on international aspects of VC across a number of disciplines comprising finance, economics, strategy, entrepreneurship, international business and economic geography. A novel aspect of this paper is that we review and synthesize this disparate literature. A number of research gaps and limitations in the theoretical and methodological approaches involved in previous studies are identified and suggestions made for further research. We show that the vast majority of the literature relates to cross-country comparisons; that is, macro-level comparisons of VC industries across different countries and micro-level comparisons of VC behaviour across countries. From our review of the literature, we argue that an under-researched area concerns the influence of institutional contexts, especially the role of social networks and cultures. Furthermore, our review of the literature indicates that there is a major research gap in relation to work dealing with the crossing of country borders by VC firms. We suggest that resource-based, capabilities, institutional and network theories may be offer insights to further our understanding of the behaviour of VC firms in this area.

2008. Locating a Politics of Knowledge: struggles over intellectual property in the Philippines. Australian Geographer

Intellectual property is increasingly a key item on the US-Japanese-European trade agenda, and the globalisation of the US patent standard, which includes patents on plants and processes, has become a key objective of 'information-rich' corporations and countries. While social movements act against the legal structures and spaces of knowledge associated with privatised knowledge, they also work to construct alternatives both through the development of practical alternatives such as seed-saving networks and the articulation of new discourses such as Farmers' Rights. In doing so, farmers' organisations are actively creating and maintaining spaces of alternative knowledges and formulations of property. The articulation of Farmers' Rights by social movements as a response to intellectual property is a way both of resisting regimes of intellectual property and of creating a normative framework within which claims to intellectual property are made obsolete. Drawing from empirical work based in the Philippines, I propose a concept, woven space, which refers to the diverse and overlapping alternatives and resistances that emerge from the situated and embodied struggles taking place around the world to form a differently imagined and realised global. This is a decentralised, networked space, rich with experience, shared belief, and possibilities for shared action.

2006. A Lleyn sweep for local sheep? Breed societies and the geographies of Welsh livestock. Environment and Planning A

In this paper we use Bourdieu's concept of habitus to examine human-animal relationships within capitalist agricultural systems. In the first part of the paper we examine how Bourdieu's ideas have been used by academics to provide insights into the ways that livestock affect and are affected by farming practice. In the second part we build on these conceptual, empirical, and policy insights by examining some of the national and international social networks that contribute to human-animal relationships in capitalistic farming. We focus on a case study of Welsh livestock and, in particular, the historic and contemporary roles that breed societies play in the imagination of farm animals and the creation of capitals in agriculture.

1997. Business networks and transnational corporations: A study of Hong Kong firms in the ASEAN region. Economic Geography

In recent years, the question of how business firms are embedded in society and space has received serious attention in economic geography. Arising from empirical research into the transnational operations of Hong Kong-based firms in Southeast Asia, this paper is concerned with the organizational processes of transnationalization-that is, how transnational operations are accomplished through networks of personal and business relationships. A network perspective specifies that three dimensions of transnational organizations-extrafirm, interfirm, and intrafirm networks-must be addressed simultaneously. Based on personal interviews with top executives from 111 headquarters and 63 subsidiaries of Hong Kong transnational corporations operating in the ASEAN region, I argue that social and business networks are necessary mechanisms of transnationalization. Political connections at the highest level enable Hong Kong entrepreneurs and business firms to tap into extrafirm networks and to penetrate local markets in Southeast Asia. Business connections and personal relationships are cornerstones of interfirm transactional governance structures through which Hong Kong firms establish their ASEAN operations. At the intrafirm level, personal trust and experience are keys to coordination and control in transnational operations. By showing how these Hong Kong firms and their ASEAN operations are socially and culturally embedded in networks of relationships, this paper serves also as a critique of economistic arguments and transaction cost analysis commonly found in leading international business research.

1999. Regulating investment abroad: The political economy of the regionalization of Singaporean firms. Antipode

This paper attempts to understand the regionalization of national firms from Singapore within the methodological construct of the regulationist perspective. It aims to demonstrate the usefulness of some concepts in the regulationist perspective for explaining restructuring processes in developing countries, and to evaluate critically the role of some of these concepts-such as regimes of accumulation and modes of social regulation-in illuminating the internationalization of capital through transnational corporations and their associated foreign direct investment. In particular, the paper argues that Singapore's export-led regime of accumulation manifests inherent contradictions in its dependence on foreign capital, the domination of the domestic economy by state-owned enterprises, and the relative underdevelopment of indigenous entrepreneurship. While this accumulation process was embedded in an earlier set of social and institutional mechanisms, its contradictions and tensions were not appropriately regulated and contained. When Singapore experienced two major external economic crises in the mid-1970s and 1985, these shocks and their internal tensions triggered a continuous process of economic restructuring regulated by a distinct combination of social and institutional mechanisms, or "fixes." One such institutional fix in recent years has been the promotion of the regionalization of Singaporean firms through the social regulation of local labor markets and the state-led establishment of institutions to facilitate the regionalization drive.

1999. Under siege? Economic globalization and Chinese business in Southeast Asia. Economy and Society

To some observers, economic globalization has led to the end of the nation state and geography It is assumed that globalization erodes national differences and geographical heterogeneity. This globalization discourse has a life of its own because it shapes neoliberal thought in economics and politics. In this paper, I attempt to challenge this 'strong globalization' reading of the global political economy. I argue that, instead of leading to a 'borderless' world, economic globalization continues to reinforce national diversity in the face of global capitalism. This argument is particularly relevant to the recent economic crisis in Southeast Asia where Chinese business serves as a dominant mode of capitalism. Through two case studies of Chinese capitalism, I argue that globalization is a highly contested process. On the one hand, it poses a serious threat to the practice and social organization of Chinese capitalism in Southeast Asia. The recent collapse of Peregrine Investment Holdings is a good example of how globalization has put Chinese business under siege. On the other hand, globalization presents opportunities for such social institutions as Chinese business firms to take advantage. The latest move of the Malaysian government to relax its twenty-seven-year old bumiputra equity ownership restrictions to allow more equity ownership of local companies by non-Malays and foreigners exemplifies both the pragmatic response of nation states to globalization and the unintended opportunities opened to Chinese capitalists. Taken together, this paper argues for a historically and geographically contingent reading of the impact and processes of economic globalization, It also suggests some implications for the future of Chinese capitalism in Southeast Asia under globalization.

2003. Practicing new economic geographies: A methodological examination. Annals of the Association of American Geographers

Practicing new economic geographies necessarily entails a critical re-evaluation of research methodologies because of its different substantive research foci. In this article, I examine some methodological implications of the recent refiguring of the "economic" in economic geography. Some key features of new economic geographies include understanding the social embeddedness of economic action, mapping shifting identities of social actors, and exploring the role of material and discursive contexts in shaping economic behavior. I argue that practitioners of new economic geographies can no longer rely exclusively on established "scientific" methodology for empirical research and data analysis. Instead, I argue for a process-based methodological framework through which we employ complementary methodological practices (e.g., tracing actor networks and in situ research) and triangulation, not only to explore the microfoundations of economic action, but also to generate, in a reflexive manner, theoretical insights from the multiscalar dimensions of economic action.

2005. The firm as social networks: An organisational perspective. Growth and Change

This paper offers an organizational perspective on the firm in new economic geographies. It starts with the premise of the firm as a production function in neoclassical economics and a cost minimisation device in transaction cost economics. By pointing out the inadequacy in these mainstream economic perspectives on the firm, I draw upon recent behavioral and managerial theories to develop a relational conception of the firm as social networks in which actors are embedded in ongoing power relations and discursive processes. In further elaborating this relational perspective on the firm as an organisational device, I show how the firm is governed through social relations among different actors, how it is a site of contested ideologies and political representations among these actors, and how space and geographical scales matter in shaping its social construction. Taken together, this organisational perspective aims to shift our research agenda in urban and regional development from promoting the growth of the firm per se to understanding how the firm serves as a relational institution that connects spatially differentiated actors in different places and regions.

2011. Vocal dialect and genetic subdivisions along a geographic gradient in the orange-tufted sunbird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology

At least four hypotheses have been suggested to explain the formation and maintenance of song dialects among birds: historic processes (epiphenomenon), genetic or local adaptation, acoustic adaptation, and social adaptation. We studied spatial and temporal distribution of dialect in the orange-tufted sunbird (Nectarinia osea), a small nectarivorous bird that expanded its breeding range in Israel during the past 100 years from the southern part of Rift Valley to the entire country. Sunbird range expansion was concurrent with the establishment of many small settlements with an ethos of gardening, which introduced many ornithophilous plants. We recorded songs and genetically screened individual sunbirds in 29 settlements distributed across a 380 km north-south gradient along the Rift Valley. We show that dialects cluster together into geographical regions in 70% of cases, a moderate concurrence to geography. Settlement establishment date, geographical position, and genetic distance between local populations (i.e., settlements) were all poor predictors for the variance among song dialects. The specific effect of habitat was not tested because all sampled localities were similar in their physical and acoustic properties. Using a network analysis, we show that dialects seem to aggregate into several network communities, which clustered settlement populations from several regions. Our results are best explained by either the epiphenomenon hypothesis or the social adaptation hypothesis, but at present our data cannot state unequivocally which of these hypotheses is better supported. Last, we discovered a negative association between network centrality and genetic diversity, a pattern that requires further examination in other systems.

2009. Global finance and the development of regional clusters: tracing paths in Munich's film and TV industry. Journal of Economic Geography

Recent work in economic geography has provided notable insights into the regional implications of finance-driven capitalism. In particular, it has been argued that the pressures created by the prioritisation of shareholder value and the rise of new financial agents, such as private equity and hedge funds, are disembedding regional social relations, and empirical evidence illustrates the devastating effects that the short-term profit orientation of these agents can have on local economic development. The relationship between a local economy's integration into the global capitalist system and its development performance is, however, more ambiguous than might be expected. This article explores this connection in greater detail within the context of a regional cluster, namely the film and TV industry cluster in Munich-one of the leading centres for this type of industry in Germany-by means of addressing the adjustments related to the entry of foreign investors after the insolvency of the Kirch Group in 2002. Initially, the research adds weight to the suspicion that financial agents erode the long-term wealth- and employment-generating capacities of national corporations. In addition, however, the results also reveal the dynamic restructuring processes triggered by these players which, at least in the specific case investigated, provided an acknowledged corrective and contributed to the cluster's recent resurgence.

2009. Cluster capabilities or ethnic ties? Location choice by foreign and domestic entrants in the services offshoring industry in India. Journal of International Business Studies

We contrast the knowledge spillovers perspective, which focuses on the externalities that arise from locating in a cluster, with the social ties perspective, which emphasizes resource flow through ethnic connections, arguing that these factors differentially influence the location decisions of foreign and domestic entrants in the services-offshoring industry in India. We develop a typology of the capabilities involved in the offshoring of services and, using 108 location decisions across 11 city clusters, find that ethnic networks exert greater influence than cluster capabilities on location decisions, although, as expected, the effect is stronger and more widespread in the case of Indian rather than foreign firms. Journal of International Business Studies (2009) 40, 944-968. doi:10.1057/jibs.2008.91

2011. The geography of distance education - bibliographic characteristics of a journal network. Distance Education

The publication of the results of research in distance education in peer-reviewed journals is an important means of communication, dissemination, discourse and reporting of practice in the field. This study is an attempt at analyzing the relationships and influences among these journals. It is based upon a sample of 1416 scholarly articles published over six years in the 12 most widely cited international distance education journals. The bibliographic description and network analysis help us to investigate the structure and patterns of information exchange within the field of distance education research. The analysis of this citation network and the similarities in citation patterns reveals a clear core/periphery structure among distance education journals. The results of this analysis help us to understand the regional, international, impact and influence factors related to publication in these journals and across the field.

2008. Spaces and scales of African student activism: Senegalese and Zimbabwean university students at the intersection of campus, nation and globe. Antipode

African university students have long engaged in political activism, responding to changing political, social and economic circumstances through protest that has at times exerted considerable influence on the national stage. Student activism employs highly spatialised strategies yet has received minimal attention from geographers. Drawing on case studies from Senegal and Zimbabwe, we identify four phases of activism in which students have mobilised distinctive relational spatialities in responding to changes in the spatial expression of dominant political power. In so doing, we highlight the inadequacies of approaches to resistance that give excessive emphasis to a power/resistance dualism or to questions of scale.

2004. North Atlantic innovative relations of Swiss pharmaceuticals and the proximities with regional biotech arenas. Economic Geography

Under the pressure of increased global competition and processes of concentration, the pharmaceutical giants are reorganizing their innovative capacities. Technology and research and development (R&D) play a key role in the competitive strategies of multinational pharmaceutical companies. This article analyzes the interrelation of the far-reaching but spatially selective international expansion of R&D and technology of a major Swiss pharmaceutical company and its anchoring in regional arenas of innovation. It combines this international technological expansion with a perspective on integrating spatial and social proximities. Multinational corporations (MNCs) tend to locate their R&D activities in regions that are characterized by a richness of knowledge. The structure of inter- and intrafirm networks is shaped by the geography of talent. The Swiss pharmaceutical giants made substantial efforts to anchor themselves in regional arenas of innovation, such as the San Francisco Bay Area, Boston, and San Diego. A case study of a pharmaceutical giant's embedding in the biotech arena of San Diego reveals how oligopolistic rivals fight over privileged access to spatially concentrated bases of technology. MNCs attempt to create, complement, and substitute spatial proximity with other types of social proximities, internal as well as external to their own organizations. These efforts contribute to the generation of specific global-local interfaces in the processes of global scanning, transferring, and generating new pharmaceutical compounds and technologies.

1998. How do places matter? A comparative study of Chinese ethnic economies in Los Angeles and New York City. Urban Geography

Through a comparative study of Chinese ethnic economies in the New York and Los Angeles metropolitan areas, this paper examines the role of place in shaping the trajectories of immigrant communities. Substantial differences are identified among immigrant populations and development of ethnic economies between Chinese communities in New York City and Los Angeles, despite their comparable sizes. Rather than attributing the differences to the makeup of subgroups, namely Mainland Chinese versus Taiwanese, the paper pays particular attention to the interactive nature of local context and the dynamics of ethnic population and economies. I analyze the impact of historical origins of the communities, geographical locations, labor markets, urban infrastructure, and social infrastructures on the characteristics of immigrant population. The development of entrepreneurship, ethnic networks, and ethnic capital markets is also discussed as factors perpetuating differences in ethnic economies. Finally, the different levels of integration between international capital and local entrepreneurial activities also serve to further differentiate the two ethnic economies.

2003. Geographies of seed networks for food plants (potato, ulluco) and approaches to agrobiodiversity conservation in the Andean countries. Society & Natural Resources

This study is focused on the geographic structure of seed networks in the conservation-targeted Andean potato and ulluco crops. Results demonstrate that farmers of eastern Cuzco are dependent on multiscale networks of seed procurement that are spatially and socially differentiated at the levels of individual farmers and households, intracommunity farm units, the rural community, and groups of multiple communities. Scale-related differences exist in the seed provisioning roles of men and women farmers. Seed flows are shown to support access to diverse food plants and to shape the makeup of seed types as social-agroecological products. Negative impacts could be incurred through current approaches for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation since their models of farm zonation do not account for the multiscale geographies of seed flow in diverse Andean potatoes and ulluco.

2006. Humboldt's nodes and modes of interdisciplinary environmental science in the Andean world. Geographical Review

Alexander von Humboldt engaged in a staggering array of diverse experiences in the Andes and adjoining lowlands of northwestern South America between 1801 and 1803. Yet examination of Humboldt's diaries, letters, and published works shows how his principal activities in the Andes centered on three interests: mining and geological landscapes; communications and cartography; and use and distribution of the quinine-yielding cinchona trees. Each node represented a pragmatic concern dealing with environmental resources in the context of the Andes. To pursue these interests in his Andean field studies, Humboldt relied on varied cultural interactions and vast social networks for knowledge exchange, in addition to extensive textual comparisons. These modes of inquiry dovetailed with his pragmatic interests and his open-ended intellectual curiosity. Fertile combinations in his Andean studies provided the foundation and main testing ground for Humboldt's fused nature-culture approach as well as his contributions to early geography and interdisciplinary environmental science.

2009. Sociospatial geographies of civil war in Sierra Leone and the new global diamond order: is the Kimberley process the panacea? Environment and Planning C-Government and Policy

We examine the relationship between diamonds and conflict, and performance of the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) in combating 'conflict diamonds' using Sierra Leone as a case study and theory on the social production of scale. A 'glocalization' process produced lawless spaces and economic opportunities for rebels to circumvent national controls through sub-regional networks and to access global capital to fund conflict, while KPCS arrangements stemmed conflict diamonds by restoring state regulation and transparency. We contend that the KPCS and its scaling were initially more about protecting economic interests of major diamond companies and trading countries than about 'ethical diamonds' The KPCS externalized costs to national governments and poor alluvial-diamond-producing countries relative to industry players; hence the discordance between near elimination of conflict diamonds globally and relative failure in these countries. Findings suggest an approach differentiated by country circumstances, and broadening the KPCS from conflict to illicit and development diamonds.